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吉林大学第三医院是三甲医院吗长春市口腔医院到底好不好长春人流专科医院 China’s appetite for British milk, pork, tea and salmon led to a 12 per cent jump in food exports to the country last year but the industry says it needs more government support to exploit overseas demand.受中国对英国牛奶、猪肉、茶叶和三文鱼需求的推动,去年英国对华食品出口增长了12%。但英国行业组织称,要充分利用海外需求,政府应为行业提供更多持。Steve Barnes, economic and commercial services director at the Food and Drink Federation, the industry body, said the Chinese market was particularly attractive because it complemented British eating habits. “The Chinese diet is different — they tend to eat things that we don’t consume, like chicken feet, pigs’ faces, trotters and offal,” he said.英国食品和饮料联合会(Food and Drink Federation)的经济和商业务主任史蒂夫#8226;巴恩斯(Steve Barnes)表示,中国的饮食习惯与英国互补,这使中国市场格外有吸引力。他说:“中国人的饮食不同——他们会吃一些我们不吃的东西,比如鸡爪、猪头皮、猪蹄和内脏。”British pork producers were waiting for approval from the Chinese authorities to export pig trotters, a trade that was “potentially huge”, Mr Barnes said.英国猪肉生产商寻求向中国出口猪蹄,目前正在等待中国当局批准。巴恩斯称,这个市场拥有“巨大的潜力”。Outside the EU, China is the UK’s second-largest food export market — after the US — with #163;217.8m of exports last year, according to figures released today. Hong Kong was the third-largest outside the EU.根据今日发布的数据,中国是英国在欧盟以外的第二大食品出口市场,去年出口额达到了2.178亿英镑,仅次于美国。香港则是英国在欧盟以外的第三大出口市场。The government hopes to increase the value of exports after recently appointing its first agriculture and food counsellor in China.英国政府近期任命了首位农业和食品业中国顾问,希望提高出口额。Food and non-alcoholic drink exports grew overall 2.6 per cent to #163;12.8bn last year, compared with 2013, led by salmon, chocolate and cheese, the biggest export products by value.在三文鱼、巧克力和奶酪需求的带动下,与2013年相比,英国食品和非酒精饮料出口增长了2.6%,达到128亿英镑。这三样是按价值计算最大的出口产品。Dairy exports, driven by cheese, rose 9 per cent to #163;1.4bn. After a torrid start to the year for dairy farmers as milk prices fell, George Eustice, farming minister, said it was “particularly encouraging to see UK dairy exports at a record high as our farmers seize new opportunities to export”.在奶酪需求的带动下,乳品出口增长9%,至14亿英镑。年初奶价下跌曾让奶农经历了一段艰难时期,英国农业大臣乔治#8226;尤斯蒂斯(George Eustice)称,“我们的农民抓住了出口的新机会,看到英国乳品出口创下新高,让人尤为鼓舞”。The UK runs a food and non-alcoholic trade deficit of #163;22.3bn that could be reduced through what Mr Barnes called “the huge untapped potential” of food exports. “Support is starting to emerge and we’re making progress but we would like to see more backing for exporting food and drink companies to bring us into line with our European neighbours,” he said.英国的食品和非酒精饮料贸易逆差达到223亿英镑,巴恩斯所说的食品出口的“巨大的未发掘潜力”有望缩小这一逆差。尤斯蒂斯表示:“政府开始提供一些持,我们也正在进步,但我们希望能看到更多对食品和饮料出口企业的持,让我们与欧洲邻国站在同一起跑线上。”Mr Barnes warned that exports this year were likely to be hampered by the strength of sterling against the euro, following trends at the end of last year.巴恩斯警告称,延续去年底的趋势,英镑兑欧元上扬,这可能打击今年的出口。 /201503/366152Lord Byron was a Luddite. The Romantic poet’s only speech in the House of Lords defended the followers of Ned Ludd, who were smashing the mechanical looms in England during the early 1800s because they feared the machines would put people out of work. Back then, some believed that technology would create unemployment. They were wrong. The industrial revolution made England richer and increased the total number of people in work, including in the fabric and clothing industries.拜伦爵士(Lord Byron)生前是个卢德主义者。这位浪漫派诗人在英国上议院(House of Lords)只发表过一次演讲,就是为内德#8226;卢德(Ned Ludd)的追随者辩护。十九世纪初,卢德派分子在英国各地打砸纺织机,因为他们担心机器会让工人失业。那时,有人相信,技术会导致失业。他们错了。工业革命让英国变得更加富裕,增加了总就业人数,包括纺织业的就业人数。Byron’s daughter Ada, Countess of Lovelace, was more prescient. On a trip through the English Midlands, she admired how punch cards instructed the looms to produce beautiful patterns, and envisaged how such cards could enable the numerical calculator being designed by her friend Charles Babbage to process not just numbers but words, music, patterns and anything else that could be encoded in symbols — a computer, in other words.拜伦的女儿埃达,也就是洛夫莱斯伯爵夫人(Countess of Lovelace),则比她父亲更有远见。有一次在英格兰米德兰地区旅行时,她看到穿孔卡发出指令使纺织机织出了美丽的图案,十分叹,并想到这种穿孔卡可以用在她的朋友查尔斯#8226;巴比奇(Charles Babbage)正在设计的一种数字运算计算机上,让机器不仅能处理数字,还能处理文字、音乐、图案及其他任何能够以符号编程的东西,这也就是计算机的雏形。Today’s pessimists predict that these computers will put people out of work. These latter-day Luddites are also wrong. Technology can be disruptive. It can eliminate jobs, from weavers to buggy-whip makers. But 200 years of data show it improves productivity and increases wealth, leading to more demand and new types of jobs.今天的悲观者预言,计算机会让人们失业。这些当代的卢德派也错了。技术或许会毁灭一些东西。它会让一些职业消失,从织工到马鞭制造者。但200年来的数据显示,技术能提高生产率,增加财富,从而扩大需求、创造新的工作种类。Take those mechanical looms. They were invented just after 1800 by Joseph Marie Jacquard in Lyon. Did that end up reducing employment in the textile industry in eastern France? No. Two centuries later, Lyon is Europe’s top centre for high-tech textiles. The city is the home of the Textile and Chemical Institute, 40 labs and schools, 140 companies and 10,000 textile jobs. Nor did the machines destroy employment in England, as Lord Byron feared.就拿纺织机来说,进入1800年后,约瑟夫#8226;马里#8226;雅卡尔(Joseph Marie Jacquard)在里昂发明了这种机器。它最终有没有导致法国东部纺织业就业人数下降?没有。两个世纪过去,如今的里昂是欧洲高科技纺织业的第一大中心。这个城市是纺织与化学研究所(Textile and Chemical Institute)所在地,有40所实验室和学校,140家公司,还有1万个纺织业工人。纺织机也没有像拜伦爵士担心的那样,在英国造成大量失业。The combination of computers and the internet began transforming our economy decades ago. The “app economy” is the latest example. It began in 2008 when Steve Jobs yielded to the advice of his team at Apple and decided to let outside developers create apps for the iPhone. The global app economy last year was worth 0bn, more than the film industry. This is an industry that did not exist seven years ago.几十年前,计算机和互联网的结合开始给我们的经济带来根本变化。“应用经济”(app economy)就是最新的例子。2008年,苹果公司的史蒂夫#8226;乔布斯(Steve Jobs)听取了手下团队的建议,决定让外部程序员开发iPhone应用,“应用经济”就此诞生。去年,全球“应用经济”总产值达到1000亿美元,超过电影业,而它是一个7年前还不存在的行业。Apps and other advances in technology have helped create new forms of work, such as the “sharing economy” in which enterprising folks can rent out rooms on Airbnb and provide rides on Uber and Lyft. Likewise, online marketplaces such as Amazon and eBay have recreated the kind of artisanal cottage industry that existed in the pre-industrial age. If you have a good recipe or can make a cool product or service, you can find customers. If you create a book or song, you now have ways to self-publish and distribute. If you dream up a new specialism — ethical hacker, pet psychologist, nutrition coach? — you have a chance of finding takers. More than 600,000 people nowadays earn a living by selling on Amazon and eBay.应用和其他技术进步帮助创造了新的工作类型,比如“分享经济”让那些有生意头脑的人能够在Airbnb上出租空置的房间、在优步(Uber)和Lyft上提供搭乘务。类似的,亚马逊(Amazon)和eBay等在线市场让“前工业时代”的手工作坊行业重新出现。如果你有好的创意、或能够提供某种吸引人的产品或务,你就能找到客户。如今如果你写了一本书或一首歌,你有办法自己出版和传播它。如果你想出了一种新职业——有道德的黑客、宠物心理师或营养教练?——你有机会找到客户。如今有超过60万人通过亚马逊和eBay出售商品和务赚钱谋生。If new technologies reduced the total number of jobs, we would all be out of work by now. But times of technological advance have been times of job creation. Last year, as whole new waves of robotic systems were introduced, the US added 3m jobs. The unemployment rate hit a six-year low, and average hourly earnings for private sector workers rose.如果新技术减少了工作岗位总数,那么我们大家现在肯定都已经失业了。但一直以来,技术进步总是伴随着就业增加。去年,随着新一批机器人系统投入使用,美国新增了300万个工作岗位。失业率触及6年来新低,私营部门劳动者的平均时薪也提高了。Be wary of those who lament the demise of jobs for checkout clerks and meter ers, as if preserving such jobs will lead to a healthier economy. This Luddite fallacy is based on a presumption that there is only a set amount of goods and services people want. If technology permits those things to be produced more efficiently, Luddites argue, there will be less work to do. In reality, technology leads to an increase in productivity and wealth. That in turn leads to increased demand for goods and services and thus more jobs, including ones in fields we can barely imagine.警惕那些哀叹收银员和抄表员会失去饭碗的人,他们好像觉得保留这类工作岗位会让经济更健康。这种卢德式错误是基于这样一种假设,即人们所需商品和务的数量是固定的。卢德派认为,如果技术使得这些东西能够以更高的效率生产出来,那么需要人们做的工作就会减少。事实上,技术会带来生产率提高和财富增加。这反过来会使得人们对商品和务的需求增加,从而创造更多工作岗位,其中一些可能会出现在我们根本难以想象的领域。The writer is chief executive of the Aspen Institute and author of ‘The Innovators’本文作者是阿斯彭研究所(Aspen Institute)首席执行官、《创新者》(The Innovators)一书作者 /201503/364791乾安县保胎多少钱

吉林省长春市人民医院社保卡长春市吉林大学第四医院做人流好吗 DA NANG, Vietnam — The year began well for Mai Thanh Trung, newly employed at a travel company here that caters to Chinese tour groups. Mr. Trung said he regularly greeted charter flights from the Chinese mainland and pocketed an average monthly commission of about 0.越南岘港——麦忠程(Mai Thanh Trung)进入岘港一家接待中国旅游团的公司不久,对他来说,今年开年的形势很不错。麦忠程说,他经常接待来自中国大陆的包机乘客,每月可以拿到600美元(约合人民币3700元)的提成。But then came May, when a state-owned Chinese company parked an oil rig near Vietnam’s central coast in a part of the South China Sea that both countries claim. Two days of anti-Chinese riots followed in southern and central Vietnam. And, according to hospitality professionals in this central coast city of nearly one million, the inbound Chinese tourism market crashed.但是到了5月,一家中国国有企业在靠近越南中部海岸的一片海域部署了一个石油钻井平台,中越两国都声称拥有这片海域的主权。两天之后,越南南部和中部爆发了反华骚乱。于是,在这个拥有近百万人口的中部海岸城市,中国人入境旅游市场崩溃了,这里的酒店业人士说。Mr. Trung, 24, said the flights that once brought his Chinese clients stopped in late May, leaving him and his 50 colleagues temporarily unemployed. He sat idle for weeks in his home village, 25 miles south of Da Nang, watching the World Cup on television.24岁的麦忠程说,5月下旬开始,给他带来中国客户的航班就停飞了,因此他和50位同事暂时失了业。这几周来,他都在岘港以南25英里的老家村里看世界杯电视转播。The rig began moving north, toward Hainan Island in China, on July 15. Mr. Trung said that seemed to have prompted a trickle of Chinese tourists to return, and that he expected to make at least 0 this month in commissions. But the unrest over the rig and continuing tense relations have rattled his sense of job security.7月15日,这个钻井平台开始向北面的海南岛移动。麦忠程说,此举似乎导致了中国游客人数的小幅回升;他预计这个月自己至少可以拿到200美元的提成。但钻井平台带来的动荡不安,以及仍在持续的紧张关系,已经破坏了这份工作的安全感。“Right now it’s going back to Hainan Island, but we don’t know when it will come back,” he said of the rig.“现在它回海南岛去了,但我们不知道什么时候它又会回来,”他谈到这个钻井平台时说。Although at least four Chinese workers died in the riots, order was restored quickly. But China and other countries issued advisories citing potential risks to public safety in Vietnam. Tourism specialists said the Chinese advisory led thousands of people to cancel trips, in part because it invalidated some travel insurance policies.尽管至少有四名中国工人在骚乱中死亡,秩序很快得到了恢复。但中国和其他国家发布了越南公共安全存在潜在风险的公告。旅游专家表示,中国的公告导致数千人取消了行程,部分是因为它使得一些旅游保险失去了效力。Chinese accounted for about a quarter of the nearly 4.3 million foreign visitors to Vietnam in the first six months of 2014. But in June, arrivals from the Chinese mainland fell about 30 percent and those from Hong Kong fell 72 percent, compared with May.2014年的前六个月,越南接待了430万境外游客,中国游客约占其中四分之一。但在6月,中国大陆游客比5月减少了约30%,香港游客减少了72%。“They became a little bit afraid,” said Matthias Wiesmann, general manager at the Furama Resort Danang, one of the city’s many beachfront properties. The hotel lost 10 percent to 15 percent of its business, or about 2,800 room nights, in May and June, he said. Nguyen Xuan Binh, director of the government’s Da Nang Center for Tourism Promotion, said the average occupancy rate at the city’s beachfront hotels was 60 percent to 70 percent in late June, compared with the usual 80 percent to 90 percent. But Ken Atkinson, chairman of the tourism working group at the Vietnam Business Forum, a public-private consortium, suggested that rate was probably not higher than 30 percent or 40 percent.“他们有点害怕了,”岘港富丽华大酒店(Furama Resort Danang)的总经理马蒂亚斯·维泽曼(Matthias Wiesmann)说。该市有很多这样的海滨酒店。今年5月和6月,这家酒店的客房业务滑坡10%到15%,相当于2800个总房夜,他说。阮轩平(Nguyen Xuan Binh,音译)是官方机构岘港旅游推广中心(Da Nang Center for Tourism Promotion)的主任,他表示,今年6月下旬,该市海滨酒店的平均入住率是60%到70%,往年通常在80%到90%之间。但肯·阿特金森(Ken Atkinson)表示入住率为大概不超过30%或40%,阿特金森是官方与企业联合设立的联盟“越南商业论坛”(Vietnam Business Forum)旗下旅游委员会的主席。Mr. Binh says Da Nang is as safe as ever. He predicted that Chinese tourists would return but said that he did not know when.阮轩平说,岘港和以往一样安全。他预计中国游客会回来,但说他不知道具体是什么时候。“They’ll come to Da Nang and see the reality,” he said.“他们会到岘港来,看到真实的现况,”他说。Mr. Binh, the Da Nang tourism official, said growth in the city’s inbound Chinese tourism market before May was mainly related to a sharp rise since 2012 in charter flights operated by Vietnam Airlines, China Eastern Airlines and China Southern Airlines. He said Dragonair, a sister airline of Cathay Pacific, had also opened non-charter flights between Hong Kong and Da Nang.阮轩平说,5月之前,岘港中国人入境旅游市场的增长,主要和2012年以来包机航班的急剧增多有关,经营这些航班的有越南航空公司(Vietnam Airlines)、中国东方航空公司和中国南方航空公司。他说,国泰航空(Cathay Pacific)的姊航空公司港龙航空(Dragonair),也推出了香港和岘港之间的非包机航班。A spokeswoman for the state-owned Vietnam Airlines declined to comment on the Chinese tourism slump, saying in an email that the company was still “collecting and evaluating” related information. China Eastern Airlines and China Southern Airlines did not respond to email seeking comment.国营越南航空公司的一位女发言人拒绝对中国人入境旅游市场的衰退进行置评,她在一份电子邮件中说,这是因为该公司仍在“收集和评估”相关信息。中国东方航空公司和中国南方航空公司均未回复请求就此事置评的电子邮件。Cathay Pacific and Dragonair canceled a total of 23 return flights between Hong Kong and three regular Vietnam destinations — Da Nang, Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City — between late May and the end of June, said Erica Peng, Cathay Pacific’s Vietnam country manager. She added that the airlines normally operated 33 weekly flights from Hong Kong to those cities, including seven Dragonair flights to Da Nang.5月底和6月底之间,国泰航空及港龙航空取消了香港和越南三个常规目的地——岘港、河内和胡志明市——之间的总共23个回程航班,国泰航空的越南地区经理彭彧表示。她还说,在正常情况下,国泰航空每周有33个从香港飞往这些城市的航班,包括港龙航空七个飞往岘港的航班。Mr. Binh, the tourism official, said the “main driver” behind the Da Nang charter flights from China was the Crowne Plaza Danang, a large hotel on the city’s beachfront. Four hospitality executives on the central coast echoed his analysis, saying the Crowne Plaza caters almost exclusively to Chinese tour groups.前述负责旅游事务的官员阮轩平表示,从中国到岘港的包机航班背后的“主要驱动因素”是该市的大型海滨酒店岘港假日酒店(Crowne Plaza Danang)。中部海岸地区的四名酒店业高管赞同他的分析,称假日酒店几乎只为中国旅游团务。On a recent summer afternoon, Zhang Lei, a Chinese businessman from Henan Province, stood beside the pool in the Crowne Plaza’s deserted beachside courtyard. He said that aside from the friends he was traveling with, he had not met any other Chinese-speaking guests during his stay and that many Chinese were not traveling to Vietnam because of the South China Sea dispute and the factory riots in May.前不久的一个夏日午后,来自河南省的中国商人张雷(音译)站在假日酒店的游泳池旁,他所在的临海小院颇为冷清。张雷说,除了同行的朋友外,他住在这里期间没有遇到其他任何一个说中文的客人,并称因为南海争端和5月的工厂骚乱,许多中国人不来越南。“China has helped Vietnam so much over the years, but the Vietnamese have turned against us,” Mr. Zhang said while sipping from a coconut.“这些年,中国帮了越南这么多,但越南人却和我们作对,”张雷一边从一个椰子里小口啜饮椰汁一边说。A Crowne Plaza employee, who declined to give his name because he was not authorized to speak with the news media, said Chinese typically were 70 percent to 80 percent of the hotel’s clientele. Emma Corcoran, a spokeswoman for the hotel’s parent company, InterContinental Hotels Group, declined a request for an interview with the hotel’s general manager.假日酒店的一名员工称,中国人通常在酒店客人中占70%到80%。因为无权接受新闻媒体的采访,这名员工要求匿名。该酒店的母公司洲际酒店集团(InterContinental Hotels Group)的女发言人埃玛·科科兰(Emma Corcoran)拒绝了采访酒店总经理的请求。Clarence Tan, the company’s chief operating officer for Southeast Asia and resorts, said in an emailed statement that China’s recent tourism advisory from the Chinese government, coupled with the reduction in direct chartered flights into Da Nang, had contributed to a decline in Chinese arrivals at the company’s Da Nang properties.该公司负责东南亚事务和度假村的首席运营官陈汉泉(Clarence Tan)在一份通过电子邮件发出的声明中表示,中国政府最近发布的旅游公告,以及直达岘港的包机航班的减少,导致公司在岘港的酒店接待的中国游客减少。Despite the drop in Chinese arrivals, Vietnam still expects to welcome 8.2 million international tourists this year, Nguyen Manh Cuong, vice chairman of the national tourism agency, told reporters on July 9, days before the Chinese oil rig left the disputed area of the South China Sea. The total for last year was nearly 7.6 million, official figures show.7月9日,越南全国性旅游机构的副主席阮曼强(Nguyen Manh Cuong)告诉记者,尽管中国游客减少,但越南今年依然有望接待820万国际旅客。几天后,中国的钻井平台离开南海的有争议水域。官方数据显示,越南去年总共接待了近760万国际游客。The rig’s departure appears to have increased overall tourist confidence in Vietnam, said Mr. Wiesmann, of the Furama Resort Danang. He added that business at the beachfront property had nearly returned to normal by late July, because of upticks in Australian, Japanese, South Korean and Vietnamese guests.岘港富丽华大酒店的维泽曼表示,钻井平台的离去似乎提振了游客对越南的总体信心。他接着表示,到7月末,因为澳大利亚、日本、韩国和越南客人的增加,该海滨酒店的业务几乎回归到了正常水平。Mr. Wiesmann said inbound Chinese tourism, though still sluggish, was improving “little by little,” though it remained unclear when, or whether, the market would recover fully.维泽曼说,中国游客入境游市场虽然依然不景气,但正在“逐渐”改善,不过尚不清楚这个市场何时,或会不会完全恢复。“It’s a little bit difficult to predict,” he said.“有些难以预料,”他说。 /201407/314811公主岭市人民医院人流多少钱

九台区治疗子宫肌瘤哪家医院最好的What defines the west? American and European politicians like to talk about values and institutions. But for billions of people around the world, the crucial point is simpler and easier to grasp. The west is the part of the world where even ordinary people live comfortably. That is the dream that makes illegal immigrants risk their lives, trying to get into Europe or the US.西方的定义是什么?欧美政客们喜欢谈论价值观和制度。但对世界各地的几十亿人而言,西方这个词语中的关键点更简单、更易理解。西方就是连普通人都能舒舒生活的地方。正是怀着这份梦想,非法移民才会冒着生命危险前往欧洲或美国。Yet, even though the lure of the west remains intense, the western world itself is losing faith in its future. Last week Barack Obama gave one of the bleakest speeches of his presidency. In unsparing terms, the US president chronicled the increasing inequality and declining social mobility that, he says, “pose a fundamental threat to the American dream, our way of life and what we stand for around the world”.不过,虽然西方的吸引力依然巨大,但西方世界却对自己的未来失去了信心。上周,巴拉克#8226;奥巴马(Barack Obama)发表了其总统任期内最悲观的一场讲话。美国总统以尖锐的言辞阐述了不平等加剧和社会流动性下降等问题,他认为这些问题“对美国梦、美国人的生活方式和美国在世界上代表的意义构成了根本威胁”。A Pew Research Center opinion survey, conducted in 39 countries this spring, asked: “Will children in your country be better off than their parents?” Only 33 per cent of Americans believed their children would live better, while 62 per cent said they would live worse. Europeans were even gloomier. Just 28 per cent of Germans, 17 per cent of Brits, 14 per cent of Italians and 9 per cent of French thought their children would be better off than previous generations. This western pessimism contrasts strongly with optimism in the developing world: 82 per cent of Chinese, 59 per cent of Indians and 65 per cent of Nigerians believe in a more prosperous future.皮尤研究中心(Pew Research Center)今年春天在39国进行了一项民意调查——“你们国家的孩子们是否将比父母们生活得更好?”只有33%的美国人相信孩子们能过得更好,而62%的人表示孩子们的生活将不如父辈。欧洲人更悲观。只有28%的德国人、17%的英国人、14%的意大利人和9%的法国人认为他们的子女会过得比前几代好。西方的悲观与发展中世界的乐观形成鲜明对比:82%的中国人、59%的印度人和65%的尼日利亚人相信未来将更加繁荣。It would be nice to believe that talk of a decline in western living standards is simply hype. But, unfortunately, the numbers suggest that the public are on to something. According to researchers at the Brookings Institution, the wages of working-age men in the US – adjusted for inflation – have fallen by 19 per cent since 1970. Joe Average – once the epitome of the American dream – has fallen back, even as gains for the top 5 per cent of incomes have soared. Even conservative politicians are worried. Senator Marco Rubio, a contender for the Republican presidential nomination in 2016, points out that his parents were able to “make it into the middle class” from relatively humble jobs, as a bartender and a maid. These days, he acknowledges, that would no longer be possible.西方生活水平下降的说法只是夸大其辞?若是能这么想该多好。但不幸的是,数据表明公众的悲观是有道理的。布鲁金斯学会(Brookings Institution)的研究人员发现,剔除通胀因素,美国劳动适龄男性人口的工资自1970年来下降了19%。收入最高的5%人群还在大举积攒财富,但一度作为美国梦化身的普通大众却经受了倒退。就连保守派政治家也为此担忧。2016年共和党总统选举候选人的竞争者、参议员马可#8226;鲁比奥(Marco Rubio)指出,他的父母一辈可以从酒吧侍者和女仆这样相对卑微的工作起步,“迈入中产阶级”。但他承认,这在现在是不可能的。The sense of gloom and insecurity in Europe is also grounded in reality – in particular the knowledge that welfare and retirement benefits are likely to be less generous in future. The pressure on prosperity is most intense in countries that have suffered worst in the debt-crisis – places such as Greece and Portugal have seen actual cuts in wages and pensions.欧洲的悲观和不安感同样源于现实——特别是人们认识到,未来的福利和退休金将没那么丰厚。在受债务危机影响最严重的国家,阻碍繁荣的压力最大——希腊和葡萄牙等地已经削减了工资和退休金。But living standards are even under pressure in European countries that have done relatively well. Research by the Financial Times has shown that Britons born in 1985 are the first cohort for 100 years not to be experiencing better living standards than those born 10 years previously.但即便是在表现相对不错的欧洲国家,生活水平也在承受压力。英国《金融时报》的研究显示,1985年出生的英国人生活水平没有好于比他们早生10年的人,这是100年来的头一回。Even in Germany, often lauded as the most successful big economy in the western world, the benefits of the “Merkel miracle” have been felt mainly at the top end of the wage scale. The economic reforms that laid the basis for Germany’s current export boom involved holding down wages, cutting social benefits and employing many more temporary workers.德国常被誉为西方世界最成功的大型经济体,但在这里,“默克尔奇迹”的受益者主要是该国的高工资人群。为德国当前出口繁荣奠定基础的经济改革措施包括压低工资、削减社会福利和雇佣更多的临时工。There is a connection between the rising optimism in the developed world and the rising pessimism in the west. In his speech last week, Mr Obama remarked that “starting in the late 1970s, the social contract began to unravel”. Perhaps not coincidentally, it was also in the late 1970s that China began to open up.发展中世界愈发乐观,西方愈发悲观,二者间存在联系。在上周的讲话中,奥巴马表示“从20世纪70年代末起,社会契约开始瓦解”。也是在70年代末,中国开始对外开放,这或许不是巧合。Even defenders of globalisation now usually acknowledge that the emergence of a global labour force has helped hold down wages in the west. Some European friends of mine daydream that protectionism – or even a war in Asia – could send more well-paid jobs back to the west. But in reality, globalisation seems unlikely ever really to go into reverse, given the technological, economic and political forces pushing it forwards. It would certainly be morally dubious to attempt to bolster western living standards by undermining an economic trend that has dragged hundreds of millions of people out of poverty in the developing world.如今,即便是全球化的持者通常也会承认,全球性劳动力的出现帮助压制了西方的工资。我的一些欧洲朋友们幻想保护主义——或者是亚洲爆发战争——可能导致更多待遇优厚的就业岗位流回西方。但事实上,考虑到推动全球化趋势的技术、经济和政治力量,全球化似乎很难再发生逆转。为图提高西方生活水平而破坏一种使发展中国家数亿人脱贫的经济趋势,在道德上无疑是有问题的。Even if the western nations did close their markets, western employees – including white-collar workers – would increasingly find that many jobs could be done cheaper by computers or robots. Indeed the march of the robots will also soon pose a threat to assembly-line workers in China.即使西方国家真的封锁本国市场,西方雇员——包括白领——也会日益发现,计算机或机器人能够以更低的成本完成许多工作。事实上,机器人的发展很快将威胁到中国的流水线工人。If the erosion of living standards continues, how will western voters react? There are aly signs of political radicalisation – with the populist right on the rise in both the US and Europe. But, as yet, there is no real sign that the Tea Party in America or nationalist movements in Europe have a realistic shot at controlling the central government in a large nation. The consensus around globalisation also seems to be holding. Indeed this weekend the World Trade Organisation apparently made a breakthrough in the search for a new global trade deal.如果生活水平继续下降,西方选民将如何反应?西方已经出现政治激进化的迹象,美国和欧洲的右翼民粹主义势力都在抬头。但目前为止没有确实迹象表明美国茶党(Tea Party)或欧洲民族主义运动真正尝试控制一个大国的中央政府。全球化共识似乎还在延续。上周末,世界贸易组织(WTO)似乎在追求达成全球性贸易协议的过程中取得了突破。But while new political movements are not yet y to smash the established parties in the west, mainstream politicians are having to react to the new economic climate. Rising inequality is increasing the pressure for more redistributive taxes and higher minimum wages on both sides of the Atlantic. Another decade of western economic malaise – or, God forbid, another financial crisis – is likely to see more radical solutions and politicians emerging.虽然西方的新政治运动尚未做好击败成熟党派的准备,但主流政治家必须应对新的经济环境。社会不平等加剧,更加要求大西洋两岸实施收入再分配能力更强的税收政策,并提高最低工资标准。如果西方经济低迷再延续十年,或者是再爆发一场金融危机(但愿不要),可能将出现更加激进的解决对策和政治家。 /201312/268173 长春那家看妇科病伊通满族自治县中心医院网上咨询



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