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青岛烟台做双眼皮哪里最好即墨市第一人民妇保中医院整形价格表青岛冰点脱毛那里好 When I was a child growing up in England three decades ago, I was confronted with the visual evidence of social mobility every day – but of the downward, not upward, type.30年前,当我还是个孩子的时候,我住在英格兰,每天都目睹表明社会流动性的“视觉”据,不过流动方向是向下的,而不是向上的。We lived in a suburban, middle-class home. On the walls, however, hung the portrait of an 18th-century Anglo-French aristocrat, a maternal ancestor. In the intervening centuries, my aristocratic forebears had lost their status and wealth due to drink, gambling and poor decisions. Thus, my only link with royalty was that portrait and the fact that I have the same unusual middle name – Romaine – as the noblewoman in the picture.我们是生活在郊区的中产阶级之家。但家里的墙上挂着一幅18世纪英法贵族的画像,她是我母亲家族的一位祖先。从她往后的几个世纪里,我的贵族祖先们由于饮酒、和一些糟糕的决定而失去了地位和财富。因此,我与贵族仅有的联系就是那幅画像,以及我有一个不同寻常的中间名罗曼(Romaine),与画像中的贵妇一样。A rare example of social mobility or a widesp pattern? Today, that is a very politically charged question, particularly in countries such as the US. But it is also a very hard question to answer definitively.这是社会流动性的一个罕见例子,还是一种普遍模式?如今,这是一个充满政治意味的问题,尤其是在像美国这样的国家。但这个问题很难明确回答。Social mobility is an issue about which politicians love to pontificate but about which we actually know surprisingly little. Economists have generally tracked mobility by looking at surveys on wealth, jobs and educational attainment over two or three generations. This has typically shown that mobility is highest in the Scandinavian countries and lowest in places such as Latin America, with the US and UK lying halfway in between.社会流动性是政治人士喜欢夸夸其谈的一个问题,但实际上我们对它的了解出奇地少。经济学家一般通过考察两、三代人的财富、就业和教育程度来追踪社会流动性。这些研究一般表明,斯堪的纳维亚国家的社会流动性最高,拉美等国最低,美国和英国介于二者之间。Interestingly, these surveys tend to show that more mobile societies such as Sweden are also more equal, as determined by the Gini coefficient, the most commonly used measure of inequality, and vice versa. The idea that you can justify high levels of inequality in some nations because there is plenty of mobility – as US politicians are apt to do – does not ring entirely true, based on the economic numbers.有趣的是,这些调查往往表明,瑞典等社会流动性较大的国家也更为平等,与基尼系数(Gini coefficient,最为常见的衡量不平等程度的指标)所显示的一样,反之亦然。有人认为,可以把一些国家的高度不平等说成合理的,因为它们的社会流动性很大——美国政客就经常这么说。但根据经济数据,这种看法并不完全正确。The problem with this widely cited economic data are that they are very limited: it typically only tracks families over a generation or two and cannot capture subtle social patterns. So Gregory Clark, an economic historian at the University of California, Davis, has recently attempted to use another innovative approach that blends sociology, economics and history. In a new book, The Son Also Rises, he has analysed surnames in historical databases around the world to work out how families have risen in terms of wealth and status over multiple generations. In the US he looked at doctors; in the UK, at elite universities such as Oxford and Cambridge; and in Sweden, land records.这些被普遍引用的经济数据的问题在于,它们非常有限:它们对家族数据的追踪通常仅限于一、两代人,无法捕捉微妙的社会模式。因此,美国加州大学戴维斯分校(University of California, Davis)经济历史学家格里高利#8226;克拉克(Gregory Clark)最近尝试运用另一种创新方法,把社会学、经济学和历史学结合在一起。在其新书《虎子崛起》(The Son Also Rises)中,他对全球历史数据库中的姓氏进行了分析,考察家族财富和地位是如何在好几代人时间内上升的。在美国,他考察了医生;在英国,他考察的是牛津(Oxford)和剑桥(Cambridge)等精英大学;在瑞典,他考察的是土地记录。This approach – like the econometric one – has its limits. Historical lists of surnames or elite jobs can be patchy, particularly since they are dominated by the paternal line. (My story of maternal downward mobility, for example, would have been missed.) But Clark reaches some thought-provoking conclusions. First, he argues that if you look at multiple generations, social mobility is lower than widely presumed in most nations. Second, there is less difference between nations than usually thought. Those “egalitarian” Swedes are not as mobile as presumed. But in America, Clark rejects the idea that mobility has recently declined sharply as social polarisation has grown – an idea posited, for example, in Coming Apart, an influential book published last year by the political scientist Charles Murray. Clark argues that mobility is indeed low in America but insists it has always been thus.这种方法(类似计量经济学方法)有其局限性。姓氏或精英职业的历史清单可能是不完整的,尤其它们主要是父系数据。(例如,我母亲家族的向下流动会被遗漏。)但克拉克得出了一些发人深省的结论。首先,他主张,如果从好几代人的数据来看,多数国家的社会流动性低于人们普遍的想象。其次,国家间的差异小于人们通常的想象。“主张平等”的瑞典人的社会流动性并不像人们想象的那样大。但对美国,克拉克并不同意以下观点:由于社会两级分化现象加剧,社会流动性最近大幅下降——这是政治学家查尔斯#8226;默里(Charles Murray)去年出版的颇具影响力的著作《分化》(Coming Apart)中的看法。克拉克指出,美国的社会流动性确实很低,但他坚持称,该国一直如此。 /201403/280302On the snow-covered, bitterly cold museum construction site here, word went out to the assembled crowd: The helicopter had landed.在白雪覆盖、冷得让人难受的物馆施工地点,消息在聚集的人群中传开:直升机已经降落了。The Japanese architect Tadao Ando was making one of his twice-yearly, 7,000-mile trips from Osaka to New York to the Berkshires for a project that had gone on longer than anyone, including Mr. Ando, had expected at the outset: the dozen-year, 5 million expansion of the Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, which is finally scheduled to open in July.日本建筑师安藤忠雄当时正在进行自己一年两次、长达7000英里的旅行,从大阪飞到纽约,到伯克夏郡指导一个耗时超过所有人(包括他本人)最初预期的项目:斯特林和弗兰锡恩·克拉克艺术物馆(Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute)的扩建工程,它耗时12年,耗资1.45亿美元,终于定于今年7月开幕。Mr. Ando does not like to leave Japan for very long, and, initially, he didn#39;t know where Williamstown was. He signed on because of the natural beauty of the site and what he called the masterpieces in the Clark#39;s collection.安藤忠雄不喜欢离开日本太久,起初他并不知道威廉斯敦在哪里。他签约是因为那个地方的天然美景以及克拉克物馆收藏的杰作。The Clark, which opened in 1955, founded by an heir to the Singer sewing fortune, is a revered jewel-box museum with a stellar group of European and American works by masters like Degas, Sargent and Monet. The original neo-Classical-style white marble building was joined by a 1970s Brutalist structure, the Manton Research Center. The New York architect Annabelle Selldorf is renovating both of the existing older structures, and the landscape firm Reed Hilderbrand is reconfiguring the grounds.克拉克物馆1955年开放,由辛格缝纫财团的一位继承人创立,它是一个令人敬畏的、充满宝物的物馆,收藏有欧洲和美国的很多大师的杰作,包括德加斯(Degas)、萨金特(Sargent)和莫奈(Monet)。最早的建筑是新古典主义风格的白色大理石建筑,20世纪70年代加入了一个野兽派建筑——曼顿研究中心(Manton Research Center)。纽约建筑师安娜贝勒·塞尔道夫(Annabelle Selldorf)正在整修这两个现存的较老的建筑,景观设计公司里德·希尔德布兰德(Reed Hilderbrand)正在重新布置庭院。The many-faceted master plan also called for a new visitor, exhibition and conference center designed by Mr. Ando, who has built very rarely in the ed States, notably the Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth and the Pulitzer Foundation for the Arts in St. Louis.这个多元化的总体规划还包括一个新的游客、展览和会议中心,设计师是安藤忠雄,他在美国的设计作品很少,其中比较著名的有沃斯堡现代艺术物馆(Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth)和圣路易斯的普利策艺术基金会(Pulitzer Foundation for the Arts in St. Louis)。And his arrivals are hotly anticipated. A winner of the Pritzker Prize, he is renowned for instilling a thoughtful air of calm in his simply arranged structures of thick-walled concrete and is treated with great reverence at the Clark, especially since he completed the widely acclaimed Stone Hill Center on a wooded hillside here in 2008. It houses two art galleries and a series of conservation labs with magnificent views of the Taconic Range and the Green Mountains.人们热切期待他的到来。他是普利兹克建筑奖获得者,以在构造简单的厚壁混凝土建筑中注入一丝深思的平静而闻名,他在克拉克物馆受到了十分尊敬的对待,特别是2008年他在纽约林木繁茂的山坡上完成广受赞誉的石山中心(Stone Hill Center)之后。石山中心有两个画廊和一系列保护实验室,能看到塔科尼克山和绿山的优美景色。Trailed by a dozen workers and museum staff members, Mr. Ando immediately made the rounds to inspect the progress on his latest Clark building, a low-slung visitor center set on a three-tiered reflecting pool that provides a focal point for the whole campus. After approving various details — in particular the lack of porousness in the concrete — he pronounced the progress a success.安藤忠雄很快开始四处走动,察看克拉克物馆最新建筑的进展,后面跟着十几个工人和物馆员工。这个低矮的游客中心建在一个三层倒影池上,是整个庭院的焦点。在肯定了各方面的细节——特别是混凝土不漏水——之后,他宣布进展顺利。Then came the banter. He and Michael Conforti, the Clark#39;s director, have been involved in an odd-couple relationship since 2001, when, after a long selection process and a long courtship, Mr. Conforti persuaded him to take on the project. In an era when huge new museum projects are par for the course, the interplay at the Clark demonstrates how the give and take between designer and client turns divergent ideas into a synthesis of bricks and mortar — or in this case, concrete and granite.接下来是谈笑时间。他和克拉克物馆的馆长迈克尔·孔福尔蒂(Michael Conforti)从2001年开始了一段古怪的搭档关系,当时在长时间的挑选和恳求之后,孔福尔蒂说他接下了这个项目。那个年代,兴建大型新物馆是常事,这个项目表明设计师和客户之间的互动能把不同意见变成砖与泥的混合物——在这里也许应该说成混凝土与花岗岩的混合物。;He#39;s a visionary,; Mr. Conforti said of Mr. Ando. ;We needed an architectural vocabulary that could unify the campus without copying the two styles of building we aly have.;“他是个有预见力的人,”孔福尔蒂这样评价安藤忠雄,“我们需要一个能把这个庭院统一起来的建筑词汇,而不只是模仿两个已有建筑的风格。”But no one ever said hiring a starchitect would make life easy.但是没人说雇佣一位明星建筑师会让事情变得轻松。;The director is very critical,; Mr. Ando burst out at one point, through a translator who shadowed him on his visit. He had a large smile on his face as he continued: ;He is a strong man. He has an opinion, and he sticks to it.;“馆长非常挑剔,”安藤忠雄一度大笑着说。全程陪伴他的翻译替他翻译。他脸上充满笑意地继续说道:“他是个很强势的人。有自己的主见,而且很执着。”Mr. Conforti followed up by saying, ;It#39;s been an energetic relationship.;孔福尔蒂跟着说道,“我们的关系很积极。”The back and forth between the proudly self-taught Mr. Ando — who was once a boxer — and Mr. Conforti, a Harvard Ph.D. who has been running the Clark for 20 years, has pushed the project to be more ambitious than it might otherwise have been.骄傲的自学成才的建筑师安藤忠雄(他曾是个拳击运动员)和哈佛大学哲学士孔福尔蒂(他担任克拉克物馆馆长达20年)之间的互动把这个项目变得比最初的设想更有野心。The telling details are two walls of red granite at the entrance, as well as the tiered reflecting pools in back. The first was Mr. Conforti#39;s idea and the second, Mr. Ando#39;s. Neither of them was thrilled with the other#39;s suggestion at first, but they learned to embrace both elements in the process of working together.其中最显眼的两个细节是入口处的两堵红色花岗岩墙壁和后面的分层倒影池。第一个是孔福尔蒂的主意,第二个是安藤忠雄的想法。一开始他们都没有为对方的建议感到兴奋,但是他们在合作过程中学会了接受这两个元素。Mr. Ando#39;s close friend Kazuhito Yoshii, a New York art dealer, was trailing along during Mr. Ando#39;s recent Clark visit and has witnessed the interplay many times.纽约艺术商吉井和弘是安藤忠雄的密友。在他最近访问克拉克物馆期间,吉井一直陪着他。吉井多次见了他们的互动。;It#39;s a long-term relationship. It#39;s like a marriage,; Mr. Yoshii said.“他们之间是一个长期的关系,就像婚姻,”吉井和弘说。Since completing the Stone Hill Center, Mr. Ando has focused on creating a visitor center that can accommodate modern museum necessities like a gift shop and cafe, as well as the large temporary exhibition spaces the Clark has always lacked. It is scheduled to open on July 4 with ;Make It New,; a show of abstract paintings from the National Gallery of Art.在完成石山中心的项目后,安藤忠雄把注意力放到设计这个游客中心上来,它需要既能容纳现代物馆的基本需求,比如礼品店和咖啡店,也能容纳克拉克物馆一直缺乏的大型临时展览空间。它计划7月4日和“让它变新”(Make It New)展览同时开幕,这个展览是国家美术馆的抽象画展览。To emphasize the natural beauty of the Clark#39;s 140-acre setting and to defer to the original white marble building, beloved among the Clark#39;s patrons, both Mr. Ando and Mr. Conforti were keen on putting much of the center#39;s mass underground, while avoiding gloom.为了凸显克拉克物馆140英亩的环境的天然美景,而且与深受克拉克物馆的出资人们喜爱的最初的白色大理石建筑相呼应,安藤忠雄和孔福尔蒂都渴望把游客中心的大部分人群转移到地下,同时不能太阴暗。Mr. Ando has shown an ability to suffuse rooms with light in surprising ways. One of his most famous projects is the Ibaraki Kasugaoka Church in Ibaraki, Japan, which is known as the Church of the Light because of the cruciform-shaped opening in the concrete wall behind the altar.安藤忠雄已经表现出用令人意外的方式让房间充满阳光的能力。他最著名的一个项目是日本茨城县的光之教堂,因神坛后面混凝土墙上的十字形裂缝而得名。Bold, simplified gestures like that are his stock in trade. ;I pursued simplicity to an extreme,; Mr. Ando said of his visitor#39;s center design, which is essentially two concrete and glass pavilions connected by a long gallery. ;It#39;s like a swan with its wings sp.;那种大胆、简洁的手法是他的惯用手段。“我追求简单到了极致,”安藤忠雄谈起游客中心的设计时说,“它像一个展翅的天鹅。”这个游客中心本质上就是由一个长廊连接起两个混凝土玻璃展馆。Mr. Ando#39;s devotion to concrete is part of his architectural signature. ;Using a material that is ubiquitous, that is everywhere, but still creating something that nobody else can — that#39;s my motto,; Mr. Ando said.安藤忠雄对混凝土的钟爱是他的建筑标志之一。“用随处可见的材料创造出别人创造不出来的东西——这是我的座右铭,”安藤忠雄说。But Mr. Conforti was also keen to have Minnesota red granite as an integrating element, because it is aly featured on the campus, notably the cladding of the Manton building. He recalls the architect resisting for a time (though Mr. Ando now remembers otherwise). In any case, Mr. Ando agreed to use the granite for the first time in his career, for two red walls that serve as the focal point of the entrance. Visitors will walk through the point where the two walls almost meet. They also create an outdoor courtyard and help hide the building#39;s mass upon approach.但是孔福尔蒂也渴望把明尼苏达州的红色花岗岩作为一个组成要素,因为它已经是这个庭院的特色了,尤其是曼顿中心的外墙。他回忆说这位建筑师抵制了一段时间(不过安藤忠雄的回忆不是这样的)。不管怎样,安藤忠雄在事业中首次同意使用花岗岩,用在两堵红墙上,作为入口的焦点。游客们将走过两堵墙几乎相交的地方。这两堵墙还创造了一个室外庭院,帮助隐藏刚到达这个地方的游客。From the beginning, Mr. Ando felt strongly that a water feature would unify the campus. ;I use water quite often in my work,; he said. Mr. Conforti acknowledged that he hadn#39;t jumped at the idea of the tiered pools at first, nor had his trustees.从一开始,安藤忠雄就强烈感觉一个水景将把这个庭院统一起来。“我经常在作品中用水,”他说。孔福尔蒂承认自己一开始并没有欣然接受分层水池的想法,董事会的人也没有欣然接受。He said: ;I think some of the practical people on the board thought, ‘Why build a water feature if it#39;s nonfunctional?#39; It#39;s not a very New England thing to do.; Mr. Conforti decided that humor was the best strategy when it came to convincing others. ;When I first introduced the concept to the community in a slide show back in 2003, my first image of it had a Zamboni,; he said. ;I wanted people to think of it as a fun place to be, not as an architectural affectation.;他说:“我想董事会里的一些注重实用性的人当时在想,‘为什么要建一个没有实用功能的水景?#39; 它不是一个非常符合新英格兰作风的做法。”孔福尔蒂认为,在说别人的时候,幽默是最好的策略。“2003年我第一次用幻灯片把这个设计介绍给董事会的时候,我的第一张图是赞尼磨冰机,”他说,“我想让人们把它当成一个好玩的地方,而不是建筑虚饰。”Mr. Ando, 72, does not strike most who meet him as affected. Given the severity and serenity of his work, his personality takes some people by surprise: a cross between a Japanese philosopher king and an impish uncle, cracking jokes at news conferences and at forums for Clark patrons.72岁的安藤忠雄给大多数见过他的人留下的印象都不是矫揉造作。鉴于他的作品庄重、宁静,他的个性让有些人感到意外:他是日本哲人和顽皮大叔的结合体,他在新闻发布会上以及为克拉克物馆的赞助人们举办的论坛上开玩笑。He takes his work seriously, but not solemnly. He once named his dog Le Corbusier, after his architectural idol, and kept him around the office. ;He could tell the good clients from the bad clients,; Mr. Ando said. ;He would have been quite alerted when he saw Michael.;他认真看待自己的作品,但并不郑重其事。他曾经用自己的建筑学偶像勒·柯布西耶(Le Corbusier)的名字给自己的命名,并让待在办公室里。“他能判断客户的好坏,”安藤忠雄说,“他要是看到迈克尔,一定很警惕。”The legacy of Mr. Conforti will surely rest on the expansion plan#39;s success, and on compromises made over the decade.孔福尔蒂的遗产无疑将是扩展计划的成功以及这十年做出的折中方案。He#39;s thousands of miles away, Mr. Conforti said, ;and he#39;s an architect who is special because of his sculptural, light-filled spaces and not necessarily his devotion to museum programming.;孔福尔蒂说,他在几千英里之外,“作为建筑师,他的特别之处在于雕塑般的、充满阳光的空间,而不必是对物馆规划的投入。”;The respect we had for each other#39;s point of view evolved over time,; he added.“我们对彼此观点的尊重随着时间在增长,”他补充说。As he wrapped up his visit, Mr. Ando seemed pleased. ;Ultimately, we got what we wanted,; he said. ;When the common goal is to have good architecture, usually the fight doesn#39;t end as a fight. It ends as a collaboration.;在结束旅行的时候,安藤忠雄似乎很高兴。“最终,我们得到了我们想要的,”他说,“如果共同目标是设计一个好建筑,那通常争论就不会以争论结束。而是以合作结束。” /201409/328955山东省青岛枣庄哪家医院治青春痘

莱西市打瘦脸针美白针多少钱A popular tourist destination in Chongqing, a major city in southwest China, has devoted a portion of its pavement for mobile phone users too entranced by the activity on their screens to avoid other pedestrians.在重庆市的一个景区里,有一条专供手机爱好者的人行道,在这上面步行,可以供低头族们头也不抬地一直盯着手机屏幕而不用担心与其他行人相撞。Another section of the pavement bans phone users.这条被一分为二的人行道的另半边则禁止行人使用手机。In July, National Geographic commissioned a similar stretch of pavement in Washington DC, in a brief experiment testing human behaviour.今年7月,美国国家地理栏目曾因一项验人类行为的实验,在美国华盛顿的一条人行道上做过相同的划分。Chongqing#39;s new sidewalk attracted ridicule on Weibo, China#39;s version of Twitter.重庆的这条新人行道在中国的微上引发了大家的各种吐槽。;Am I supposed to jump to the other side of the path when I get an incoming phone call?; one user questioned.“如果我手机响了,我要接电话是不是得跳到另半边才能接呢?”一位网友吐槽说。;Maybe they can even build one traffic lane especially for drunk drivers in the future,; sniffed another.“也许以后还可以专门为喝酒的司机建一条专用道。”另一位网友吐槽道。Indeed, the ploy seems to have created a new problem: street congestion, as hordes of people stop in their tracks to snap photos of the special sidewalk.的确,这种做法可能会导致另一个新问题—道路拥挤。为什么呢?因为会有一大群行人停在路上对着这条特殊的人行道拍照哪。 /201410/334756山东省妇保医院几级 After John F Kennedy was murdered on November 22 1963, Dallas became known as “the city of hate”. Its citizens were charged with creating a fervid rightist atmosphere in which Lee Harvey Oswald felt moved to shoot the president. Mike Rawlings, the city#39;s current mayor, told me: “There are stories of people going to places and almost being embarrassed to be from Dallas back in the 1960s, early 1970s.” 1963年11月22日,美国总统约翰#8226;肯尼迪(John F.Kennedy)遇刺身亡后,达拉斯就背上了“仇恨之城”的名声。人们指责达拉斯市民制造了一种狂热的右翼氛围,从而促使李#8226;哈维#8226;奥斯瓦尔德(Lee Harvey Oswald)杀了总统。达拉斯现任市长迈克#8226;罗林斯(Mike Rawlings)告诉我:“有报道称,在20世纪60年代和70年代初,达拉斯人去外地时,会因为自己是达拉斯人而感到尴尬。” I found Rawlings sneaking a catnap at the New Cities Summit in Sao Paulo in June. The man who came to Dallas in 1976 with 0 in his pocket and made it to president of Pizza Hut was taking the briefest break from his usual activity: plugging Dallas. But how does any city incorporate a global trauma into its image? It#39;s taken Dallas 50 years to learn to deal with the murder. 今年6月,在圣保罗的新城市峰会(New Cities Summit)上,我趁罗林斯偷偷打盹时找到了他。这位1976年揣着200美元来到达拉斯、后来当过必胜客(Pizza Hut)总裁的达拉斯市长正在小憩,暂时把他的日常活动——宣传达拉斯——放在了一边。但一个城市在经历一场闻名全球的创伤之后,如何在世人面前构建自己的形象?达拉斯花了50年的时间,才学会坦然接受那起刺杀事件。 Many Americans in 1963 couldn#39;t accept that a lone loser like Oswald had changed history. Consequently, they blamed larger entities. Conspiracy theorists accused the Central Intelligence Agency or Cuban exiles. Others blamed Dallas itself. 1963年,让许多美国人无法接受的是,历史居然被奥斯瓦尔德这么个孤独的失败者改写了。因此,他们怪罪于一些更大的组织和群体。阴谋论者指责美国中央情报局(CIA)或古巴流亡者策划了刺杀事件。其他人则谴责达拉斯这个城市。 To e Texas Monthly magazine: “The tragedy seemed to seal the perception of our state as being populated by a bunch of trigger-happy yeehaws who were beyond forgiveness.” Because few outsiders knew anything else about Dallas, the assassination branded the city. In truth, Dallas in 1963 did house some noisy rightist Kennedy-haters. Days before he arrived, “Wanted for Treason” leaflets featuring him appeared around town. And on the day, the Dallas Morning News published an ominously black-bordered full-page ad portraying him as a communist fellow-traveller. Reading it, Kennedy told his wife: “We#39;re heading into nut country today.” 《德克萨斯月刊》(Texas Monthly)写道:“那起悲剧似乎把世人对本州的印象固定了下来,即一个充斥着牛仔的州,那些牛仔动辄开、根本不值得原谅。”因为外面的人对达拉斯的其他方面知之甚少,于是刺杀事件成了这座城市的标签。事实上,1963年的达拉斯确实有一些讨厌肯尼迪、吵吵嚷嚷的右翼分子。在肯尼迪抵达达拉斯之前的几天,印着他的肖像、写有“通缉叛国者”(Wanted for Treason)的传单在城里随处可见。就在肯尼迪遇刺当天,《达拉斯晨报》(Dallas Morning News)整版刊出了一则颇不吉利的黑边广告,将他描绘为“共产主义的同路人”。看到广告,肯尼迪对妻子说:“我们今天要去一个疯子国了。” After the murder, many diagnosed city-wide hate. Bill Minutaglio, co-author of the new book Dallas 1963, says: “Nothing like this could have happened, but in Dallas.” 肯尼迪遇刺后,许多人称达拉斯充斥着仇恨。新书《达拉斯1963》(Dallas 1963)的合著者比尔#8226;米努塔利奥(Bill Minutaglio)说:“除了达拉斯,这种事不可能在其他任何地方发生。” Yet blaming Dallas is illogical. Oswald was a Marxist nut, not a rightwing nut. And as Rawlings says, “Dallas loves its presidents.” Nearly one in three Dallasites turned out to see Kennedy, with barely an unfriendly sign on display. In the motorcade, the Texan governor#39;s wife, Nellie Connally, gushed, “Mr President, you can#39;t say Dallas doesn#39;t love you.” She was mostly right. Assassinations, Americans soon learnt, can happen anywhere. Cities don#39;t kill people. People kill people. 但谴责达拉斯是没有道理的。奥斯瓦尔德是马克思主义疯子,而不是右翼疯子。正如罗林斯所说:“达拉斯人爱戴总统。”近三分之一的达拉斯人为了亲眼一睹肯尼迪尊容而走出家门,现场几乎没有不友好的迹象。在车队中,德克萨斯州州长夫人内莉#8226;康纳利(Nellie Connally)充满感情地说:“总统先生,您不能说达拉斯人不爱戴您。”她的话几乎没错儿。美国人很快明白,刺杀事件可能发生在任何地方。凶手不是城市,而是人。 After 1963, says Rawlings, many Dallasites “wanted to move on as quickly as possible”. They rarely discussed the murder. Gradually, though, the mood changed. Rawlings says: “In the 1980s, people started to think: we are the home of a very important moment in history. Not only because of the assassination, but that seemed to be the dawning of a new era. After that came the Vietnam war, civil rights came to its fruition, women#39;s liberation. There was a new world, a door that somehow people walked through. Citizens said, #39;We#39;ve got to make sure we capture the truth of this history.“” 罗林斯说,1963年以后,许多达拉斯人“希望尽快走出这件事的阴影”。他们很少谈及刺杀事件。但民众的情绪渐渐变了。罗林斯说:“20世纪80年代,人们开始认为,达拉斯见了一个非常重要的历史时刻。这不仅是因为那一刻发生了刺杀事件,更是因为那一刻似乎标志着一个新时代的到来。在那之后,越战升级、民权运动开花结果、第二波女权运动兴起。世界焕然一新,人类历史不知怎么的翻开了新的篇章。当时的达拉斯人说,‘我们必须确保准确地理解这段历史。’” Oswald had shot from the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository. Plans to tear the building down were dropped. In 1989 it became a museum. Rawlings says, “For many years it was the one site that if someone visited you and said, #39;What do you want to do in the afternoon?” you would say, #39;Want to go down to the Sixth Floor Museum?“” 奥斯瓦尔德开的地方,位于达拉斯的德克萨斯州教科书仓库大楼(Texas School Book Depository)六层。达拉斯有过种种拆除那座大楼的计划,但后来都未执行。1989年,那座大楼变成了一座物馆。罗林斯说:“多年以来,那座物馆一直是来达拉斯的人必须造访的景点。如果有人来达拉斯拜访你,问你下午想干嘛?你会回答说,想不想去六楼物馆(Sixth Floor Museum)?” He adds: “I don#39;t think we should be defensive or try to remove anything. It is what it is. That part of history will always be in Dallas.” Even Oswald, says Rawlings, belongs in the city#39;s history. He attended elementary school in Dallas, and returned in 1962 after his Soviet jaunt. 他补充道:“我觉得我们不应该戒备心太强,或抹掉过去的任何痕迹。事实就是事实。那段历史将永远留在达拉斯身上。”罗林斯说,即便是奥斯瓦尔德,也将永远在达拉斯的历史占有一席之地。他曾在达拉斯上小学,短暂游历苏联后于1962年又回到该市。 The city can face these facts today largely because the assassination#39;s stigma has faded. Rawlings says: “With time that changed, with the arrival of the Dallas Cowboys [football team] and different things that Dallas started to become known for. It became a secondary branding for the city.” 达拉斯如今能够直面这些现实,很大程度上是因为刺杀事件带来的耻辱感已经褪去。罗林斯说:“随着时间的推移,人们开始因达拉斯牛仔队(Dallas Cowboys,美式橄榄球队)等各种其他的东西知道达拉斯。刺杀事件成为了达拉斯众多标志中比较不显著的一个。” On Friday, the world will be watching Dallas. Rawlings says: “Before I became mayor, I realised that the one moment people were going to pay more attention to Dallas while I was mayor was November 22 2013. People look to 50th anniversaries. They remember where they were, and you retell the story.” Friday#39;s commemoration will be sober and “very untouristy”, he adds. “I#39;m very shy about trying to do too much on this day. If I can stand up straight, salute the president and move on, I think Dallas has done what#39;s right. Our brand won#39;t be made because of this.” 本周五(11月22日),达拉斯将汇聚世界的目光。罗林斯说:“我在当上市长之前就意识到,我任期内人们最关注达拉斯的时刻将是2013年11月22日。人们关注50周年。他们回忆过去,而你要重新讲述那段历史。”他补充道,周五的纪念活动将是庄重的,也“尽量不会带有吸引游客的色”。“我很担心这一天的纪念活动过于大张旗鼓。如果我能笔直地站起身,向肯尼迪总统致敬,然后把历史的这一页翻过去,我觉得达拉斯就做对了。我们无法凭借纪念活动树立我们的形象。” Where was Rawlings on November 22 1963? “In elementary school in Leawood, Kansas. They moved us to the gymnasium, and I remember sitting Indian-style on the floor when the principal told us, and we were sent home. My mother was a teacher, and before she passed away she gave me a stack of letters that she had had her elementary-school grade write about their reflections on that weekend. It was marvellous. Just a bunch of kids in a random school in Kansas talking about this shows the depth and bth of this moment in people#39;s lives.” 1963年11月22日那天,罗林斯在哪儿?“那天我在堪萨斯州利伍德(Leawood)的一所小学里。校方将我们转移到体育馆,我记得大家盘腿坐在地板上,校长向我们介绍了事件的经过,然后学校就宣布放学了。我母亲是小学教师,她曾让自己教的小学生写作文,叙述他们对周末那起事件的感想,后来她在去世前将那一叠作文交给了我。看到那一叠作文,我感觉很奇妙。堪萨斯州一所普通的小学里的孩子们都在作文里谈论此事,仅此就能表明,这一历史瞬间对人们的生活产生了多么广泛而深刻的影响。” /201311/265569青岛日照隆鼻最好的医院

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