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楼主:服务新闻 时间:2019年10月18日 13:16:51 点击:0 回复:0
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Sometimes it#39;s a great challenge to realize that there#39;s no way back to your ex-boyfriend. But, after a few cocktails and a sad romantic movie, you may start analyzing and imagine different scripts. So, try not to give way to your imagination and follow these rules to forget your ex.有时候,告诉自己绝不回到前任身边可能并不容易。但是独自借酒浇愁、观看伤感的爱情片之后,你可能开始分析和想像剧情发展的另一种可能。所以尽量不要向你的假想投降,参照以下建议忘记你的前男友。1. He was a womanizer1. 他是个It#39;s one of the most significant reasons to leave him alone. You should know that being a womanizer is a constant life habit. He says he loves you, and then he gets impressed on another girl and sometimes cannot even realize that he is cheating on you. After all, a cheating guy will certainly become a cheating husband.这是离开他最重要的原因之一,你应该知道的行为方式可不是一天两天能改的。他说他爱你,然后又被另一个女生迷住,有时甚至背叛了你还没有意识到。总之,一个背叛你的男友将来也能可能会是一个背叛你的丈夫。2. Casual thing2. 轻松的事When getting older and getting used to each other, sometimes it#39;s very unusual and difficult to make changes. It seems easier to follow true schemes than to start an active search for an adequate man. Don#39;t be afraid of sitting in bars again and hoping to start a new relationship. Remember, new dates provide you a great variety of chances. The main thing is to resist your desires to return to the source of your headaches. Maybe your next date will crush all the memories about your ex-boyfriend.随着我们年龄的增长和对对方的渐渐熟悉,有时改变可能是一件不寻常并且困难的事。似乎循着原来的轨迹慢慢向前,会比重新主动出击、寻找自己的白马王子简单得多。不要对又一次坐在酒吧里等待新的恋情心生畏惧。记住,新的约会会给你带来无数的机会。最重要的是,打消你要回到那个让你头疼的人身边的念头。也许你下一个约会对象会完胜你与前男友的回忆。3. You cannot reach common goals3. 你们没有共同目标Every person has some goals in life and most couples have some mutual goals as well. It#39;s better when you are able to reach your goals together. Unfortunately, something went wrong, so you couldn#39;t be with him anymore. You are to take into account all the rules. Try not to get confused. Consider all pros and cons of your past relationship. Remember, everything happens and changes for better.人人都有自己的人生目标,许多情侣通常还会有几个共同的目标。如果你们能够一起达成目标,那么一切都会比现在好。但很不幸,事与愿违,你不能再和他在一起了。那么你真的该想想。不要迷惘,冷静下来客观地想一想,想想这段已成往事的恋情所有的的好和坏。记住,每一件事的发生和改变都是为了一个更好的未来。4. An egotist who misses you4. 一个错过你的自大狂If you dated such a hero, you might know that there#39;s no way back to your ex. Being charmed, you fall in love with him, then he wines and dines you and pays addresses. Such young men always try to get their own life in order before starting a serious relationship with a lady. They give preferences to their job and career first, and then to a committed relationship with you.如果你约会了这样一位“英雄”,那么你应该知道真的没有什么理由再回到他身边了。被他吸引之后,你们坠入爱河,然后你们一起喝酒一起吃饭,整个过程中他都彬彬有礼。这种男人在发展一段认真对待的关系之前,都会先让自己的生活步入正轨。他们会优先选择工作和事业,然后再考虑给你承诺。 /201405/297791Prince George of Cambridge#39;s cuddly kangaroo backpack has sold-out just hours after his father Prince William debuted the item on his arrival in Sydney on Monday.英国威廉王子周一到达悉尼时拿着小王子乔治的袋鼠造型背包,十分可爱。在照片发布后,几小时后同款背包一举售罄。The eight-month-old bag features the Australian animal carrying a joey and now parents have gone out of their way to order the item online.8个月大的小王子的这款背包正是澳大利亚袋鼠的形状,母袋鼠的肚兜里还装着一只小袋鼠。现在,有很多孩子的爸爸妈妈用尽各种办法在网上购买同款背包。Vendors have been forced to display a #39;This product is out of stock or unavailable#39; message to those hoping their tot will be as fashionable as Kate Middleton#39;s little boy.很多希望自己的孩子像凯特王妃的小宝贝一样时尚,但因为热卖的缘故,不少商家只能发布“这款包包已经卖光了”的信息。Customers flocked to purchase the carrier when images emerged of the Duke and Duchess taking the tiny royal onto Wellington, New Zealand.威廉王子和凯特王妃带着小王子到达新西兰惠灵顿的照片发布之后,家长们就蜂拥购买这款袋鼠造型背包。The frenzy to emulate George#39;s style comes after he starred in a new royal family picture with the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, plus their dog Lupo last Sunday.上周日,小王子和爸妈及爱路波一起出现在最新全家福中,此后模仿小王子时尚的风潮悄然而至。Personalised baby retailer My1stYears.com say they sold out of pale blue jumpers this week, which retail at £25 each.个性儿童用品零售商My1stYears.com工作人员说,他们本周已经卖光了淡蓝色连衫裤童装,这款童装零售价25英镑。The site shifted more than 1200 in the four days following the publication of the photo and bosses said there were a higher number of orders for #39;George#39; than they would usually expect from customers.小王子照片公布后仅4天之内,该网店的销量就增长了1200多单。网店老板说“乔治同款”的订单量比预计的要多。;Personalised baby gifts have grown tremendously in popularity over the last five years and this photo certainly gives it the Royal seal of approval,; Director Daniel Price said.“过去五年中个性化婴儿礼物大幅增长,可以肯定的是这张照片让皇室标签触手可及。”总监丹尼尔·普赖斯说道。;The demand took us by surprise. We weren#39;t expecting to see a shot with Prince George wearing a jumper with his name and our similar jumper sold out quickly. Luckily we were able to restock to fulfill orders, but it#39;s since sold out again.;“这一消费需求让我们很惊讶,我们原本没有预料到乔治小王子穿的带有名字的婴儿照片,会促使我们的同款婴儿迅速卖光。幸运的是,我们可以重新进货满足消费者订单需求,但新进货品很快又卖光了。” /201404/285964The neuronal signals for smiles usually start in the cortex of our brain. From there they travel to the deeper part, the brainstem -- which, in terms of evolution, also happens to be one of the oldest parts of our brain. From there, a nerve that#39;s large enough to be visible to the naked eye, called the seventh cranial nerve, carries the signal in front of the ear to the more central part of the face, where it reaches the smile muscle.微笑的神经信号通常开始于我们的大脑皮质。他们从那里传输到更深的部分,脑干——它从进化的角度来讲,也恰好是我们的大脑最古老的部分之一。从那里,一根可以大到肉眼可见的称为第七脑神经的神经,把耳朵前面的信号传到面部更中央的部分,那里它可以到达微笑肌。The smile muscle is attached from the mouth to the cheekbone. When this nerve fires, the muscle is activated, the corners of our mouth are pulled up, and we look happy. And if it is a true smile, one that signifies real enjoyment by its wearer, then a branch of the facial nerve also activates little muscles around the eyes, leading to wrinkling around the eyes in addition to a mouth smile.微笑肌附在口腔到颧骨上。当这个神经点燃时,肌肉被激活,我们的嘴角被拉起,然后我们就看起来是快乐的。如果它是一个真正的微笑,表示笑着的人真正的愉悦,那么面部神经的分也会激活眼睛周围的小肌肉,导致眼睛周围的皱纹,除非它只是一个嘴角的微笑。Baseball players who had the broadest smiles lived, on average, seven years longer than those who smiled the least.有着最为灿烂的笑容的棒球球员平均比笑的最少的棒球球员多活七年。The scientific analysis of the smile really began with the French anatomist Guillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne de Boulogne. In the 1860s, he used electrical currents to make his subjects#39; ;facial muscles contract to speak the language of the emotions and the sentiments.; Duchenne believed that one could gain insight into the ways the face expresses emotions by studying the muscles underlying facial movement. He recorded the expressions produced by the electrical stimulation by taking photographs and was the first to use photography to prove a scientific theory. Duchenne showed that in the particular smile he called the ;smile of joy,; the muscle that is just to the side of the eyes (called orbicularis oculi) is activated. When this muscle contracts, it creates creases, sometimes called crow#39;s feet. He called this the ;true smile,; the pure smile of enjoyment. Duchenne concluded that the mouth smile obeys the will, but the eye smile does not. He said, ;The muscle around the eye ... is only brought into play by a true feeling, an agreeable emotion. Its inertia in smiling unmasks a false friend.;微笑的科学分析真正开始于法国解剖学家纪尧姆 - 本杰明 - 阿芒德·杜兴·德·布洛涅。在19世纪60年代,他用电流使他的实验对象的“面部肌肉收缩,来表达情绪和情感。”杜氏认为,一个人通过学习基本脸部运动,可以洞悉肌肉表达情感的方式。他摄影记录下了电流刺激产生的表情,而且这是第一次用摄影来明一个科学理论。杜氏表明,在他称之为“欢乐的笑容”的特定微笑中,只是眼睛边的肌肉(称为眼轮匝肌)被激活。当肌肉收缩时,它产生了褶皱,有时也被称为鱼尾纹。他称之为“真正的微笑”,愉悦的纯净笑容。杜氏的结论是,嘴角的笑意从意愿,但眼睛的笑容没有。他说:“眼部周围的肌肉...只被一种真实的感觉,一种愉快的情感牵动。它在微笑中的惯性揭露了虚假的朋友。”In the image at right, Duchenne applies electrodes to his cooperative subject in order to stimulate the contraction of the smile muscle (zygomaticus major) that pulls the corners of the mouth up when we smile. His subject is clearly enjoying this. Duchenne#39;s jolt of electricity activates the smile muscle around the mouth, but the gentleman#39;s eyes are also smiling, as seen by the creases formed just to the side of his eyes so the happiness comes from inside. When Duchenne first applied the electricity, only the smile muscle around the mouth was activated; he realized that it didn#39;t look like a true, natural smile, so he told this gentleman a joke to make his eyes smile as well.在右边的图片上,杜氏对他的合作的实验对象运用电极,以刺激微笑肌(主要是颧肌)的收缩,它在我们微笑时拉起我们的嘴角使其上扬。他的实验对象显然正在享受这个。杜兴的电流激活嘴周围的微笑肌肉,但这位绅士的眼睛也在笑,从只在眼睛周围形成的褶皱中透出了快乐。当杜氏首次运用电流时,只有嘴周围的微笑肌肉被激活;他意识到它看起来并不像一个真正的,自然的微笑,所以他给这位先生讲了个笑话,使他的眼睛也笑了。Paul Ekman, who led the scientific investigation of facial expressions in the twentieth century, has shown that Duchenne was right. Few of us can fake an eye smile. If you#39;re sitting across from a new business associate and he smiles at you but you#39;re still not sure if you should sign off on a new business venture, look at those little lines around the outside of his eyes. If they wrinkle up like crow#39;s feet, then his smile is a real signifier of pleasure or happiness. The absence of smiling eyes should alert you that your new associate#39;s smile is not necessarily as friendly as it looks.保罗·埃克曼,在二十世纪领导了面部表情的科学研究,他表明杜氏是正确的。我们很少能假冒眼睛的微笑。如果你坐在一个新的商业伙伴对面,他向你微笑,但你仍然不确定是否应该同意一个新的商业投机,看看他的眼睛外面周围那些细纹。如果它们皱得像鱼尾纹,那么他的微笑就真正意味着快乐或者幸福。没有微笑的眼睛可能提醒你,你新合伙人的微笑并不一定像它看起来那样友好。A century after Duchenne recorded his remarkable experiments, Dr. Paul Ekman honored the anatomist by terming the smile involving the eyes the ;Duchenne smile.; Ekman found that the failure to distinguish between different types of smiles showed up in much scientific research over the years and might explain contradictory findings regarding the universal meaning of the smile. Other scientists confirmed their findings and found that the Duchenne smile appears significantly more often when people are freely enjoying themselves than in situations that would require feigned smiles. The eyes do not lie unless, of course, the person has received Botox around the eyes, in which case the skin around the eyes is unable to wrinkle up, no matter how true a smile.杜兴记录了他非凡的实验的一个世纪后,保罗·艾克曼士为了表示对解剖学家的敬意,把涉及眼睛的微笑称为“杜兴微笑”。艾克曼发现,区分不同类型微笑的失败出现在历年来很多科学研究中,这可能解释了关于微笑的普遍意义的矛盾研究结果。其他科学家实了他们的发现,而且发现当人们自由地享受他们自己时,杜兴微笑明显出现得比要求假装微笑的情况下更多。眼睛是不会说谎的,当然,除非这个人眼睛周围已经打了肉毒杆菌,在这种情况下,不论笑容是如何的真挚,眼睛周围的皮肤也不能够皱起来。Certainly what we see greatly influences when we smile, but it is not necessary. We need no visual feedback to smile. Darwin discovered that those who are born blind will still smile appropriately during a conversation. You can smile when all alone, but smiling is definitely enhanced by socializing; it happens six times more frequently in social settings.当然,当我们微笑时我们看到极大的影响,但这是不必要的。我们不需要视觉反馈去微笑。达尔文发现,那些天生的盲人在一场交谈中依然会微笑得体。当独自一人时,你可以微笑,但是微笑绝对是通过社交来增强的;它在社会环境中更频繁,是独自一人时候的六倍频率。Some of the complexities of smiling can be appreciated by examining those who can#39;t do it normally. People who have suffered brain damage may not be able to smile when asked to but will still involuntarily smile at a joke. Conversely, patients suffering from Parkinson#39;s disease, a disease of dopamine-containing neurons in the brain, may be able to turn up the corners of the mouth when asked to smile but after getting a joke may lack the ability to smile as a natural, automatic response. Patients who have had a stroke leading to paralysis of half of their face lack an ability to voluntarily move one side of their face. They show a crooked smile when asked to grin but a normal smile on hearing a joke, indicating intact nerve pathways beyond their conscious control. Clearly, the pathways for smiling are quite elaborate, with both unconscious and conscious connections that receive inputs from different parts of the brain.有些微笑的复杂性可以通过检查那些不能正常地做到这一点的人来领会。当遭受脑损伤的人被要求微笑时可能无法微笑,但是听了一个笑话还是会不由自主地微笑。相反,患帕金森氏症,一种大脑中含有多巴胺神经元疾病的患者,要求微笑时也许能够把嘴角向上弯,但听了一个笑话后,可能就缺乏作为一种自然,自动的反应的微笑能力。曾中风导致一半的脸麻痹的患者缺乏一种自发运动他们脸的一边的能力。当被要求露齿而笑的时候,他们表现出一个扭曲的笑容,但听到一个笑话时是一个正常的笑容,说明完好无损的神经通路超出了他们的意识控制。显然,微笑的途径是相当复杂的,既有从大脑的不同部位接收输入的无意识的连接,又有有意识的连接。One wonders whether it is only a coincidence that those of us who socialize the most tend to get less depressed. We have seen how socializing is a great activator of smiling -- perhaps smiling is doing more than we think. Do children suffer less often from depression because they spend more time playing and smiling? It is so easy to forget that your face is always speaking to you: 24/7, your brain is keeping track of how many smiles you created with your face. Your smile scorecard is not something you are consciously aware of, but your unconscious has intimate knowledge of it.人们不禁要问,我们这些与人交往总是不怎么碰壁是否仅仅是一个巧合。我们已经看到了如何应酬是微笑一个极好的催化剂——也许微笑比我们想象的做得更多。孩子是否因为他们花更多的时间玩耍和微笑,患有阴郁症的几率更小?你的脸总是对你说:每天24小时,你的大脑保持追踪你在你的脸上创造了多少笑容,这是很容易忘记的。你的微笑记分卡不是你是自觉意识到的东西,但你的潜意识非常熟悉它。I believe that smiling more benefits you directly -- even without its social benefits. You go to the gym to strengthen your muscles. Why not go to the smiling gym to strengthen your positive emotions?我相信,微笑对你有更直接的益处—— 即使没有它的社会效益。你去健身房增强你的肌肉,为什么不去微笑健身房,以激励你的积极情绪?One study found that women who had smiled the most in their college yearbook photos had happier lives, happier marriages, and fewer personal setbacks in the following 30 years. Another study finds a correlation between how big a smile you made for a baseball card photo and how long you will live. Those baseball players who had the broadest smiles lived, on average, seven years longer than those who smiled the least.一项研究发现,在他们的大学纪念册照片里笑的最多的女人有更幸福的生活,幸福的婚姻,并在随后的30年里有更少的个人挫折。另一项研究发现在你为一张棒球卡照片笑的有多大和你会活多久之间的一种相关性。这些有着最为灿烂的笑容的棒球球员平均比笑的最少的棒球球员多活七年。How could smiling lead to happier marriages and longer lives? The key is probably the reduction of stress that your body and mind feel. Smiling helps generate positive happy emotions within you, and this leads to a decrease in the stress-induced hormones that negatively affect your physical and mental health. Now, of course, there is only a correlation between smiling and a happy life -- it certainly doesn#39;t prove that smiling will make your marriage better or lengthen your life. Perhaps those who smiled most were just innately happier people or smiled more because life was aly treating them well in college, predicting more good things to come. Studies such as these can#39;t show what causes what. Waves are correlated with beaches, but do beaches cause waves or waves bring beaches?微笑是怎样使婚姻更幸福,使生命更长的?关键可能是你的身体和头脑感受压力的减少。微笑让你内在产生积极愉快的情绪,这导致了负面影响你的身体和心理健康的应力感生激素的减少。现在,当然,微笑和幸福的生活之间只有一种关联——这当然不能明微笑会让你的婚姻更好或者延长你的寿命。也许那些笑的最多的人只是天生更快乐的人,或者笑的多是因为在大学里的生活已经对他们很好,预示着更美好的事情到来。研究像这些的东西不能表明是什么引起了什么。波浪与海滩相关,但是是海滩引起了波浪吗?或者是波浪带来的海滩?But if one assumes that those who smile more will be happier, what happens to those who smile less? Shouldn#39;t those who developed difficulty smiling as adults suffer more from depression, all other things being equal? Nature has done the experiment if one knows where to look. To probe for cause and effect, doctors studied what happened to patients who, because of facial nerve damage, were unable to move their faces normally. The facial nerve is commonly damaged in adult life by a condition known as Bell#39;s palsy. There are three major parts of the facial nerve, so it is possible to lose the ability to frown but be able to smile, or vice versa. These researchers asked their patients to raise their eyebrows, squint, smile, and pucker their mouths to assess the extent of their facial disability. Their hypothesis was that the inability to smile would increase one#39;s risk of depression.但是,如果假设那些多笑的人会更快乐,那些笑的人少会发生什么?不应该那些难以微笑的成年人人更容易患有抑郁症,所有其他的事情都是一样的吗?自然已经做过实验,如果有人知道去哪里看。为了探讨原因和影响,医生研究了面部神经受损,无法正常移动他们的脸的患者发生了什么。面部神经在成年生活中一般是被称为贝尔氏麻痹的疾病损伤的。面部神经有三个主要部分,所以失去皱眉头的能力,却能够微笑是可能的,反之亦然。这些研究人员要求他们的病人,以扬起他们的眉毛,眯着眼睛,微笑,抿嘴以评估他们的面部残疾程度。他们的假设是,无法微笑会增加一个人患抑郁症风险。The results showed that a general impairment in moving one#39;s face was not associated with depression. However, patients who specifically lacked the ability to smile were much more likely to become depressed, and their depression was more severe. There are several possible explanations. First, smiling occurs in social situations and helps facilitate positive emotions and relationships with others. Those individuals who find themselves unable to smile may experience more social isolation, leading to more depressive symptoms from loneliness. This could be a strong negative feedback loop. Second, smiling, by activation of the smile muscle, would initiate a feedback loop to the brain, activating our happy part of the brain, contributing to a more positive mood and more smiling. Those with impaired smiling would have the positive feedback interrupted and more consistent weight on the side of depression. I believe the second explanation is more important, but there is no evidence to help us decide.结果表明,移动一个人的脸的一般损伤与抑郁症无关。然而,明确地缺乏微笑的能力的患者更可能变得沮丧,他们的抑郁症更严重。有几种可能的解释。首先,面带微笑出现在社交场合,有助于促进正面的情绪和与他人的人际关系。这些发现自己无法微笑的人可能会遇到更多的社交隔离,从孤独导致更多的抑郁症状。这可能是一个强烈的消极反馈循环。第二,微笑,通过激活微笑的肌肉,会启动一个反馈环路到大脑,激活我们大脑快乐的一部分,促成一种更加积极的心情和更多的微笑。那些有身体缺陷微笑的人将中断积极的反馈,对抑郁症的一面是更一致的加重。我认为第二种解释更重要,但没有据来帮助我们决定。 /201410/337017After capturing the harrowing moment a plane went down off a Hawaiian island, a crash survivor turned his GoPro camera on himself, snapping a selfie with the sinking aircraft in its background.夏威夷岛屿起飞的一艘飞机因故坠海,一位幸存者在拍摄了这一恐怖过程之后,把他的GoPro相机对准自己,拍摄一张以下沉飞机为背景的自拍照。Ferdinand Puentes and eight others, including the pilot, were aboard the Makani Kai Air Cessna when its engine quit on Dec. 11, according to KHON 2. One person was killed.据夏威夷 KHON 2电视台报道,费迪南德·普恩特斯和包括飞行员在内的其他八人,于2013年12月11日搭乘赛纳斯飞机航班。其中一人遇难身亡。;Sirens and bells; started to sound on the plane, Puentes told KHON 2, and the Ewa Beach, HI native turned on his camera, recording footage of the traumatic ordeal.普恩特斯是夏威夷伊娃海滨的本地人,他对KHON 2电视台记者表示,飞机报警器响起来的时候他打开了自己的相机,拍摄视频短片记录下这一危险时刻。;I had to make sure it was on,; the 39-year-old told Hawaii News Now, adding that he had two GoPro cameras and he initially wanted to record the take-off.普恩特斯在接受《夏威夷今日新闻》采访时说:“我得确保相机已经打开了。” 同时他补充说自己有两部GoPro极限运动专用相机,他本打算拍摄飞机起飞过程的。In images released to Hawaii News Now, Puentes is seen clinging onto a wing of the aircraft. Another image shows other passengers holding on to plane debris to stay afloat.在《夏威夷今日新闻》发布的照片中,可以看到普恩特斯正试图爬上飞机羽翼,另一张照片展现了其他乘客抓住飞机残骸以免下沉的场景。;It was so many things just happening. Is it for real? Is this really happening?; he told Hawaii News Now.“当时发生了太多事情。这是真的吗?坠机真的发生了吗?”他对《夏威夷今日新闻》记者感慨道。But even with the sheer shock of the crash, Puentes reversed the camera on himself.但即使是在坠机的紧要关头,普恩特斯都没放下相机。In a bright yellow life preserver, in the Pacific Ocean, clutching onto a seat cushion, he took a selfie; the tail of the sinking aircraft behind him.身着明黄色救生衣漂浮在太平洋上,普恩特斯抓住坐垫拍了张自拍照;身后是坠机的机尾。According to KHON 2, Puentes was in his work gear.据KHON 2电视台报道,普恩特斯当时正穿着工作装备。;My steel-toed boots, my heavy work jeans and my long sleeve shirt. It was pretty hard and exhausting to swim with all that,; he said.普恩特斯说:“我当时穿着铁头靴子、沉重的工作牛仔裤和长袖衬衫,没法游泳。”In Puentes#39; released to A News, the alarm sounds aboard the plane as it crash-lands into the water. Passengers can be seen putting on life-preservers as water begins to seep in.在普恩特斯提供给A新闻的视频中可以看到,警报响起后飞机坠落在海洋里,海水迅速涌入,乘客们匆忙穿上救生衣。They calmly exit the aircraft.他们非常淡定地从飞机中逃出来。 /201401/273837

As if you needed another reason to run out for another cappuccino, along comes a new study by three university professors suggesting that caffeine may help make the sleep-deprived more honest.一项由来自三所大学的教授合作的研究表明,咖啡因或许可以让睡眠不足的人更为诚实。这样看来,大家又多了一个理由再来一杯卡布奇诺。;Our research shows that sleep deprivation contributes to unethical behavior at work by making you more susceptible to social influences, such as a boss who tells you to do something deceptive,; says Michael Christian, a co-author of the study who teaches organizational behavior at the University of North Carolina#39;s Kenan-Flagler Business School. ;Caffeine can help you resist by strengthening your self-control and willpower when you#39;re exhausted.;“我们的研究显示,缺少睡眠会导致人们对社交影响的敏感程度提高,因此就会更容易做出一些有违道德的行为,比如老板让你去实施某种欺骗行为的时候,”研究的合作者迈克#8226;克里斯蒂安说道,他是北卡罗莱纳大学肯南弗拉格勒商学院(Kenan-Flagler Business School)组织行为学教师。他补充说:“但咖啡因却可在你疲倦不堪的时候,增强你的自控能力和意志力,以抵消这些影响。”The findings are important for managers, he adds: ;We tend to think of people who work nonstop as the best employees. But they are often the ones making the worst ethical choices. It#39;s the people working the longest hours, and getting the least sleep, that managers need to keep their eye on.;这项结论对管理者来说非常重要,克里斯蒂安说:“我们倾向于认为,不眠不休、努力工作的员工才是好员工,但是这些人同样也容易干出有违道德的事情。管理者们要特别注意那些长时间工作而又睡眠不足的员工。”The research, published in the March issue of the Journal of Applied Psychology, built on a 2011 study of 171 hospital nurses who showed ;increases in hostility and dishonesty, including theft, and decreases in self-control; after working long shifts without sleep, Christian said.这项发表在《应用心理学杂志》(Journal of Applied Psychology)三月号上的研究于2011年调查了171位医院护士。研究人员发现,在长时间工作却不睡觉的情况下,这些护士都表现出了更多的“敌意以及包括偷窃在内的欺诈行为,她们的自制力也出现下降”,克里斯蒂安说。For this study -- which, by the way, wasn#39;t sponsored by Starbucks -- volunteers who had been kept awake all night were divided into two groups. All were asked to chew gum in the morning, but one group got a plain wintergreen placebo, while the other chomped on gum laced with 200 milligrams of caffeine, or about the same amount that#39;s in two cups of black coffee.在这项研究(顺便说一下,这项研究并不是星巴克赞助的)中,志愿者们一夜没睡,随后被分成两组。实验人员要求他们早上嚼口香糖,但其中一组的口香糖中含有冬青草安慰剂,而另一组的口香糖中则含有200克咖啡因,相当于两杯黑咖啡中咖啡因的含量。The participants were then put in situations where researchers ;encouraged them to go along with a lie in order to earn some extra money,; Christian says. ;We tried to replicate a situation where a boss or a peer was pressuring them to cut ethical corners at work.;随后,实验参与者们被安排在一个场景中,研究人员“鼓励他们用谎言来赢取更多的钱,”克里斯蒂安说。“我们尝试模拟这样一种场景,也就是,老板或者同事给他们施压,要求他们在工作中违背道德,捞取好处。”The results: Those who got the extra boost of caffeine consistently balked when researchers urged them to cheat, while those who were just exhausted -- and had chewed the non-caffeinated gum -- showed a marked willingness to cast conscience aside and go along with the deception.实验结果显示,在研究人员不断催促他们欺诈的压力下,那些额外摄入了咖啡因的被试验者一致表示拒绝;而那些筋疲力尽、只是嚼了无咖啡因口香糖的实验者们却表现出放弃道德感,愿意实施欺骗的倾向性。Employers who want to reduce the likelihood of misbehavior should make sure people aren#39;t putting in too many long hours without a break and ;avoid scheduling tasks that require a great deal of self-control when looming deadlines make long hours unavoidable,; the study concludes. Two other suggestions: Put in nap rooms at the office and don#39;t skimp on the free coffee.对于那些力图减少工作中品行不端现象的雇主们来说,应该确保员工不用长时间工作而得不到休息。研究认为,要“避免在截止期限临近、长时间工作不可避免的时候,安排需要极大自制力的工作。另外,研究人员还提出了两个建议:在办公室中设置午休室,也不要不舍得提供免费的咖啡。;Our experiment doesn#39;t explain all of people#39;s decisions to do unethical things, but it is significant,; says Christian. He points to statistics from the National Sleep Foundation that show that most Americans say they sleep, on average, only about five-and-a-half hours per night. The clinical definition of sleep deprivation is anything under seven.克里斯蒂安说:“我们的实验无法解释人们做出有悖道德之举的全部原因,但是结论的意义十分重大”。他指出,全国睡眠基金会(National Sleep Foundation)的数据显示,大部分美国人每晚平均睡眠时间只有5.5个小时,而低于7小时的睡眠时间都会被临床诊断为“睡眠不足”。So are we less ethical than back in 1999, when most of us claimed to get at least seven hours of shuteye? Maybe not: Caffeine consumption is up, too. The National Coffee Association, a trade group of java producers and purveyors, said in its annual report last month that we#39;re gulping 18% more cappuccinos, lattes, and other espresso-based (: strong) coffee drinks than we did in 2013.那么,比起1999年来,如今的我们是否更加“不道德”呢?毕竟在当时,大部分美国人声称自己每晚至少会睡7个小时。或许是否定的,因为我们的咖啡因摄入量也在提高。美国咖啡协会(The National Coffee Association)是一个爪哇咖啡生产商和经销商的贸易团体。这个协会上个月发布的年度报告指出,我们消费的卡布奇诺、拿铁以及其他浓缩咖啡的总量比2013年上涨了18%。 /201405/294594

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