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2020年02月29日 05:20:26 | 作者:当当新闻 | 来源:新华社
Europeans are more pessimistic about how equal their societies actually are, while in the US people are wedded to the American dream and believe society is fairer than it really is.欧洲人对本国社会的实际平等程度更加悲观,而美国人则紧抱美国梦、他们眼中的美国社会比实际上更加平等。German research sheds new light on the political challenges involved in tax, income distribution and social fairness and raises questions in the equality debate revived by French economist Thomas Piketty.德国的一项研究为涉及税收、收入分配和社会公平的各项政治挑战带来了新的启发,在由法国经济学家托马斯#8226;皮凯蒂(Thomas Piketty)重新点燃的不公平辩论中提出了问题。The study, to be presented at Germany’s Lindau conference this week, “suggests that in the political debate on income distribution, it is often not the facts that count but [perceptions]”, said Professor Michael Hüther, director of the Cologne-based IW economic institute.德国科隆经济研究所(IW)负责人迈克尔#8226;许特(Michael Hüther)教授表示,本周将在德国林道(Lindau)会议上发表的这份研究报告“似乎表明在这场有关收入分配的政治辩论中,重要的往往不是事实,而是(印象)”。Author Judith Niehues compared actual and perceived income levels in the US and 23 EU countries, using economic data and polling of about 1,000 people in each country.研究报告的作者朱迪丝#8226;尼许斯(Judith Niehues)利用经济数据,并在每个国家对大约1000人进行调查,比较了美国和23个欧盟(EU)国家的实际收入水平和本国人认为的收入水平。She found that Europeans underestimate the proportion of middle-income earners and overestimate the proportion of the poor, commonly defined as people on incomes of 60 per cent or less of the median.她发现,欧洲人低估了中等收入者的比例,高估了穷人的比例,后者通常定义为收入达到或低于中值收入60%的人士。Only the US has a more unequal income distribution than its citizens imagined, with many more poor people.只有美国的实际收入分配情况比其国民想象的更为不平等,穷人的数量也大大超过他们认为的。In Europe, people on middle incomes are far more numerous than those at the bottom or the top of the pay ladder. So a European income-distribution chart resembles a barrel, with a bulge in the middle. But many see it as a tower standing on a broad plinth, with a small elite, a modest middle-class and a big base of low earners.在欧洲,中等收入者的数量远远超过位于收入阶梯最底端或最顶端者。因此,欧洲的收入分配呈桶形,中间部分比两头更鼓。但在许多人眼中,欧洲的收入分配为塔形,基座宽,塔尖小,中产阶层不多不少,底部有庞大的低收入人群。This is particularly true in Germany and France, where people see income distribution as far more unequal than it is. In the UK and Spain, where distribution is less equal, perceptions are more accurate.德国和法国尤其如此,这两国人眼中的本国收入分配不平等程度远远超过实际情况。在收入分配更不平等的英国和西班牙,人们的印象更为准确。More than 30 per cent of Americans have incomes of 60 per cent or less of the median. But most people think that only 24 per cent of their fellow citizens are at this level. “The middle class is truly smaller in the USA and the lower income group considerably more numerous than its citizens suppose,” says a summary of the study, which suggests this might be partly linked to social mobility in the US. People may be less focused on inequality if they think they are climbing the income ladder, explaining why pressure for redistributive taxation is lower in the US.逾30%美国人的收入刚刚达到或低于中值收入60%。但大多数美国人认为这个比例仅为24%。研究摘要称,“在美国,实际的中产阶层人数比其国民想象的更少,较低收入人群则庞大得多”。报告提出,部分原因可能是美国的社会流动性较大。如果人们认为自己在收入阶梯上的位置正在攀升,那么他们或许不会那么关注不平等,这解释了为何在美国通过征税对财富进行再分配的民意压力较低。In Europe, the gap between perception and reality is particularly wide in former communist states, with citizens convinced their countries are far less equal than they really are.在欧洲,国民的印象和实际情况差异格外大的是那些前共产党统治国家,这些国家的国民认为的不平等程度远远超过实际情况。The report adds that levels of concern about inequality tend to be greater in countries with higher levels of perceived inequality. More than half of Germans and 79 per cent of French think income differentials are too great, against about 30 per cent of Britons and Spaniards.报告补充称,在国民认为的不平等程度超过实际情况的国家,有关不平等的担忧往往更强烈。逾一半德国人、以及79%的法国人认为,本国的收入差距太大,而在英国和西班牙,持这种看法者的比例约为30%。 /201408/321905Hon Hai Precision, the Apple supplier also known as Foxconn, faces a rare challenge at its M today from a group of global institutional investors over its corporate governance.鸿海精密(Hon Hai Precision)将在今日的年度股东大会上遭遇罕见挑战,全球机构投资者将质问这家又名富士康(Foxconn)的苹果(Apple)供应商的公司治理事务。The intervention from a group including Aviva, Axa and Calstrs is one of the first of its size and scale in Asia, and represents wider hopes for greater engagement between shareholders and executives in the region.这些机构投资者包括英杰华(Aviva)、安盛(Axa)和加州教师养老基金(CalSTRS),它们发起的这种大规模干预是亚洲迄今少见的,并代表着一种广泛的期盼,即亚洲的股东和高管之间能够增加接触。Governments and regulators have begun trying to shake up the often supine relationships between investors and management. Earlier this year, Japan brought in a new stewardship code and yesterday confirmed plans for corporate governance reforms. Malaysia will this week become only the second Asian country to introduce stewardship guidelines.政府和监管机构已开始试图撼动投资者与管理层之间往往偏于懒散的关系。日本在今年早些时候出台了一套新的管理法规,并在昨日实了开展公司治理改革的计划。马来西亚将在本周成为亚洲第二个出台管理指导原则的国家。The investors are expected to challenge Hon Hai over issues including transparency, long-term strategy, board composition and the “key man” risk posed by chairman Terry Gou.预计投资者将在各种问题上向鸿海精密发起质问,包括透明度、长期战略、董事会的组成,以及董事长郭台铭(Terry Gou)构成的“关键人物”风险。Mr Gou founded Hon Hai 40 years ago with a ,500 loan from his mother. Hon Hai is now China’s biggest private employer, with about 1m workers. It also makes the majority of Apple’s iPhones and iPads.郭台铭在40年前用母亲借给他的7500美元创立了鸿海精密。鸿海目前是中国最大的私营部门雇主,有100万左右工人。该公司为苹果代工制造大部分的iPhone和iPad。But the shareholders’ attempt to engage with Hon Hai comes as the world’s largest contract manufacturer faces questions over its future direction as it tries to fend off competitors while coping with rising labour costs in China – still its manufacturing centre.但在股东试图与鸿海接触之际,全球最大的代工制造商正面临有关其未来发展方向的问题。目前该公司正努力抵挡竞争对手,同时应对中国大陆劳动力成本上升问题;中国大陆仍是它的制造基地。Two members of the investor group will attend today’s annual general meeting and plan to ask whether the company can provide more clarity on its long-term business plan, whether its board has the skills to cope and to probe its succession plans for Mr Gou, its founder, chairman, chief executive and largest shareholder.上述投资者群体的两名成员将出席今日的年度股东大会,并计划提出多个问题,包括该公司能否提供更清晰的长期业务计划?其董事会是否有能力应对并考察关于郭台铭退位后的接班计划?郭台铭是该公司的创始人、董事长、首席执行官和最大股东。Hon Hai declined to comment.鸿海精密拒绝发表。Other members of the shareholder group include MN and PGGM, the Dutch pension funds, RailPen, the UK pension fund, Robeco, the Dutch fund manager and the UK Universities Superannuation Scheme (USS).这个股东群体的其它成员包括荷兰养老基金MN和PGGM;英国养老基金RailPen;荷兰基金管理公司荷宝(Robeco);以及英国高校退休基金(USS)。“Not every investor has the resources to engage effectively with companies far away from home,” said Hans-Christoph Hirt, Singapore-based executive director for responsible investment and stewardship at Hermes Equity Ownership Services, and one of the attendees.“不是每个投资者都有充足资源,能与远离本土的公司有效接触,”Hermes Equity Ownership Services负责投资及管理事务的执行总监汉斯-克里斯托夫#8226;希尔特(Hans-Christoph Hirt)表示。他是会议出席者之一。“Companies need to change but so do investors. Effective stewardship requires more people on the ground in Asia to build relationships and engage with companies.”“公司需要改变,但投资者也需要改变。有效管理意味着需要在亚洲的第一线投入更多人力,以构建关系,与企业接触。”This week Hon Hai and Pegatron, a rival Taiwanese assembler of Apple products, both said they were recruiting workers – thought to be related to production of the next round of Apple products.本周鸿海和同样为苹果装配产品的台资竞争对手和硕(Pegatron)均称,他们正在招工。据信此举与生产苹果下一代产品有关。Last year, Hon Hai was one of six bidders to win a 4G telecoms licence in Taiwan in a clear sign of its plans to diversify its business.去年,鸿海成为赢得台湾4G电信运营牌照的六个竞标者之一,这是一个明确迹象,说明该公司计划将业务多元化。 /201406/307952

Well that took longer than it should have. The UK government has finally started selling down its 78 per cent stake in Royal Bank of Scotland. It should have started the process years ago. The shares closed at 338p on Monday. In August 2013 they were trading at around 340p, and in the intervening period there have been no dividends. About 31bn of UK taxpayers’ money has been tied up for two years in the bank, with no return. The public would have done better had its money been in a savings account, despite the woefully-low interest rates on offer. The government, it seems, is not a good allocator of investment capital.这件事本不该花这么长时间。英国政府终于开始出售其所持的苏格兰皇家(RBS) 78%的股份。它本该在数年前就开始这么做。周一,该行股票收于每股338便士。2013年8月,股价约为每股340便士,而且在政府干预期间未派发任何股息。约310亿英镑的英国纳税人资金被锁定在该行股份上长达两年,没有获得任何回报。如果当时把这些钱放在储蓄账户里,公众的收益原本还会高一些,尽管提供的利率低得可怜。看起来,英国政府并不擅长配置投资资本。An earlier sale would have been beneficial all around. Lloyds Banking Groupshares have risen 11 per cent since the government started selling down its stake in September 2013. In the same period, RBS has lost 7 per cent. True, RBS has been in a much weaker position than Lloyds. But the government stake, and the real (and realised) threat of political intervention in the bank has been a drag on the share price. Freed of that risk, the shares might have performed much better. And by selling down the stake earlier, the government might have enabled RBS to raise equity on the capital markets. It has been unable to do that (imagine the outcry if the government had ended up putting more money into RBS), so it has had to sell assets such as Citizens, its US bank, instead.更早一些出售原本对各方都有利。劳埃德集团(Lloyds Banking Group)股价在英国政府2013年9月开始减持以来已上涨11%。同一时期,苏格兰皇家的股价下跌了7%。没错,这与劳埃德相比,苏格兰皇家的状况一直疲弱得多。但政府持股以及政治干预该行的切实威胁(这种威胁最终变成了现实)一直在拖累该行股价。如果没有这些风险,苏格兰皇家的股价表现可能会好得多。此外,如果英国政府更早一些减持股份,苏格兰皇家原本能够在资本市场筹集股本。但该行一直无法这样做(想象一下如果政府最终要向该行注入更多资金所引发的强烈抗议吧),因此它不得不转而出售资产,例如旗下的美国Citizens。One of the reasons that the government may have been holding back is the risk of being seen to sell at a discount to the “in” price of 502p. But this argument was always a red herring. The in price is irrelevant. The government did not invest in the bank in order to make a profit, it invested in order to avoid the consequences of a collapse. With the threat of a collapse gone, there was little reason to hold on. As any er of the small print of investment literature knows, past prices are no guide to the future. RBS shares may never return to 502p — there is no point assuming that day will eventually arrive. Better for the UK taxpayer to sell out now, and to continue doing so (via quick, cheap institutional placements, rather than lengthy, expensive public offerings) until the stake has gone altogether.英国政府一直不启动减持的原因之一或许是,这么做可能会被人认为是在折价出售(相对于每股502便士的买入价格而言)。但这种论点其实一直是在转移人们的注意力。买入价格无关紧要。英国政府投资该行不是为了盈利,而是为了避免其倒闭。当倒闭威胁消失后,就没什么理由再继续持有了。正如任何读过投资宣传材料附属细则的人所熟知的,过去的价格对未来没有指导意义。苏格兰皇家的股价可能永远回不到每股502便士,也没有必要假设那一天终将到来。对英国纳税人来说,最好是立刻抛出并持续抛出(通过快速、低成本的机构配售,而非漫长、高成本的公开发售),直至彻底出清所持股份。 /201508/390821

China#39;s smaller cities are now the scene of a housing glut, which could undermine China#39;s growth. What are the possible consequences? How are developers reacting? Is the government doing anything about it? Tim Franco for The Wall Street Journal目前,中国的中小型城市出现了住宅供应过剩的情况,这可能会损害中国的经济增长。那么这种情况可能会带来什么后果呢?开发商作何反应?中国政府又有何举措?Below WSJ reporters Esther Fung and Bob Davis answer those and other questions. 以下是《华尔街日报》(The Wall Street Journal)记者方心恩(Esther Fung)和戴维斯(Bob Davis)对相关问题的回答。Why are the recent price cuts so bad? Isn#39;t this just the market at work--less demand, ergo lower prices? 为何近期的降价潮有严重的负面作用?这难道不是需求减少导致房价下跌这种市场机制起作用的结果吗?The same could have been said for the U.S. in 2007. Falling prices in Las Vegas, Bakersfield, Miami were just the market at work. The problem is that if prices fall too far, they don#39;t invite more people to invest in property. Just the opposite. Would-be buyers keep their wallets closed, fearing that the value of a home will go down in value.相关报道中国楼市增长放缓 市场各方忧心忡忡客:营口房地产市场冷过冬天客:谁会点燃中国经济火药桶?美国2007年的房地产市场情况或许可以这么说。当时、贝克尔斯菲市以及迈阿密的房价下跌都是市场机制起作用的结果。问题是,如果房价跌幅太大,就无法吸引更多人来投资,只会产生相反的作用。潜在购房者将会捂紧钱包,因为担心房价会进一步下跌。That#39;s particularly a problem in China, where people have thought for 20 years that real estate prices can only go up in value. If that psychology switches, it#39;s a huge problem. 这在中国尤其是个问题。在中国,人们最近20年来一直认为房价只会上涨。如果这种心态发生转变,将出现很大的问题。There was concern that the property bubble had burst in 2011. What#39;s different now? 曾有人担心中国房地产泡沫已在2011年破裂。现在的情况有何不同?In 2011, the big worry was escalating prices in China#39;s major cities putting apartments out of the reach of all but the rich. The central government implemented property curbs, such as limits on multiple home purchases, to rein in speculation and frothy prices. After two tough years for developers, prices started heading up again smartly last year.2011年,最大的担忧是中国主要城市节节攀升的房价已超出除富人以外群体的购买能力。为此,中国中央政府实施了多套住房限购等房地产调控举措,以遏制房地产投机和高房价。而经过对开发商而言较为艰难的两年之后,去年房价又开始大幅上涨。What makes the current problem different is that a) the problem is more widesp, hitting lots of small and medium-sized cities, b) the issue is a glut rather than rising prices, and c) China#39;s finances are tied ever more tightly to real estate. 当前情况有所不同,主要体现在三个方面:a)现在的房地产泡沫问题更加广泛,已波及很多中小型城市;b)现在的问题是供应过剩,而不是房价上涨;c)中国财政与房地产之间的关系比以往任何时候都更为紧密。 Since 2008, debt in China has grown at a pace similar to the U.S, Europe, Japan and South Korea before they fell into deep recessions. One big reason for the run-up in debt is lending to real estate developers. If developers can#39;t afford to make payments on their loans because they can#39;t sell enough apartments, China has a big problem. 自2008年以来,中国的债务增速和美国、欧洲、日本和韩国陷入严重衰退前的速度不相上下。债务增加的一个原因是对房地产开发商的贷款增加。如果开发商因为无法销售足够多的房子而还不起贷款,中国就会出大问题。Speaking of which, how are developers paying their bills? 说到这一问题,房地产企业目前的应付帐务付情况如何呢?Many construction companies are getting paid in apartments as developers become more and more cash-strapped, according to Zhou Liping, a property consultant at Jiangsu Lianmeng Property Consultancy. #39;It#39;s quite common, #39; he said, adding that some of these construction companies then use the apartments as collateral when they take on bank loans. 据Jiangsu Lianmeng Property Consultancy的地产顾问周丽萍(音)表示,由于开发商的资金日趋紧张,它们将房子冲抵建筑工程款付给很多建筑公司,这种情况很普遍。周丽萍还称,有些建筑公司再将房子作为抵押品向贷款。Are there signs of construction workers losing their jobs? 是否有建筑工人失业的迹象?Certainly it#39;s a danger. Unfortunately, unemployment data is unreliable in China and it isn#39;t counted by occupation. So far, there is no sign of widesp job loss. There are still more jobs than workers seeking jobs, largely as a result of demographic changes that are reducing the size of the Chinese workforce.肯定存在这种可能性。不幸的是,在中国失业率数据并不可靠,而且不是以行业来划分的。目前为止,中国并未出现大量失业的迹象,招聘岗位的数量甚至还大于求职者人数,这主要是因为人口结构改变导致中国劳动力人数减少所致。What are some signs that the growing glut is having economic ripples? 哪些迹象表明住房供应过剩日趋严重已对经济产生影响?Copper prices have been falling since 2010, with analysts blaming slack demand in China as one reason. Copper is used in roofs, gutters and building expansion joints. Meanwhile, ArcelorMittal, the world#39;s largest steelmaker, has forecast slower growth in Chinese steel demand this year due to more muted construction demand growth. 铜价自2010年以来一直在下跌,分析师认为中国需求疲软是铜价下跌的原因之一。铜被用于屋顶、排水沟和建筑伸缩装置中。另外,全球最大的钢铁生产商安赛乐米塔尔(ArcelorMittal)也预测,由于建筑业需求增长更加乏力,中国今年的钢材需求增幅将放缓。Retail sales growth has also slowed recently, due in part to falling growth in sales of appliance s and furniture, both linked tightly to apartment purchases. 中国近期的零售额增幅也在放缓,一定程度上是因为与购房着密切相关的家电和家具的销量增幅下降。What is the government doing about it? 政府采取了什么措施?The central government has indicated that it would allow local governments to adopt their own market regulations rather than implement a one-size-fits-all policy. 中国中央政府已经表示,将允许地方政府实施针对本地市场的相关规定,而不是采取“一刀切”的政策。In some areas, local governments are trying help out. In Fenghua, government officials are trying to stave off a default by a local developer. In Changzhou, the government has been trying to keep discounts to a minimum to prop up the housing market. In Yingkou, the government has reduced fees and taxes for new purchases and made it easy for new buyers to get the residence permits necessary to obtain social welfare benefits, including public education for their children. So far, these measures have had only a limited impact on boosting sales.在一些地区,地方政府正在试图施以援手。在奉化,当地政府官员正在试图避免一家本地开发商出现债务违约。在常州,为持当地房地产市场,当地政府正试图限制开发商的打折幅度;在营口,当地政府实施了减免新房购置相关税费的措施,同时还采取措施让新的购房者更加容易地获得当地户口,以便让购房者享受包括子女教育在内的当地社会福利。不过迄今为止,这些措施对于提振住宅销量的作用都较为有限。Does this mean developers will finally start to cut back on their headlong, hell-for-leather building? 这是否意味着开发商们将最终开始削减仓促而急速的建设计划?Some of China#39;s largest developers are now trying to focus again on China#39;s biggest cities, where demand is stronger. But why do developers keep building in problem cities despite obvious lack of demand? Why did U.S. developers do the same thing? Developers are optimists and salesmen by nature. Each thinks that its project will thrive even as others don#39;t. 中国的一些大型房地产开发商们目前正试图将注意力重新转回大城市,因为这些城市的需求更加强劲。但是为什么在明显缺乏需求的城市中,开发商仍在继续盖楼呢?为什么美国的房地产开发商也会做同样的事情呢?这是因为,开发商们都是乐观派,他们本质上而言都是销售人员。即使在其他开发商项目表现不佳的情况下,他们也会认为自己的项目会成功。According to Nomura, profits for a group of 142 listed property developers in China rose 581% between 2006 and 2012 and never fell during any of those years. Other non-financial companies saw profits rise 64% during that same period and profits sometimes fell year-to-year for that group. 根据野村(Nomura)的数据,在2006年-2012年期间,142家中国上市房企的利润增长581%,期间任何一年都未出现过利润下滑的情况。而在同一时期内,其他非金融企业的利润增长64%,并且存在同比利润出现下滑的情况。#39;China#39;s real estate developers are behaving like internet start-ups,#39; says Mark Williams, a China economist at the Capital Economics in London. #39;They#39;re focusing on grabbing market share in a growing market, but the smaller and medium-sized cities they are in aren#39;t growing rapidly.#39; 凯投宏观(Capital Economics)驻伦敦的中国经济学家威廉斯(Mark Williams)称,中国房地产开发商的做法犹如互联网初创企业;他们专注于在一个持续增长的市场中抢占市场份额,但是他们所处的中小型城市的增长速度并不快。 /201404/288074

The Earth is putting on #39;weight#39; around its #39;midriff#39; - and global warming is to blame.你相信吗?地球的腰围正在变得更粗,这全都是全球变暖惹的祸。Melting ice in Antarctica and Greenland is adding volume to the oceans and this extra water is being pulled towards the Equator, adding to the girth at the widest part of our planet, according to scientists.科学家们宣称,全球气候变暖使得南极和格林兰岛的冰川加速融化,并流入大洋,这部分“多出来”的水随着地球自转,都流向了赤道地区,从而使得地球的“腰围”增加。Earth had been #39;slimming down#39; following the Ice Age, which finished about 20,000 years ago.早在20000年前,地球正值冰河时期,那时的“腰围”可以说是比较苗条。During this geological period of long-term reduction in the temperature of the Earth#39;s surface and atmosphere, the weight of ice sheets was so great that they deformed the Earth#39;s crust and mantle, causing it to bulge at the middle.在这一地质时期过程中,地球的表面以及大气层的温度都在降低,冰原冰川的重量如此之大,以至于迫使地壳和地幔发生了变形,使得两者中部发生了隆起。The Earth isn#39;t completely spherical - land at the North Pole is a number of kilometres nearer to the core of the planet than land at the Equator.事实上,气球并非是一个完美的球体,北极地区要比赤道地区更加接近地心,两地之间的这一差距大概是在数公里。And it was believed that the rebound effect following the Ice Age would result in our planet becoming more of a perfect sphere. 据信,由于在冰川时候之后的“反弹”的作用力,我们的地球正在向一个正规的球体逼近。The #39;bulge#39; at the Equator had been shrinking by less than a millimetre a year, according to National Geographic.美国国家地理学会的数据显示,赤道每年都在以不到一毫米的速度“萎缩”。But by looking at measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, it was found that this effect was reversing.不过美国宇航局重力恢复与气候试验卫星的量测结果显示,这种“反弹”的效果正在受到全球变暖的影响,瘦下去的“肚子”又长了回来。#39;There#39;s something else going on that offsets [the shrinking of the Earth#39;s girth],#39; said John Wahr, a geophysicist at the University of Colorado.美国科罗拉多州大学地球物理学家John Wahr说:“目前有一些因素抵消了这一趋近正球体的过程。”The rate of melting ice at the North and South Poles - which totals 382 billion tons of ice a year - is counteracting the #39;slimming#39; effect.每年,北极和南极的冰川都在加速融化,并且达到了3820亿吨,这些融水都使得地球的“腰围”不减反增。 /201403/282953

Five days after an earthquake killed hundreds in southwestern China, a debate is swirling around the mob of volunteers who flooded into the disaster zone, demonstrating how the world#39;s most-populous country continues to grapple with the role charitable groups should play in society.云南发生地震后数日,人们围绕大量志愿者涌向地震灾区展开了一场讨论,表明中国继续被慈善组织应该在社会中扮演什么角色这一问题所困扰。After the 6.1-magnitude tremor struck the county of Ludian, in northern Yunnan province, on Sunday, thousands of volunteers rushed into affected areas, clogging roads and making it harder for authorities to send in supplies and remove the wounded. That sparked public criticism and led authorities to ramp up restrictions on private cars entering the area.中国云南鲁甸县8月3日发生了6.1级地震,已导致数百人丧生,上千名志愿者闻讯赶来,导致公路拥堵,使得官方在派发救援物资以及运送伤员方面面临更大的困难。公众对此提出批评,并且有关部门对私家车进入灾区增加了限制。Yet some better-organized private groups have played an important part in handling unpleasant tasks such as digging survivors and the dead out of the rubble, residents and officials say. That has convinced some officials that civil-society groups and private volunteers--sometimes seen as threatening to the Communist Party, particularly when concentrating on national issues--should be encouraged to play a bigger role in relief efforts.然而,当地居民和官员们表示,一些有组织的私人团体在处理棘手事务上确实起到了重要作用,例如从废墟中挖出幸存者和尸体。因此,一些官员认为,应该鼓励民间社会团体和私人志愿者在救灾工作中发挥更重要的作用。#39;Some were there the first night, pulling people out,#39; said one member of China#39;s People#39;s Armed Police, who was among the first to arrive in the quake zone. #39;They#39;ve been a huge help.#39;一名第一批抵达地震灾区的武警说,地震发生当晚一些志愿者就已经抵达了地震现场,参与救援,他们提供了很大的帮助。There was still much work to be done on Friday, as the death toll rose to 617, with many more injured, according to state media. Aftershocks continued to shake the area as troops and volunteers pushed further into the mountains to help people in distant villages, while authorities began to contemplate longer-term efforts that will be needed to rebuild.据官方媒体报道,仍有大量工作需要完成,地震死亡人数已经升至617人,受伤人数仍在上升。该地区继续遭遇余震,部队和志愿者进一步深入山区,向边远山村的人们提供帮助,同时政府开始考虑长期灾后重建工作。It wasn#39;t clear on Friday exactly how many volunteers had entered Ludian. The local government official in charge of managing volunteers declined to comment.截至上周五,尚不清楚到底有多少志愿者进入了鲁甸。负责志愿者管理工作的当地政府官员未予置评。The debate over how much leeway to give private aid groups is an important one for China. Authorities have long feared that domestic and international charitable groups could morph into political activism or foster more criticism of the government, as they have in other countries.在中国,有关应该给民间援助团体留下多大活动余地的问题受到热烈讨论。其他国家的一些案例令中国当局一直以来都担心,国内外慈善团体可能转变为具有政治倾向的激进组织,或者可能令政府招致更多批评。Chinese President Xi Jinping has led a crackdown on other parts of civil society recently, with authorities detaining or jailing dozens of activists and rights lawyers, while also ordering a nationwide investigation into foreign nongovernmental groups and their local partners which authorities worry could stir up trouble.中国国家主席习近平近期已经带头对其他领域的民间团体实施了打压,政府部门逮捕或关押了数十名活动人士和维权律师,此外当局还在全国范围内对海外非政府团体及其本地合作方开展调查,原因是担心这些团体可能煽动矛盾。#39;The ambiguity with which Chinese authorities have faced civil society has always been profound and, of late, more evident,#39; said Orville Schell, director of the Asia Society#39;s Center on U.S.-China Relations.亚洲协会美中关系中心(Asia Society#39;s Center on U.S.-China Relations)主任夏伟(Orville Schell)表示,中国当局对待民间团体的态度一直非常含糊,近期这一点变得更加明显。Yet there is also a growing recognition among many Chinese that private groups are needed to help respond to crises that stretch official resources. Although authorities have generally gotten good marks for their work in Ludian so far, experts say they may lack capacity for more-sophisticated relief such as psychological counseling or child protection.不过中国民众也日益认识到,在遇到一些令官方疲于应对的危机时,需要得到民间团体的帮助。虽然到目前为止,中国当局在鲁甸的救灾行动总体获得好评,但专家们认为,在开展心理辅导或儿童保护等较为复杂的援助方面,政府部门的力量可能不够。#39;Our experience is that the government is starting to recognize the value-added that the NGOs can deliver,#39; said Mike Bruce, a regional media and advocacy specialist for Plan International, a children#39;s development group. He said provincial authorities granted Plan permission to send in an emergency response team on Monday morning, just hours after the quake occurred.儿童发展组织Plan International的区域媒体和宣传专家布鲁斯(Mike Bruce)说,按照他们的经验,政府已经逐渐意识到了非政府组织(NGO)能够带来的附加价值。他说,就在地震发生之后数小时,中国的省级政府就给予了Plan International批准,允许其于上周一上午派出一紧急应答队伍。Getting official buy-in for programs in China #39;has been a gradual process, but that is a gradual process that has been getting better,#39; he said.布鲁斯说,在中国,得到官方的持是一个循序渐进的过程,但这一过程正渐渐变得越来越顺畅。The emergence of more-active private aid efforts in China dates back to the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, when large numbers of residents spontaneously rushed to affected areas to help. Many volunteers were critical of the government response, and of the shoddy school construction that led to thousands of deaths in the area.中国民间积极参与救援活动的兴起,要追溯至2008年的四川地震,当时大批中国公民自发地赶赴灾区救援。许多志愿者对于政府的反应非常不满,而且当地糟糕的教学楼质量造成数千学生伤亡,也令他们十分愤怒。They also occasionally sowed chaos, burdening limited food supplies and getting in the way of rescue efforts.不过,志愿者们偶尔也会给局面添乱,他们的到来使得本就有限的食物供应更加紧张,还妨碍了救援工作。Since then, private groups have become more sophisticated, with better equipment and logistics, and in some cases have tried working more closely with public officials to smooth over tensions. Some--sporting matching uniforms so that residents will take them more seriously--are now virtually indistinguishable from the troops and police they are helping.自那时以来,民间救助组织变得越来越经验丰富,他们配置了更好的设备和物流工具,有些时候还尝试与政府官员更密切合作,缓和紧张局面。一些队伍穿上了统一的制,以便得到灾区人民更认真的看待,现在,前来助军队、警察一臂之力的他们已经几乎能够和官方队伍做得一样好了。Authorities have also become more organized about bringing volunteers under their wings, setting up check-in centers where officials can track them and disperse information. The result is a growing number of experienced rescue groups that function at times as an extension of the government, while also serving as an outlet for the swelling numbers of Chinese who want to participate.当局也把志愿者更好地组织起来,设立登记中心,以便官方联络他们和散发信息。结果是,偶尔充当政府救援力量补充的有经验救援组织数量越来越多,它们同时也充当了越来越多的想要参加救灾工作的中国志愿者的一个枢纽机构。One such group, from northern China#39;s Hebei province, is managed and funded by Wang Wenzhong, a former soldier who went on to make millions in the clothing business in Beijing before returning to his hometown to serve as the local Communist Party Secretary.王文忠就在河北省出资成立并管理着这样一个组织。王文忠退伍后在北京做装生意,赚了许多钱,然后回到了家乡担任地方党部书记。Mr. Wang led a team of 10, all outfitted in army surplus fatigues, into Ludian on Tuesday, bringing with him a van filled with supplies worth 30,000 yuan, or nearly ,000. Mr. Wang, who#39;s been to seven earthquake zones, said he has modeled his life on Lei Feng, a fictional good Samaritan soldier held up by Mao Zedong as a moral model.王文忠周二带领着一只10人组成的团队,统一穿着军工装,进入了鲁甸,他还带了一辆面包车,装载了价值人民币3万元的供给品。曾经到过七个地震灾区的王文忠表示,他的人生楷模是雷锋。士兵雷锋是毛泽东树立的一个助人为乐的道德模范。#39;I was helped by so many others when I was younger, so this is my way of giving back,#39; he said.王文忠说,自己年轻的时候曾经受到许多人的帮助,所以这是他回馈社会的方式。On the drive into Ludian, Mr. Wang coordinated with the local state-run TV station and officials in the county seat to determine where the group was most needed, something he said he learned to do after Sichuan. After waiting for approval to enter the quake zone, his team spent three days passing out goods they brought and helping authorities distribute medicine.在驱车前往鲁甸的时候,王文忠和当地国有电视台及县政府官员进行了协调,确定了哪里是最需要其团队的地方,他说这是他在四川地震之后学到的一件事情。在获准进入灾区后,他的团队花了三天时间分发所携带的物品,并且帮助当局分发药物。Not all volunteers have been so experienced or conscientious. Many are students visiting a disaster area for the first time. Especially in the first few days after the earthquake, a number of them wandered aimlessly around the collapsed houses, snapping selfies in front of the wreckage.并不是所有的志愿者都富有经验和认真负责。很多志愿者都是首次来到灾区的学生。特别是在灾后的头几天,有不少志愿者都在倒塌的房屋周围漫无目的地转悠,在废墟前面自拍。#39;Authorities are reacting faster and behaving more professionally,#39; so they don#39;t need volunteers to rush in, said Zhang Haitao, a 21-year-old college student in Beijing who called the restrictions on traffic in Ludian #39;a good thing.#39;北京21岁的大学生张海涛表示,当局反应比以前更迅速、也更专业,所以不需要这些志愿者一窝蜂赶来。他说,鲁甸限行是好事。#39;Some people just want to run up the mountain by themselves to dig out bodies or see what an earthquake looks like,#39; added Liu Yan, the manager of a volunteer service stand set up by the Communist Youth League next to the government#39;s relief headquarters. #39;We don#39;t have any place for them.#39;一个由共青团设立的志愿者务站的负责人刘艳(音)表示,一些人只想着自己爬山去救人或是看看地震是什么样子。她说,现在也没有地方安置这些人。Still, she said, the Communist Youth League had registered more than 3,000 volunteers willing to forgo the glamour for grunt work like bringing supplies to earthquake victims, cleaning, and cooking.她表示,共青团有超过3,000名志愿者愿意做那些并不风光的繁重工作,例如为灾民送物资、打扫卫生、做饭。In the first 72-hours--the time when survivors are most likely to be found--volunteers need to step aside and let the government take the lead, said Gu Linsheng, executive director of Sichuan University#39;s Institute for Disaster Management and Reconstruction.四川大学灾后重建与管理学院执行院长顾林生表示,在震后72小时内――也就是找到幸存者可能性最高的时候――志愿者应回避,让政府出面开展工作。#39;But in the next stage of after-disaster resettlement, more social force should come in,#39; he said. #39;In regards to the distribution of goods and mental assistance, only (the) government#39;s efforts are not enough.#39;他表示,但在接下来的灾后重新安置阶段,需要更多的社会力量参与。他说,在物质和精神帮助方面,只有政府的努力是不够的。 /201408/320675

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