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2020年01月26日 14:59:14

The nearby University of Albany’s College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CNSE), the first college in the world dedicated to nanotechnology, is doing much the same. A decade ago Alain Kaloyeros, who runs it, set up a partnership with industry and the state government. Some 300 companies have provided billion to the college for labs and cleanrooms, and the state has contributed a further billion. CNSE has provided some 80,000 square feet of professional-grade cleanroom space which it shares with the nano-industry. Students work both alongside and for private companies. Competitor firms, such as Tokyo Electron and Applied Materials, work almost next to each other.附近的奥尔巴尼大学纳米科学和工程学院(CNSE)——世界上第一所致力于纳米技术的学院的做法也与此类似。十年前,该校负责人Alain Kaloyeros与企业及州政府建立起合作关系,约有300家公司为该校提供了130亿美元的资金修建起多间实验室及无尘室,州政府还追加了10亿美元的资金。CNSE还拿出总面积达80000平方英尺的专业级无尘室与纳米产业共享。该校的学生既是与私企并肩工作的人,也是为私企打工者。竞争对手公司,如东京电子和美国应用材料公司,工作地点几乎彼此紧挨着。Arguably, the area has returned to its roots. GE Global Research, founded 112 years ago, traces its origins to a carriage barn in nearby Schenectady. After shrinking its manufacturing arm in the 1990s, it is bringing it back to New York, making high-energy-density batteries and digital x-ray-detectors. Other companies are also arriving, such as Air Liquide, one of GlobalFoundries’ suppliers, and Panalpina, a specialised logistics company. Sematech, a chip consortium, has moved to Albany from the high-tech magnet of Austin, Texas. Sinclair Schuller established Apprenda, his cloud-computing start-up, in Saratoga because it is in a “sweet spot”: boasting an educated workforce, and just a few hours’ drive from Montreal, New York City and Boston. And, just to ice the cake, the area has the lowest per-capita county taxes in New York state.可以说,萨拉托加已回归本源了。通用电气公司全球研究中心成立于112年前,源头可追溯至附近斯克内克塔迪(美国纽约州东部城市)市的一间马车谷仓。在二十世纪九十年代精简其制造部门之后,通用电气的制造部门又来到纽约,生产高能量密度电池及数字X线探测器。其他公司也纷纷入驻,如全球晶圆公司的供应商之一——法国液化空气集团;专业物流公司——瑞士泛亚班拿集团;芯片联营企业——半导体制造技术联盟也从素有“高科技磁石”之称的德克萨斯州奥斯汀迁到奥尔巴尼;Sinclair Schuller之所以在萨拉托加创立起他的云计算初创公司Apprenda,是因为此地为“最佳位置”——拥有受过良好教育的劳动力队伍,从蒙特利尔市、纽约市和波士顿到萨拉托加都只有几个小时的车程。而且,锦上添花的是该地区在纽约州人均县纳税额最低。The ripple effects in the community have been profound: new housing, busy restaurants, more cultural diversity and jobs. The Capital Region’s unemployment rate, at 8.2%, is lower than both New York City’s and the nation’s. The story goes that the warring Mohawk and Mohican tribes could agree on just one thing: not to tell early European settlers about the healing springs of Saratoga. Today, Saratogans are only too happy to boast about the healing powers of high-tech.这一综合地区的连锁反应影响深远:新建住宅群、顾客盈门的餐馆、更丰富的文化多样性及更多的工作机会。首府地区的失业率为8.2%,低于纽约市及全美的失业率。据说交战时期的莫霍克族和莫西干族只在一件事上能达成共识:不告诉欧洲早期殖民者萨拉托加有“康复泉”。现在,萨拉托加人很乐于夸赞其高科技的神奇疗效了。201204/178352哈尔滨缩宫手术多少钱Claytronics is a form of programmable matter, a collection of sub-millimeter computers essentially.电子粘土是一种可编程物质,本质上是一组亚毫米计算机。These tiny programmable computers are called catoms: claytronic atoms. Just like atoms are the building blocks of everything in the universe, catoms are the basic units of claytronics. Put enough of these catoms together, give them a command and they can assemble themselves into just about anything you want. Imagine that each one of these little pieces of lead which is a catom, a claytronic atom. So its a computer that can move around; communicate with other computers; change its color, and then it works together with all the other units to perform some global effect.这些微小的可编程计算机叫做catoms:电子粘土原子。正如宇宙中任何物质的基本成分是原子一样,catom是电子粘土的基本单位。将足够量的catom放在一起,输入一个命令,它们就会自动组合成你想要的物体。想象一下,每一小块铅都是一粒catom(一粒电子粘土的原子)。它们可以四处移动的微电脑,它们互相联络,改变颜色,然后齐心协力共创神奇。One of the challenges of claytronics is keeping these mini computers attach to one another.电子粘土的挑战之一在于如何使这些微电脑们互相保持联系。And all these robots are using electrostatic forces to hold the robots together. This is the same kind of thing that happens when you take a balloon then you rub it on your hair and you put it on the wool. Then there is the challenge of figuring out the right program.所有的机器人都是利用静电力结合成为一整体。当你拿起气球抹在头发上或者羊毛上时,就会发生同样的静电现象。接下来的挑战就是找出正确的程序。One of the ways to view the programming problem of claytronics is how we get what I call ensemble behavior, getting all of the individual units to cooperate together to perform a global task.可以从另一角度来看电子粘土的编程问题:如何获得我称之为合奏的行为,如何促使个体之间合作,共同执行一个宏大的工程。If Professor Goldstein can pull it off, the results will be amazing.如果戈尔茨坦教授能够完成这项工作的话,结果将会令人震惊。The objects made out of claytronics will be able to form lots of different shapes.由电子粘土制成的物体将会形态各异。And the more of these mini computers there are, the larger the objects that can be manipulated. Thats how your furniture will be able to do double duty, adapting to your needs. With claytronics, the art on your walls could be changed depending upon your mood. Your cell phone could turn into a laptop, and when your work is done, back into a phone. But its most extraordinary application is how claytronics might revolutionize communication.这样的微型电脑越多,制作出来的物体就越大。这就是为什么你的家具有双重用途,还能供你选择。有了电子粘土,你卧室墙上的艺术品就可以根据你的心情随意更换。你的手机也能变成掌上电脑,在你用完后又会变回手机。但是它最卓越的应用程序可能是电子粘土怎样革新通讯。原文译文属!201208/193849哈尔滨市道里区妇产医院好不好Science and Technology Flying snakes Slithering through the air科技 飞蛇 空中滑行Fancy aerodynamics explain why some snakes are good gliders奇特的气体力学解释了为什么一些蛇善于飞行MANY animals have mastered the trick of gliding through the forest canopy. Flying frogs stretch the webbing between the toes of their enlarged feet. Some lizards sp elongated ribs covered in flaps of skin. And the colugo, a strange South-East Asian mammal, can travel as much as 70 metres (230 feet) between trees by sping a membrane of skin that connects its limbs. Despite a lack of obvious body parts that can double up as a decent pair of wings, some snakes, too, can glide for remarkable distances.许多动物掌握在林冠中滑行的技巧。青蛙在飞行时展开它的脚蹼;一些蜥蜴展开皮肤软组织下的细长肋骨;猴猫,一种生长在东南亚的哺乳动物,通过伸展连接四肢的薄膜在树中滑行多达70米(230英尺)。尽管身体明显缺少一部分,如一对能够拍打且适于滑行的翅膀,一些蛇也能飞行很远。To discover how snakes manage it Jake Socha of Virginia Tech and his colleagues conducted a series of test flights with paradise tree snakes, a mildly venomous variety found in parts of Asia. They launched the snakes from the top of a 15-metre tower and used four cameras to construct 3-D images of the animals trajectories. The results, just published in Bioinspiration and Biomimetics, show not only that flying snakes are surprisingly good aviators but also that they employ some complex aerodynamic tricks.为了查明蛇类如何成功的飞行很远,维吉尼亚理工学院的Jake Socha和其同事用一些天堂树蛇做了一系列的飞行试验,这是一种毒性适中的蛇,它生长在亚洲部分地区。研究人员使树蛇从15米高的塔顶端飞行,过程中使用了4个摄影机拍摄蛇滑行的轨迹,以拍摄成三维立体图像。不久前在生物灵感和仿生学上发布的结果显示:飞蛇的飞行不仅令人叹为观止,并且飞行过程中使用了一些在空气动力方面的很复杂的技巧。A paradise tree snake flattens its body into an aerofoil-like shape that can provide a degree of lift before it takes off from a branch by jumping upwards. It then falls at a steep angle and starts undulating from side to side. As it gains speed its glide path becomes shallower, allowing it to cover a greater distance. The researchers found some snakes could glide for 24 metres.天堂树蛇展平它的躯体,使其形成机翼般的形状,这可以使它在借助树干弹跳前产生一定的提升力。然后它急剧下降并且不停地摆动身体。随着下降速度的增加,下滑道变得越来越浅,这使树蛇滑翔很长一段路程。研究人员发现一些树蛇可滑翔24米。The 3-D analysis showed the snakes take up a staggered posture when gliding, with their bodies angled upwards at about 25° to the oncoming air and their heads slightly higher than their tails. Dr Socha says this orientation seems to provide the creatures with an aerodynamic advantage. As a result of it, the wake of air forced backwards by one segment of the snakes undulating body may provide extra lift to the segment behind in the sidewinding glide. Flying fish rely on a similar flow of accelerated air from their pectoral fins to provide lift to their smaller pelvic fins. Indeed, it is possible that the effect works both ways, and that rearward segments provide lift to those in front.对三维立体图像的分析表明:树蛇滑翔过程中摆动着身体,躯体向上抬,与迎面的空气呈25度角,头部稍微高于尾部。Socha士表示在空气动力学角度上来讲,这样的身体趋向可能会对飞行的树蛇产生推助的作用。这样,摆动树蛇的身体的前半部分擦过的空气尾流可对侧风滑行的后半部分起到提升的作用。同样,飞鱼借助胸鳍所产生的加速气流,就可以对较小的腹鳍产生一定的提升作用。事实上,反过来也可能产生这种效果,即后半部分可为前半部分起到提升作用。The snakes are also surprisingly manoeuverable and have been seen to turn in mid-air. To find out if this might be deliberate, Dr Socha limited their view from the tower so that they could see only straight ahead when they launched themselves. Once airborne, and thus able to observe trees to the side of their glide-paths, some of the snakes turned towards them.树蛇的飞行技巧也也令人叹为观止。人研究人员观察到它们在飞行途中可以变向。为了探明树蛇是否故意发出这一行为,Socha士限制了树蛇在飞行时的视野,目的是让他们在起飞时只能向前看。一起飞,这些树蛇就可以看到滑行路径两旁的树,一些就转变方向朝树木飞去。Dr Socha, who studies the relationship between form and function in animals, was partly funded in his snake research by Americas Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency, which said it was interested in the science but obviously wonders about military applications.研究动物的构成和功能的Socha 士在对蛇进行研究时得到了美国国防发展研究项目的资助,它称它对这部分科学很感兴趣,但也明显质疑是否可以将这部分科学应用到军事领域。Dr Socha does not expect to see snakelike drones in the skies soon. However, the ability to slither through holes, to swim and to climb trees and rocks, as well as to glide between elevated features of the landscape, is an attractive mixture for designers of robotic vehicles. The staggered-wing effect, in which the front of the body helps to provide lift for the back, may also be of interest to aircraft engineers. In the long term, then, the worlds battlefields may see machines that resemble some peoples worst nightmares, slithering as they do towards the enemy both on the ground and through the air.Socha士并未预期蛇形般的遥控飞机即将腾空出世,然而,设计集各种功能于一身的交通工具-全部自动化,能够滑穿孔洞,穿行在水中,爬得大树和岩石,滑行在凹凸不平的风景中-对于设计师来说,很具吸引力。摆动的双翼所产生的效果-机身的前半部分可为后半部分增加提升力,对飞机工程师来说也可能颇感兴趣。从长远来看,在世界战场可以看到那些出现在一些人的噩梦里的飞机,在陆地和空中滑翔,攻打敌人。 /201301/22At first glance, this old bush looks much like many other plants in the area, but researchers say this shrub known as Palmers Oak is considerably more special, because they believe it to be 13,000 years old, one of the oldest plants in the country. And its literally right across the street from Jurupa Hills residence Samuel Cano.第一眼看上去,这些灌木和这片地区的其他植物无甚区别,但研究人员说这种叫做Palmers Oak的灌木其实十分特别,因为它们是这个国家最古老的植物,已经活了一万三千年。生长面积从Jurupa Hills蔓延至Samuel Canon。13,000 years old,I mean thats a long time. A lot of history.Wow! And this literally could predate man in North America if my guesses are right. Scientist Andrew Sanders says what he found odd about this particular plant is that its typically found high in the mountains, not down here.So it got him and others thinking what if this oak bush sprouted during a much colder era. So they dated the plant and sure enough it probably was around during the ice age.一万三千年,真是很长的一段时间。有很长的历史。哇!如果我的猜测正确,这种植物比北美洲早期人类出现得还要早。科学家Andrew Sanders说,这种植物的奇怪之处在于,海拔越高,它就长得越高,海拔低就不会长得高。因此,Andrew和其他人都认为这种橡木灌木曾生活在较冷的区域。研究人员通过数据进行研究推测这些植物产生于冰河时代。The main thing that strikes me is that weve got where literally looking at a bit of what the world was like in the Ice Age. I mean we dont have to look at a fossil in this case. We can see the living individuals. So as far as researchers can tell this exact plant was growing here at the same time mastodons and sabre tooth tigers were roaming the area. The big question: how did it survive all these years.最震撼我的是,我们能够在理论上知道冰河时代地球上的情形。我是说,我们不用化石印,而是能看到现存的植物个体。研究人员惊讶于这种植物是如何在乳齿象和剑齿虎四处游荡的环境下生存的。I think the main thing is that its manage to get into this narrow rocky crevasse on a north facing slope. So its start to shade it. Scientists believe the shrub to be at least 1,000 years older than this creosote bushes in Palm Springs. So while that they may not look like much, this 75-foot-long old bush is in fact the oldest known living plant in the state,right here in Jurupa Hills.我认为主要是因为这种植物生长在狭窄的岩石裂缝中,面向北的斜坡上,始终不见阳光。科学家认为这种灌木比棕榈泉的石炭酸灌木至少早出现1千年。尽管它们长得一点也不像。这种高75英尺生长在Jurupa Hills的古老灌木实际上是加利福尼亚州最古老的现存植物。This is Rob for A News美国广播公司(A)报道。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201205/181900哈尔滨红十字中心医院门诊怎么走

哈尔滨第五人民医院收费贵吗哈尔滨阴倒镜检查多少钱DNA Wrath of Khan成吉思汗疯狂的基因Today, Afghanistan is a war-torn region, battled over by military forces and world-spanning empires. Eight hundred years ago things were much the same. Only then, there was only one ruler: Genghis Khan.军队武力战争和帝国扩张疆土让如今的阿富汗饱受战乱之苦。早在800年前,阿富汗时局依旧,唯一不同的是只有一个统治者:成吉思汗。Khan is one of the greatest conquerors who ever lived. Before he was finished, he had created an empire that ran all the way from the Caspian Sea to the Sea of Japan.成吉思汗是史上最伟大的征者之一。成吉思汗生前征的疆域从里海到日本海。That’s the history portion of our show. Now, on to the science. What is it that powerful males of the human species are after when they overrun other males? From an evolutionary point of view, the major objective is to sp their genes more effectively. And surprising, new data suggest Khan may have done that more successfully than anyone imagined.说完历史故事,让我们来说说科学吧。为什么强大的民族想要征其它民族?从进化的角度说,其主要目的是开枝散叶。令人惊讶的是,新数据显示成吉思汗出人意外地成功做到了这一点。Researcher Tatiana Zerjal, from the University of Oxford in England, and a team of geneticists took genetic samples of over twenty-one thousand men from all over Asia. They were looking for variations in certain genetic “markers,” or sequences of genes that tell you something about where people came from. To their astonishment, they found that one out of every twelve Asian men in regions once part of the Mongol empire carry a form of the Y chromosome that can be traced to Mongolia a thousand years ago. How did this genetic tag become so widesp?牛津大学研究人员Tatiana Zerjal和一组基因学者采集了亚洲21000份基因样本,从中寻找某种基因“记号”或基因序列变化。基因序列可以识别出身。令人惊讶的是,他们发现曾是蒙古帝国疆域,每12个人中就有一人携带追溯到千年前的蒙古基因的Y染色体。为何这种基因“标签”流传如此之广?Khan, they suggest. There is reason to believe that Khan himself, and thus his long-ruling descendants, had this particular form of Y chromosome. And though his power is long faded, the genetic empire of the conqueror is going strong–in roughly one out of every two hundred men alive today.研究人员猜测,有理由相信成吉思汗及长期统治的后裔都有这种特殊的Y染色体。虽然时至今日,成吉思汗的政权早已衰败,但是成吉思汗的基因却留在人们的血液中。今天,大概每200人中可能就有一人有这种基因。 /201302/227331I recently an article in which one of my favorite columnists, William Safire, explores the use of ;generation; in a litany of literary references to American writers. He begins with Hemingways ation of ;lost generation; and then explores other references throughout recent history.近来,我读到一篇关于我最喜欢的专栏作家威廉·萨菲尔的文章。文章探究了“一代”在美国作家连载文学参考中的使用。 他开头引用了海明威的“迷惘的一代”,然后回顾了近代出现过该词的文章。This massive amount of repetition of ;generation; in the column by Mr. Safire ought to have aly driven home the point. We all belong to specific generations, and cultures and eras tend to identify, mark and classify us according to our age and time on this planet.在萨菲尔先生的专栏里大量重复使用“generation”这个词,这应该已经揭示出了文章的观点主题。我们都属于特殊的一代,每一代均有自己特定的文化,并且在这个星球上,历史新纪元趋向于根据我们的年龄和时代把我们进行鉴别,分级和分类。What about my generation? I am a baby-boomer. I grew up in the light of Dr. Martin Luther King and the Kennedys, and under the shadow of the Vietnam War. I have always believed in hope. If asked, I would say that I belong to the Generation of Hope.我们这一代呢?我是在生育高峰期出生的人。我成长在马丁路德金和肯尼迪家族的光环下,也成长在越战的阴影里。我总是相信希望。如果别人问我,我会说自己属于“希望的一代”。When I was young, I was convinced there was more good in the world than evil. I still believe that. I thought then and still think that one person can make a difference.我年轻时深信世上善大于恶,且现在依旧相信。以前我认为每个人都能做出一件不同凡响的事,现在仍然持这种观点。Hope is taking some very hard knocks these days. Hope may be down at the moment, but it is far from out. Many of us are hopers. We know to which generation we belong.这些天希望不断的被提及。有时候希望会很渺茫,但是它不会消失。我们中的大多数都是希望者。我们知道自己属于哪一代。原文译文属!201208/196122牡丹江市看妇科炎症多少钱哈尔滨医科大学附属第二医院四维彩超预约

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