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泉州省妇女医院产前检查好吗福建省第一人民医院怎样预约After phones, cameras and taxis, Silicon Valley is looking to disrupt a rather more mundane American mainstay: fast food.继手机、照相机和出租车之后,硅谷正着眼于颠覆一种美国人生活中习以为常的东西:快餐。Start-ups are trying to revolutionise the food industry and have received hundreds of millions of dollars in funding from venture capitalists to do so.一批创业企业正试图掀起食品行业革命,并为此获得了风险资本家数亿美元的融资。Many are motivated by a desire to wean humanity off meat and other foods that have big environmental and social impacts, whether in the methane emissions and land use of cattle herds or additives in typical processed food.其中许多公司是受到这样的愿望驱使:让人类不再依赖会对环境和社会造成巨大影响的肉类及其他食品,不管是甲烷排放和养牛占地方面还是一般加工食品中的添加剂。“The traditional food system is broken in every way,” says Seth Bannon, founding partner at Fifty Years, an early stage venture fund in San Francisco that has invested in food technology companies. “It’s terrible for the environment, it’s economically unfavourable and it’s not great for human health.”“传统食物体系正在被从各个方面击破,”投资了几家食品科技公司的旧金山初创阶段风险基金Fifty Years的创始合伙人赛斯.班农(Seth Bannon)表示,“它对环境有害,不具备经济效益,而且对人类健康不是很好。”The best-known of these would-be disrupters is also the most extreme in its approach. Soylent was founded in 2013 by a group of Silicon Valley engineers trying to cut the time and money they spent buying and preparing food. The company has expanded from producing a powder that was mixed with water to y-made drinks and nutritional “food bar” snacks.这些“准颠覆者”中,最有名的一家也是创新手法最极端的。Soylent由一群硅谷工程师于2013年创立,这些工程师想减少他们花在购买和准备食物上的时间和金钱。Soylent最初生产一种需要跟水混合的粉末状食品,后来发展为生产成品饮料和有营养的“食物棒”。The company takes its name from a 1966 Harry Harrison science-fiction novel Make Room! Make Room!, which explores the impact massive population growth could have on world resources. In the book, “soylent” is made of soy and lentils and is used to feed the world. A film version in 1973, Soylent Green, took this theme further by portraying the main global food stuff as dead human beings being sold as biscuits.Soylent之名取自1966年哈里.哈里森(Harry Harrison)的科幻小说《Make Room! Make Room!》,小说探讨了人口剧增可能给全球资源带来的影响。在书中,由大豆和扁豆制成的“soylent”成为全球的食物。1973年,小说被改编成了电影《绿色食品》(Soylent Green),影片进一步挖掘了上述主题,讲述死人被作为全球主要食物原料,制成饼干销售。The Soylent company, now based in Los Angeles, says its “intelligently designed” food offers “affordable, complete nutrition”. A serving of its deliberately tasteless gloop costs as little as .如今总部位于洛杉矶的Soylent公司表示,其“精巧设计”的食物能够提供“价格合适、全面的营养”。吃一顿该公司生产的故意做成没有味道的半流状食品最低只需花费2美元。“It’s not surprising to me that Soylent has become the darling of Silicon Valley and computer programmers,” says Amy Bentley, a professor of food studies at New York University. For one thing, she says, it does away with the social interaction that food often involves but tech nerds are not renowned for. “You don’t have to talk to people, you can just fuel.”“Soylent已成为硅谷和电脑程序员喜爱的食品,对此我一点也不奇怪,”纽约大学(New York University)食品研究教授艾米.本特利(Amy Bentley)表示。她说,首先,它消除了进餐往往会牵涉到的社交,毕竟这些干技术的书呆子们并不以社交能力闻名。“你不必跟人说话,你只管补充能量。”However, Soylent has also illustrated some of the hazards of pioneering new food. Two months after they first went on sale, Soylent halted sales of its food bars after some customers said they had caused episodes of violent vomiting, and in October removed its powder drink from sale for the same reason.然而,Soylent的经历也展示了在食品创新方面充当先驱可能面临的一些风险。该公司的“食品棒”首次上市销售才两个月,就因为有顾客抱怨食用后导致了强烈呕吐,不得不下架。今年10月,出于同样的原因,该公司撤下了其粉末饮品。Soylent said that while its tests had come back “negative for food pathogens, toxins or outside contamination”, one ingredient, derived from algae, may have triggered intolerance. A new formulation will be released next year, sooner if possible.Soylent表示,其检测显示在食品致病菌、毒素或外部污染物等方面结果为阴性,但一种取自海藻的成分可能引起人体不耐受。新配方将于明年发布,如果可能的话会更早。“We are just beginning to learn about what our bodies need,” says Ms Bentley. “Turns out when we try to engineer stuff, we figure out nature did it pretty well in the beginning.” She adds: “Humans need variety.”“我们只是刚开始了解我们的身体需要什么,”本特利表示,“当我们试图设计制造食物材料时,结果我们才发现自然从一开始就做的非常好。”她补充称:“人类需要多样性。”Rivals have also emerged, including Ambronite, a nutritional drink, and 100%Food, whose maker, Space Nutrients Station, invites customers to “stop cooking — eat like astronauts!”.竞争对手也出现了,包括营养饮料Ambronite以及100%Food,后者的制造商Space Nutrients Station邀请消费者“不要做饭了——像宇航员一样吃!”“The idea is that Ambronite can be any meal, says its co-founder Simo Suoheimo, “ but the idea is not to replace every meal.”“我们的想法是Ambronite可以代替任何一餐饭,但不是代替每一餐饭,”Ambronite创始人西莫.索海莫(Simo Suoheimo)表示。Ambronite has received 0,000 from backers, including a co-founder of YouTube, Jawed Karim, and Lifeline Ventures, while Soylent has raised more than m. But other food technology companies have been more ambitious. Investors have poured more than 0m into Impossible Foods, which is trying to replace meat with something that tastes and smells similar but is made from plants.Ambronite已收到投资者60万美元资金,包括YouTube联合创始人贾韦德.卡里姆(Jawed Karim)和Lifeline Ventures,而Soylent已募集逾2000万美元。还有更加野心勃勃的食品科技公司。投资者已向Impossible Foods注资逾1.8亿美元,这家公司试图用味道和气味与肉类相似、但由植物制成的食品来替代肉食。Ingredients such as potatoes and coconuts are fermented then combined with the “magic ingredient” of heme, a yeast extract with similar culinary properties to blood.土豆和椰子等原料被发酵,然后与血红素这种“神奇原料”混合,这是一种酵母提取物,具有与血类似的烹调特性。“You can’t get people to stop eating meat,” says Pat Brown, Impossible Foods’ founder and chief executive.Impossible Foods创始人及首席执行官帕特.布朗(Pat Brown)表示:“你不能不让人们吃肉。”“We turn plants into meat more efficiently and sustainably” than animals, he says.他表示:“我们以比动物更更可持续的方式将植物转化为肉类。”However, copying nature has proven tougher than Mr Brown may have anticipated. Impossible’s burgers have aly been five years in the making, and only now are starting to be offered in selected, expensive restaurants.然而,事实明,复制“自然”要比布朗想象的还要难。Impossible的汉堡已研制了5年,现在才开始在精选的高档餐厅供应。A commercial-scale manufacturing facility will not open until next year. In the meantime, a pilot facility is producing 1,200lb a week. Over the past two years, Impossible has reformulated its burgers’ ingredients and reduced costs.具备商业化生产规模的制造工厂要等到明年才能投入运营。与此同时,一间实验工厂每周的产量为1200磅。过去两年中,Impossible修改了汉堡包的成分,降低了成本。“A cow is pretty much as mature a technology as it will ever be,” Mr Brown says. “One of the huge advantages we have over cows when it comes to making meat is we have the capability of improving every aspect of it.”布朗说道:“一头牛的技术成熟程度将永远像现在这样,相比牛,我们在制造肉食方面的巨大优势之一是我们有能力从每一个方面来改善产品。”Another start-up disrupting nature is Memphis Meats. The Bay Area-based company is taking a different approach — growing meats in a lab, cultivating them from real animal cells.另一家颠覆自然的初创企业是Memphis Meats。这家总部位于旧金山湾区的公司正采用一种不同的方法:在实验室培育肉类,利用真正的动物细胞培养。“We identify cells that have the capability to renew themselves,” says Uma Valeti, Memphis’ co-founder and chief executive. “We breed those cells that are the most effective and growing — just like a farmer would do with animals.” Eventually, he hopes to remove animals from the equation altogether.“我们会找出那些有能力自我再生的细胞,”Memphis联合创始人兼首席执行官乌玛.瓦列提(Uma Valeti)表示,“我们培育那些效率最高且在增长的细胞,就像农民饲养动物那样。”他希望最终从人们的食物来源中彻底剔除动物。Previous efforts to cultivate meat in this way have produced burgers that cost thousands of dollars. Memphis Meats hopes to drive down the price of its meatballs from a projected a gramme in the lab-scale to a few cents per gramme by the end of the decade.以前用这种方式培育肉类的努力,制作出的汉堡成本高达几千美元。Memphis Meats希望到本10年末,将其肉丸价格从预期的实验室规模的每克40美元降至每克几美分。Mr Bannon, of Fifty Years, who has invested in Memphis Meats, calls its approach the “second domestication”. “Traditionally we have domesticated animals to harvest their cells for food or drink,” he says. “Now we are starting to domesticate cells themselves.”上文提到的风投基金Fifty Years就投资了Memphis Meats,其创始人班农把这种方法叫做“二度饲养”。“我们饲养了动物,把它们的细胞制成食物或饮料,”他表示,“如今,我们正开始饲养动物细胞本身。” /201612/481655泉州清濛开发区正规不孕不育医院 HONG KONG — In China, cheap smartphones made by relatively obscure companies aping branded designs are ubiquitous.香港——在中国,相对不知名的公司模仿名牌设计生产的廉价智能手机随处可见。Usually it is the major brands that go after the smaller companies for patent infringement. But one of China’s low-cost phone makers recently filed a patent complaint against Apple in the city of Beijing — and for now, it has won.通常是大品牌追究小公司侵犯专利的责任。但最近,中国一家低价手机生产商在北京对苹果(Apple)提起专利申诉——目前暂时取得了胜利。With an appeals process ahead, the ruling is unlikely to have a major impact on Apple. Still, the action spotlights the growing number of cases of municipal patent offices in China backing local companies against larger, international brands.由于接下来将进入诉讼程序,这项裁决不太可能给苹果带来大的影响。但这起案件突显出在和更大的国际品牌的对抗中,本土公司得到中国地方专利局持的案例越来越多。According to a statement from the Beijing Intellectual Property Office, Apple infringed on a design patent used in a phone called the 100C, made by the Chinese phone maker Baili. The statement ordered Apple to stop selling certain older versions of the iPhone within Beijing, though an appeal of such a ruling to the courts in China usually forestalls any sales injunctions. 北京市知识产权局发布的一则通告称,苹果侵犯了中国手机生产商佰利生产的100C手机使用的一项设计专利。通告下令苹果在北京停售iPhone的某些较老的型号,不过在中国,这类裁决被告上法庭后通常会先停止销售禁令。Apple said it had appealed, and a sales clerk at the Apple Store in the Sanlitun area of Beijing said on Friday evening that the store had received no instructions to stop selling the iPhone models and that “it is business as usual.” At the store, a handful of iPhone 6 models stood mostly unused as shoppers tapped on the newer 6s models at a nearby table.苹果称已提起诉讼。周五傍晚,北京市三里屯苹果店的一名销售人员称该店未收到停售相关iPhone产品的指示,表示“照常营业”。店内,几部iPhone 6基本上都闲置着,顾客在体验旁边一张桌子上的新款iPhone 6s。“IPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus, as well as iPhone 6s, iPhone 6s Plus and iPhone SE models, are all available for sale today in China,” Apple said in a statement. “We appealed an administrative order from a regional patent tribunal in Beijing last month, and as a result the order has been stayed pending review by the Beijing I.P. Court.”“IPhone 6和iPhone 6 Plus,以及iPhone 6s、iPhone 6s Plus和iPhone SE今日在华均有售,”苹果在一则声明中称。“我们对北京一个地区性专利机构上月发布的行政命令提起了诉讼,因此该命令还需接受北京知识产权法院的审查。”The new headache for Apple comes after increased regulatory pressure and problems in China. Recently, a Chinese company won the right to sell leather goods under the iPhone trademark after years of legal back and forth. And Apple’s movie and book services were shut down in the country shortly after they were introduced, a sign of more serious scrutiny from China’s media regulator. 在这件令人头疼的事情发生之前,苹果在中国面临的监管压力和问题正在加剧。前不久,一家中国公司赢得了使用iPhone商标销售皮具制品的权利。在这之前,双方的法律纠纷持续了数年。苹果的电影和图书务也在引入后不久被关闭。这个迹象表明,中国媒体监管机构的审查变得更加严厉。The Baili patent case pales in comparison to those troubles, though it underscores the day-to-day annoyances that can come with running a tech business in China.和那些问题相比,佰利专利案微不足道,但它突显了在中国经营一家科技企业可能会频频遇到的麻烦。The country has had its fair share of cases in which low-level manufacturers take on global brands. In perhaps the most famous, Apple paid million to use the iPad trademark. 在中国,低端生产商挑战国际品牌的案件相当多。在其中一起或许最为人所知的案件中,苹果为使用iPad商标付了6000万美元。Patent issues like the one Apple has with Baili are common enough that a recent paper in the Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment amp; Technology Law examined the topic. While the paper found that China’s patent system was not structured to benefit Chinese companies, it said there had been a number of recent “high-profile patent suits filed by relatively unknown Chinese firms against high-profile foreign tech companies like Apple, Samsung and Dell.” 像苹果和佰利之间的这种专利问题非常普遍。最近发表在《范德堡大学科技法期刊》(Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment amp; Technology Law)上的一篇论文对此进行了研究。尽管文章认为中国专利制度并非朝向有利于中国公司的方向进行构建,但它表示最近“相对不知名的中国公司对苹果、三星(Samsung)和戴尔(Dell)等著名外国科技公司提起了大量广受关注的专利诉讼”。Once a local intellectual property office in China finds an issue of infringement, companies can decide whether to appeal the matter. At that point, the issue typically is litigated or resolved via a settlement of some kind.在中国,被地方性的知识产权局认定侵权后,公司可决定是否申诉。如果申诉,往往会将问题诉至法院或是达成某种和解。 /201606/450368泉港区妇女儿童医院可以刷医疗卡吗

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泉州第二医院做药流South Korean teacher, Kim Jeong-min was at Narita Airport in Japan this month when he watched a television news report that Samsung Electronics’s Galaxy Note 7 smartphone was banned on airplanes because it was prone to catching fire.韩国首尔——本月,前韩国教师金正民(Kim Jeong-min,音)在日本成田机场(Narita Airport)看到电视新闻报道称,三星电子(Samsung Electronics)的盖乐世Note 7智能手机(Galaxy Note 7)因容易起火而被禁止带上飞机。Mr. Kim, 58, said he had felt humiliated, as if the non-Koreans in the airport lounge were looking at him.58岁的金正民称,他感到羞愧,好像候机厅里的非韩国人都在看他。Though he does not own a Galaxy Note 7, his reaction was typical of the intense feelings South Koreans hold toward Samsung, the most dramatic corporate success story to emerge from the country’s transformation from a war-torn agrarian nation to a global economic powerhouse.虽然他没有盖乐世Note 7,但他的反应反映出韩国人对三星怀有的典型的强烈感情。三星是这个国家从遭战争破坏的农耕国家转变为全球经济强国过程中出现的最激动人心的商业成功故事。“Whether we like it or not, Samsung is to the global market what our national team is in the Olympics,” Mr. Kim said.“不管我们喜欢与否,三星在全球市场上相当于奥运会上的韩国代表团,”金正民说。Calling Samsung this country’s biggest and most profitable company hardly describes its special (but not always favorable) place in minds here. Some South Koreans say they live in the “Republic of Samsung.”称三星是韩国最大、最赚钱的公司还不足以描述它在韩国人民心中的特殊(但不总是受欢迎的)地位。有些韩国人说他们生活在“三星共和国”。Life can literally begin and end with Samsung: One can be born in a Samsung hospital; attend a Samsung university; honeymoon in a Samsung hotel; stock a Samsung-built apartment with Samsung appliances bought with a Samsung credit card; take children to Samsung amusement parks; and have one’s body, upon death, taken to a Samsung funeral center.一个韩国人的一生可能从头到尾都与三星有关系:他可能出生在三星的一家医院里;上了一所三星的大学;在三星的一家酒店里度蜜月;在三星建的公寓里装满用三星信用卡买的三星电器;带孩子去三星的游乐场;去世后,遗体被运往三星的一家殡仪馆。For South Koreans, the company’s progression from an assembler of clunky transistor radio sets to the world’s leading producer of flat-panel television sets, computer chips and smartphones is a source of national pride. Last year, Samsung accounted for 20 percent of South Korea’s 7 billion in exports. That pride was dented, and economic unease deepened, when Samsung recalled more than three million Note 7 smartphones globally and decided not to produce any more because some devices heated up and burst into flames.对韩国人来说,这家公司从一个装配笨重晶体管收音机的工厂发展成为生产平板电视、电脑芯片和智能手机的世界领先企业是该国的一个骄傲。去年,三星的出口额占韩国5270亿美元的总出口额的20%。因有些设备过热并起火,三星在全球召回300多万部Note 7智能手机,并决定不再生产这款手机,这让韩国人的荣誉感受到伤害,并加深了他们对经济的不安感觉。“This is not just Samsung’s trouble. It’s trouble for the entire economy,” the opposition leader Moon Jae-in, a potential contender in next year’s presidential election, said this month, referring to the Note 7 crisis. “Because people take pride in Samsung as a brand representing South Korea, it is their trouble, too.”“这不只是三星的麻烦。它是整个经济的麻烦,”本月,反对党领导人文在寅(Moon Jae-in) 在提起Note 7的危机时表示。他是明年总统大选的一个潜在竞争者。“因为人们认为三星代表着韩国,为它感到骄傲,所以这也是他们的麻烦。”On Thursday, President Park Geun-hye voiced concern about the Galaxy Note 7 recall’s impact on exports. The economy has taken recent hits from rising unemployment rates and the bankruptcy of Hanjin, a major shipping company. Its shipyards, among the world’s largest, are laying off thousands after posting huge losses because of shrinking orders and competition from lower-cost rivals in China.周四,朴槿惠总统(Park Geun-hye)就盖乐世Note 7的召回对出口的影响表示担忧。最近,该国经济已经因为失业率上升和大型船运公司韩进(Hanjin)的破产而受到打击。该国的造船厂跻身世界最大造船厂之列,但是由于订单减少以及来自中国的低成本对手的竞争,它们出现巨额亏损,导致数以千计的员工下岗。Samsung is the best-known brand name South Korea has ever produced, ranking seventh in the 100 best global brands compiled by Interbrand, a brand consultancy. Its Galaxy smartphones have lifted its — and by extension South Korea’s — high-tech image more than any other Korean product.到目前为止,三星是韩国最著名的品牌,在品牌咨询公司Interbrand选出的全球最佳品牌100强中,三星排名第七。盖乐世智能手机在提升该公司以及该国的高科技形象方面做出了超过其他任何韩国产品的贡献。Having aly overtaken Sony and other Japanese companies it once mimicked, Samsung has grown powerful enough to challenge Apple, an icon of American innovation.三星已经超越它曾经模仿的索尼(Sony)等日本公司,变得非常强大,足以挑战美国创新能力的标志苹果公司(Apple)。To many South Koreans, the Note 7 recall, the biggest ever in the mobile phone industry, is just another painful lesson for Samsung to learn from and pay for — the recall is estimated to cost it .2 billion — in its quest to dominate yet another industry.对很多韩国人来说,Note7的召回只是三星努力在另一个行业占据主导地位的过程中吸取的沉痛教训和付出的沉重代价。此次是手机行业最大规模的召回行动,成本估计高达62亿美元。“All manufacturing companies, including the American and Japanese, make mistakes,” said Park Bo-yeon, 29, who was recently browsing in a handset shop in downtown Seoul where a notice urged customers to hand in Note 7s. “What matters is whether you can learn from them and move on. Samsung always has.”“所有的制造企业,包括美国和日本的,都犯过错误,”29岁的朴宝妍(Park Bo-yeon,音)说。前不久,她在首尔市中心一家手机店里浏览商品。店里贴了一个提示,敦促顾客交回Note 7。“重要的是,是否能够吸取教训,继续前进。三星总能做到这一点。”Ms. Park suspected that the Note 7 fiasco had been overblown by the American news media, which she said looked down on Samsung. She said she was disappointed that Samsung had failed to explain why some Note 7s heated up and caught fire. But she was equally impressed by Samsung’s “courageous decision to terminate the Note 7 before anyone died.”朴宝妍怀疑,美国新闻媒体因为瞧不起三星,过分渲染了Note 7的此次惨败。她说自己对三星没有解释有些Note 7过热并起火的原因感到失望。不过,她也同样很佩三星“在没有出现死亡案例之前决定终止生产Note 7的勇气”。Among South Koreans, though, the name Samsung also evokes greed and secrecy. They often describe the company as a predator that makes profits not so much through innovation as by ruthlessly squeezing its numerous domestic parts suppliers.不过在韩国人眼中,三星这个名字也代表着贪婪和诡秘。他们经常把这个公司形容为掠夺者,它不仅是通过创新获利,更多的是通过无情地压榨国内的众多零件供应商。And Samsung has never shaken off its image as an imitator, though a highly efficient one. (Last year, it was ordered to pay 8 million in damages to Apple for infringing on its iPhone design patents, a case that is now at the ed States Supreme Court.)而且三星从未摆脱模仿者的形象,虽然它是一个非常高效的模仿者(去年,因侵权使用iPhone的设计专利,三星被勒令向苹果赔偿5.48亿美元的损失,目前该案正在美国最高法院审理)。The Note 7 disaster raised more doubt about Samsung’s reputation. It also reminded South Koreans that their export-driven economy depended so heavily on Samsung and a handful of other family-controlled conglomerates, or chaebol, that they often feel it is held hostage to them.Note 7的灾难加深了人们对三星声誉的质疑,也让韩国人再次想到,他们以出口驱动的经济十分强烈地依赖于三星和其他少数几个由家族控制的企业集团(又叫财团),他们经常觉得韩国遭受了这些财团绑架。“The saying that Samsung’s good and bad luck is our country’s good and bad luck is propaganda manufactured by Samsung and media and politicians beholden to it,” said Kim Sang-gyun, 32, who was visiting the same shop as Ms. Park. “Why should I worry about Samsung’s trouble unless I owned a Samsung share or Note 7? And I don’t.”“三星的命运就是我们国家的命运——这是三星以及受惠于它的媒体和政客们宣传出来的,”32岁的金尚坤(Kim Sang-gyun,音)说。和朴宝妍一样,他也是那家手机店的顾客。“如果我没有持有三星的股票或拥有一部Note 7,我为什么要担心三星的麻烦?我不担心。”Samsung is the most successful among the chaebol, which spearheaded South Korea’s industrialization by copying foreign competitors’ products but making them cheaper, better and faster.三星是韩国最成功的财团,它通过仿造外国竞争者的产品并生产出更便宜、更好用、速度更快的产品而领导韩国的工业化进程。China is now using the same model to threaten South Korea in the industries it has dominated through the “fast follower” strategy: shipbuilding, semiconductor and smartphones. South Korea sees itself as in a constant race to catch up with innovators like Apple while struggling to keep a step ahead of Chinese rivals.现在,在韩国通过“快速模仿”战略占据主导地位的行业,中国在以同样的模式威胁韩国,比如在造船、半导体和智能手机领域。韩国认为自己在不断追赶苹果等创新者,同时努力领先于来自中国的对手们。The Note 7 humiliation left many South Koreans wondering whether Samsung — and South Korea in general — is stumbling in that race.Note 7的耻辱让很多韩国人担心,三星以及整个韩国正在那场竞赛中遭遇重挫。“They say Samsung is the strongest among our country’s businesses,” said Mr. Kim, the former teacher. “That’s why its Note 7 failure worries me. It kind of shows our limit.”“他们说三星是我们国家最强大的公司,”曾担任教师的金正民说,“这是Note 7的失败让我担心的原因。它似乎显示出我们的局限性。” /201610/473748 打呵欠有助于醒脑Latest research shows that yawning helps in keeping the brain cool, contradicting the popular belief that yawning promotes sleep and is a sign of tiredness.Yawning involves opening the mouth involuntarily while taking a long, deep breath of air. It is commonly believed that people yawn as a result of drowsiness or weariness because they need oxygen.However, researchers at the University of Albany in New York said their experiments on 44 students showed that drawing in air helps cool the brain and helps it work more effectively.They said that their experiments showed that raising or lowering oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in the blood did not produce that reaction.Study participants were shown s of people laughing, being neutral and yawning, and researchers counted how many times the volunteers responded to their own 'contagious yawns,' reported the online edition of B News.The researchers found that those who breathed through the nose rather than the mouth were less likely to yawn when watching a of other people yawning. This was because vessels in the nasal cavity sent cool blood to the brain.The same effect was found among those who held a cool pack to their forehead, whereas those who held a warm or room-temperature pack yawned while watching the .'Since yawning occurs when brain temperature rises, sending cool blood to the brain serves to maintain optimal levels of mental efficiency,' the authors wrote in the journal Evolutionary Psycology. 最新研究表明,打呵欠有助于保持头脑清醒,这与“打呵欠促使人进入睡眠状态以及是疲倦的一种表现”的普遍看法正好相反。打呵欠使人在不由自主张开嘴的同时,能长长的、深深的吸一口气。普遍看法认为,人们打呵欠是由于困乏或疲倦造成的,因为他们需要氧气。然而,据纽约奥尔巴尼大学的研究人员介绍,他们对44名学生的实验表明,吸入空气有助于醒脑,从而使它更为有效的工作。研究人员称,实验表明,提高或降低血液中氧气和二氧化碳的含量不会导致那种反应。据B新闻网报道,研究人员先让实验对象观看人们大笑、正常状态以及打呵欠的视频,然后计算出志愿者“传染性打呵欠”的次数。研究人员发现,在看别人打呵欠的视频时,用鼻子呼吸的人比用口腔呼吸的人打呵欠的几率要小。这是因为鼻腔里的血管将温度较低的血液送到了脑部。将冰袋敷在前额上也能起到类似的效果,而在观看视频时用暖水袋或室温水袋敷在额头上的人却无法避免打呵欠。这份在《进化生理学》上发表的研究报告提到,“由于脑部温度上升时就会打呵欠,所以将低温血液送至大脑能够保持脑部效率的最佳水平。” /200803/32264石狮市中医院做无痛人流多少钱泉州市治疗月经不调多少钱

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