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思明区最好的胎记医院度优惠同安区腋臭手术哪家好

来源:39常识    发布时间:2019年07月22日 02:00:11    编辑:admin         

四六级资讯 The Relationship between Brain Process with Mental Experi 阅读练习与讲义 -- :55: 来源: The Relationship between Brain Process with Mental Experience  By 1950, the results of attempts to relate brain processes to mental experience appeared rather discouraging. Such variations in size, shape, chemistry, conduction speed, excitation threshold, and the like as had been demonstrated in nerve cells remained negligible in significance any possible correlation with the manifold dimensions of mental experience.  Near the turn of the century, it had been suggested by Hering that different modes of sensation, such as pain, taste and color, might be correlated with the discharge of specific kinds of nervous energy, However, subsequently developed methods of recording and analyzing nerve potentials failed to reveal any such qualitative diversity. It was possible to demonstrate by other methods refined structural differences among neuron types; however, proof was lacking that the quality of the impulse or its conduction was influenced by these differences, which seemed instead to influence the developmental patterning of the neural circuits. Although qualitative variance among nerve rigidly disproved, the doctrine was generally abandoned in favor of the opposing view, namely, that nerve impulses are essentially homogeneous in quality and are transmitted as “common currency” throughout the nervous system. According to this theory, it is not the quality of the sensory nerve impulses that determines the diverse conscious sensations they produce, but, rather, the different areas of the brain into which they discharge, and there is some evidence this view. In one experiment, when an electric stimulus was applied to a given sensory field of the cerebral cortex of a conscious human subject, it produced a sensation of the appropriate modality that particular locus, that is, a visual sensation from the visual cortex, an auditory sensation from the auditory cortex, and so on. Other experiments revealed slight variations in the size, number, arrangement, and interconnection of the nerve cells, but as as psychoneural correlations were concerned, the obvious similarities of these sensory fields to each other seemed much more remarkable than any of the minute differences.  However, cortical as diverse as those of red, black, green and white, or touch, cold, warmth, movement, pain, posture and pressure apparently may arise through activation of the same cortical areas. What seemed to remain was some kind of differential patterning effects in the brain excitation: it is the difference in the central distribution of impulses that counts. In short, Brain theory suggested a correlation between mental experience and the activity of relatively homogenous nerve-cell s conducting essentially homogeneous impulses through homogeneous cerebral tissue. To match the multiple dimensions of mental experience psychologists could only point to a limitless variation in the spatiotemporal patterning of nerve impulses. Vocabulary  1. Up until 1950, efts to establish that brain processes and mental experience are related would most likely have been met with  [A]. vexation. [B]. irritability. [C]. discouragement [D]. neutrality  . The author mentions “common currency” primarily in order to emphasize the______.  [A]. lack of differentiation among nerve impulses in human beings.  [B]. similarities in the views of the scientists.  [C]. similarity of sensations of human beings.  [D]. continuous passage of nerve impulses through the nervous system.  3. Which of the following theories is reinced by the depiction of the experiment in lines —19?  [A]. Cognitive experience manifested by sensory nerve impulses are influenced by the area of the brain stimulated.  [B]. Qualitative diversity in nerve potentials can now be studied more accurately.  [C]. Sensory stimuli are heterogeneous and are greatly influenced by the nerve sensors they produce.  [D]. Differentiation in neural modalities influences the length of nerve transmissions.  . It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following exhibit the LEAST qualitative variation?  [A]. Nerve cells. [B]. Nerve impulses.  [C]. Cortical areas. [C]. Spatial patterns of nerve impulses.  Vocabulary  1. mental experiences 精神感受  . discharge 释放  3. negligible 微小的,可以忽略不计的  . manifold 多种多样的,多方面  5. neuron 神经元细胞  6. neural (中枢)神经的(系统)  7. qualitative diversity 质的多样性,量变的  8. disprove 反驳,反  9. homogeneous 相似的  . sensory nerve 感觉神经  . cortical 外皮的,皮质的  . cerebral cortex 大脑皮层  . locus 地点,区域  . psychoneural 精神神经  . heterogeneous 异源的,异种的,异体的  . spatiotenporal 时空的  难句译注  1. Such variations in size, shape, chemistry, conduction speed, excitation threshold, and the like as had been demonstrated in nerve cells remained negligible in significance any possible correlation with the manifold dimensions of mental experience.  [结构分析] 句型为such…as 可as 具有关系代词作用,此处作从句中had been demonstrated 的主语  [参考译文] 神经细胞中所显示的诸如在尺寸,形状,化学,神经脉冲中传导速度,激发界限等方面的那种变化差异对多方面的精神感受可能有联系来说仍然意义不大  . It was possible to demonstrate by other methods refined structural differences among neuron types; however, proof was lacking that the quality of the impulse or its conduction was influenced by these differences, which seemed instead to influence the developmental patterning of the neural circuits.  [参考译文] 有可能用其他办法来显示神经类型之间细微的结构差异可是,缺乏据实脉冲的或者其脉冲传导的质量受这些差别的影响相反,这种质量看起来它却影响了中枢神经循环的进展模式  3. In one experiment, when an electric stimulus was applied to a given sensory field of the cerebral cortex of a conscious human subject, it produced a sensation of the appropriate modality that particular locus, that is, a visual sensation from the visual cortex, an auditory sensation from the auditory cortex, and so on.  [结构分析] 主从句后面跟解释性同位语:that is ……  [参考译文] 在一个实验中,当电刺激作用于有意识的人体大脑皮层的某个感觉部位,它对这个特定部位产生一种恰如其分的感觉道,也就是说,视觉来自视觉皮层,听觉来自听皮层,以此类推  . Other experiments revealed slight variations in the size, number, arrangement, and interconnection of the nerve cells, but as as psychoneural correlations were concerned, the obvious similarities of these sensory fields to each other seemed much more remarkable than any of the minute differences.  [参考译文] 其他实验揭示了神经细胞在尺寸,数目,排列和相互联结上的细微变化可是,就精神神经相互关系而论,这些感觉部位相互之间明显的相似性似乎比任何细微差异更为明显多  5. In short, Brain theory suggested a correlation between mental experience and the activity of relatively homogenous nerve-cell s conducting essentially homogeneous impulses through homogeneous cerebral tissue.  [参考译文] 总之,大脑理论说明精神感觉和相对相似的神经细胞单位的活动有关系这种活动通过相似的大脑皮层组织传导的基本相似的脉冲  写作方法与文章大意  文章是对“大脑神经活动和精神感受关系的探讨”采用时空写法先从1950年,探索两者关系的结果令人沮丧谈起在临近本世纪转折时期,由赫林提出的不同的感觉态可能和某种神经能量有关经过一系列理论和经验探索,最后得出大脑理论说明神经感受和相对相似的神经细胞单位活动有关的结论这是一种通过相似的大脑结构引导相似脉冲的活动  祥解  1. C. 令人失望见文章的第一句话“到了1950年,大脑活动过程和精神感受有关系的实验结果看起来令人沮丧”  A. 令人恼火 B. 激怒 D. 中立 均不对  . A. 在人的神经脉冲中缺少变异(差别)Common currency 本义是一般通用这里的上下问决定了它的含义“无变异脉冲(普通脉冲)”第二段“虽然神经能量中的质变理论从没有受到严厉的驳斥,但这一学说被普遍放弃,而赞成其对立的观点;那就是:神经脉冲在质量沙锅内基本相似,并作为无变异脉冲(普通脉冲)经神经系统传送”所以普通脉冲就是指神经脉冲无变异,在质量上基本相似  B. 科学家观点上的相似性 C. 人类感觉相似性 D. 神经脉冲连续不断通过神经系统这三项和common currency 无关  3. A. 受刺激的大脑部位影响感觉神经脉冲所显示的认知感受在第二道题译文下面“根据这一理论,不是感觉神经脉冲的质量决定它们所产生的各种有意识的感觉而是由脉冲在大脑中释放的不同部位决定,并且有据明这一论点”见难句译注3  B. 现在对神经潜力的质量变化可以进行更精的研究 C. 感官刺激是异源的,并深受它们所产生的神经感觉(感受器)的影响 D. 神经形态上的差异影响神经传递长度  . B. 神经脉冲这在第题A中译注(即第二段)已有明确的答复“神经脉冲在质量上基本相似……”  A. 神经细胞见难句译注,“有可能用其他办法来显示神经细胞类型之间细微的结构差异” C. 外皮区域(部位) D. 神经脉冲空间模式见难句译注5和本文最后一句“为了和精神感受多样性吻合,心理学家只能指明神经脉冲时空模式上的无限差异”这说明,它不是 “Least qualitative variation.” 讲义。

年(TOEFL)考试词汇辨析:hear see等感官动词用法 --5 :: 来源:qnr  词汇:hear, see etc + object + verb m  1. object + infinitive or -ing m  Hear, see, watch, notice and similar verbs of perception can be followed by object + infinitive (without to) or object + -ing m.  I heard him go down the stairs.  I heard him going down the stairs. (NOT I heard him went down the stairs.)  There is often a difference of meaning. We use an infinitive after these verbs to say that we hear or see the whole of an action or event, and we use an -ing m to suggest that we hear or see an action or event in progress, going on. Compare:  ----- I saw her cross the road. ( As I looked, she crossed it from one side to the other.)  I saw her crossing the road. ( As I looked, she was crossing it - she was in the middle, on her way across)  ----- I once heard him give a talk on Japanese politics.  As I walked past his room I heard him talking on the phone.  ----- Watch me jump over the stream.  I like to watch people walking in the street.  ----- I heard the bomb explode. (NOT I heard the bomb exploding.)  I saw the book lying on the table. (NOT I saw the book lie.....)  A progressive m can suggest repetition.  I saw her throwing stones at the other children.  After can seehear (which refer to actions and events that are in progress), only -ing structure is used.  I could see John getting on the bus. (NOT I could see John get...)  These structures can be used after passive ms of hear and see. In this case, the infinitive has to.  He was never heard to say \'thaks you\' in his life. (NOT He was never heard say....)  Justice must not only be down; it must be seen to be done.  She was seen walking away from the accident  Passive ms of watch and notice are not used in this way.  . possessives not used  After these verbs, possessives cannot be used with -ing ms.  I saw Mary crossing the road. (NOT I saw Mary\'s crossing the road.)  3. object + past participle  In this structure, the past participle has a passive meaning.  I heard my name repearted several times. (My name was repeated.)  Have you ever seen a television thrown through a window?  This idea of \'action or event in progress\' can be given by a progressive m (being + past participle).  As I watched the tree being cut down...  I woke up to hear the bedroom door being opened slowly.  These structures are not possible after passive ms of hear and see.  . look at  Look at can be followed by object+ -ing m, and in American English also by Object + Infinitive  Look at him eating!  Look at him eat! (US) 词汇 动词 感官 词汇 考试 hear TOEFL。

英语能力>英语作文>初二英语作文 庆祝圣诞节英语优秀作文 -- 00:38:30 来源:   Merry Christmas  It was one of the last days bee Christmas, and the as sistants in the large store had their hands full serving eager Christmas shoppers.  At one counter an old lady was choosing gloves red ones her daugher in law, light blue ones her niece, pink ones her grand daughter, green ones her sister and by the time she had found what she wanted, the counter was covered with pairs of all colors and sizes.  When the salesgirl had finally written out the bill and was about to turn to the next customer with a tired voice. "Thank you very much, madam," the old lady suddenly cried out, "Oh, I almost got..."——"Anything else, madam?" said the girl, "Yes," began the old lady, "I'd like to buy another pair, but I' m not quite sure about what exactly I should cloose. I wonder if you could help me." "Certainly, madam", was the girl's reply. The old lady then went on to explain that what she was looking was a pair of gloves a girl of her age. She was not at ail sure what color to choose, and the design was a problem too.  The tired girl did her best to help the old lady make up her mind, showing her ail kinds of gloves.  At last the chosen pair of gloves were wrapped up and paid as well, and as the girl was about to turn to the next customer, the old lady handed her a little parcel and said, "These now, dear, these are you and thank you being so patient. I do hope you have a merry Christmas !"。

1、Individualism is the core of social values in the ed States.。

年经典词汇收藏:年美国大选热门词汇精选 -- :: 来源:qnr  1.red statesblue states(红州蓝州)共和党持率较高的州在大选地图上用红色标示,蓝色则代表民主党  .Two Americas(两个美国)民主党候选人克里在大选中,指责现任总统布什的经济政策导致美国社会出现严重分化克里说他眼里有两个美国:一个富人的美国和一个穷人的美国  3.Incivility(粗野)毫无疑问,这个单词也与美国大选有直接联系,它是许多美国电视员在评价两位总统候选人的三场电视辩论时最常挂在嘴边的一个词  .预选会议(Caucus)特指以促进政治上或组织上的变化为目的的聚会在美国选举政治中,这个词专指在提名总统候选人的过程中,党的地方活动人士举行的会议  所谓"分层"预选会议制,是指政党地方活动人士在地方选区会议上选出参加高一级行政区会议的代表,这一级代表再选出参加州一级会议的代表,最后由州级会议代表选出参加本党全国提名代表大会的代表预选会议制旨在通过选出持某一候选人的代表来表明政党在各州内的党员所希望推举的本党总统候选人这种做法使决定总统候选人的程序始于基层,将总统提名程序民主化  5.燕尾提举力(Coattails)  从旧时绅士长礼后下摆"燕尾"一词引申而来,在美国政治中,指一位在职民选官员或竞选公职的候选人利用自己的声望给本党其他候选人增加胜选机会的能力──好似让别人受其燕尾之提举,顺势走向胜利6.会后弹升(Convention bounce)在共和党或民主党全国代表大会完成总统候选人提名的几天内出现的这位候选人在民意调查中声望上升的现象  7.辩论(Debate)近年在美国政治中,往往指由电视现场传播的总统或副总统候选人间的辩论;他们通过回答媒体或观众的提问来阐述自己和自己政党的立场观点  8. 分掌政府(Divided government)通常指白宫由一个政党控制(即总统是这个党的成员),而国会参、众两院中的至少一院由对立派政党控制(即其成员占多数)的局面这种情形也会出现在州政府,即州长属于一个党,而控制州议会的是另一个党分掌政权是美国政体的常见现象,从历史效果来看,它有利于避免激进的变化,并促使两党政治家在立法提案问题上做出妥协  9.选举团(Electoral College)当美国选民前往投票站投票选举总统时,很多人认为己是在直接选举总统但美国采用的是十八世纪宪法定下的选举团制度,,严格地讲,情况并非如此选举团是一组"选举人"的总称,他们由各州党员在州内提名产生在大选日,选民实际是把票投给承诺持某位总统候选人的"选举人"哪位候选人赢得的选民票数最多,持这位候选人的"选举人"就将作为这个州的代表,出席于月分别在各州州府举行的选举总统和副总统的投票总统候选人必须在全国获得至少70张选举人票方可当选  .联邦选举委员会(Federal Election Commission)负责贯彻和监督执行联邦竞选财务法的独立管理机构,根据对1971年联邦竞选法的197年修正案设立  .前置(Front-loading)在大选进程中,将预选会议预选选举的日期尽量提早的做法,以便使本州的预选有助于给总统提名竞选制造决定性势头,进而对最终政党提名总统候选人产生举足轻重的影响  .领先者(Front-runner)在竞选或提名过程中被认为呼声最高或最有希望当选的候选人  . 硬钱软钱(Hard moneysoft money)  分别代表受联邦竞选财务法约束和不受联邦竞选财务法约束的竞选资金硬钱受法律规定的约束,可用于对竞选结果有影响的活动,也就是为具体候选人作宣传软钱指不在法律管辖内的资金,只可被用于不对联邦竞选产生影响的活动──如动员选民登记、政党建设、行政费用──以及用于州和地方选举中  .赛马(Horse race)以人们观看体育比赛时的激动情绪比喻竞选活动这个词也指媒体对选情的报导,即往往侧重候选人在民意测验中所处的位置──好像他们是场上的赛马──而不是候选人在竞选议题上的立足点  .中期选举(Midterm election)在总统四年任期中间(即接近第二年结束时)进行的国会参议院和众议院选举其结果经常被视为是对总统前两年政绩的全民公决中期选举改选参议院部份席位和众议院全部席位,同时也改选州和地方政府的许多官员[1][] 词汇 词汇 美国 热门 收藏 经典。

There are voters on the electoral rolls.。

   这种时滞现象很难解释,但可能有三个原因。

  (3)分译法。

年英语四级写作范文:大学生出勤率 --01 :00: 来源: 备考时多参考写范文非常重要,下面是小编为大家整理的年英语四级写作范文:大学生出勤率,供各位考生参考   this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic: Attend Your Classes RegularlyYou should write at least 0 words following the outline given below in Chinese.  1. 现在大学校园里,迟到、早退、旷课是常见的现象  . 保学生的出勤率对大学教育的重要性  3. 作为一个大学生应该怎样做  Attend Your Classes Regularly  Nowadays it is a very common phenomenon that some university students are late or even absent from classes. And still there are some students who slip out of the classroom bee the class is over. Class attendance has become a thorny problem to both the students and teachers.  In fact, it is very important the students to attend their classes regularly. First, it will ensure you to catch up with the teachers in your learning. That is very helpful to you if you want to do a good job in your study. Second, attending classes regularly is a way of showing respect to your teachers ,too. Your teachers will feel bad if the students do not attend their classes, which, in turn, will affect their teaching and be no good the students. Third, attending classes regularly will help to m a good habit of punctuality, which is of great importance the students to do a good job in the future.  Theree, we university students should m the good habit of attending our classes regularly from now on. And some day we‘ll benefit from it.  点评:年元月三日,中山大学士发帖称遭导师虐待;年元月四日,中国政法大学爆“杨帆门”事件;近几年,中小学老师或打学生或猥亵学生、体罚学 生等各类新闻不断曝光,进而引发了师生关系的大讨论本范例题为四级考试传统的问题解决型的写作,与校园生活密切相关。

  对于那个:whereto;。