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2019年10月24日 03:50:08|来源:国际在线|编辑:最新新闻
HIV/AIDS艾滋病A spectre returns幽灵般的转机The fall in HIV infections conceals a worrying rise among gay men艾滋病感染率下降安抚了日益惶恐的男同性恋们A TELEVISION campaign in the 1980s showed a volcano exploding and dark clouds looming over a blackened tombstone chiselled with the word AIDS. “Dont die of ignorance”, intoned a grim voice. Panic about the HIV/AIDS epidemic was widesp. Now better treatment, and better understanding of how the virus sps, means that HIV is no longer a death sentence. But amid the good news there is cause for concern; among gay men in Britain infections are rising.20世纪80年代有一个这样的电视画面:火山喷发,乌云密布,天空下一座黑色的墓碑上刻着“AIDS”(艾滋病)字样。一个冰冷的声音反复出现“不要死于无知”。人们对艾滋病的惶恐情绪迅速蔓延。而今改善的医疗技术以及对艾滋病毒传播途径更为详细的理解都使艾滋病不再是死刑的代名词。但是伴随着好消息而来的也有些令人担忧的情况:伦敦男同性恋者中艾滋病感染率上升。According to statistics released on November 18th by Public Health England (PHE), part of the NHS, 110,000 people in Britain were living with HIV in 2013, the highest number ever. But that is cause for celebration. Those infected are living much longer. People are being tested more often and diagnosed sooner. Between 2004 and 2013 new infections among heterosexuals fell by half.11月18日英国全民医疗务下属的英格兰公共卫生部门(PHE)公布的数据表明,2013年伦敦艾滋病毒携带者有110,000人,创下历史新高。但是也有值得庆祝的事情:这些艾滋病毒携带者的寿命将延长。人们接受检测的频率增多,也能更快得到治疗。2004年到2013年异性恋者之间的艾滋病感染新增人数减少了一半。Over the same period, however, the estimated annual number of new infections among men who have sex with men rose by a third, to 3,250. Some 13% of gay men in London are living with HIV. Compare that to San Francisco; the prevalence is higher—fairly static at about 24%—but the rate of new diagnoses is falling. In London, it is rising. This is partly explained by better testing. But reckless behaviour is also to blame.然而,同期相比,男同性恋者中的艾滋病感染新增人数增至3250,增加了三分之一。伦敦13%的男同性恋者携带有艾滋病毒。相比之下的旧金山,患病人数就略高一些—大约保持在24%左右—但新诊断的人数所占比率在下降,而在伦敦,这个数量却有所上升。很大程度上得益于更精准的病情监测。但是轻率地行径同样是病患人数上升的一大祸源。“Chemsex”—taking drugs, especially crystal methamphetamine, GBL, or mephedrone, just before or during sex—is the chief innovation. Such drugs fuel sex binges, enabling people to have sex for longer, risking trauma and abrasion, and with a greater number of partners. Both increase the risk of transmission. The internet makes it easier to meet casual partners. David Stuart of 56 Dean Street, an NHS sexual-health clinic in Soho, says the centre sees around 100 gay men every month who use drugs for sex. Most have not had sober sex in six months, he says.“化学性爱”——在性爱前或性爱后用毒品,尤其是冰毒, 伽玛丁内酯(GBL)或是甲氧麻黄酮——是主要的诱因。此类药物刺激性欲,延长人们性爱时间,与大量的同伴性爱更易造成外伤和擦伤,二者都增加了艾滋病传播的几率。网络让人们更容易接触到随意的性爱伙伴。迪恩街56号英国全民医疗务性爱健康诊疗中心的大卫·斯图尔特说,该中心每月大概会接待100位借助药物进行性爱的男同性恋。大多数在最近的六个月内都是药性爱。Cultural shifts may also be to blame. For some, fear of HIV may manifest itself in avoidance of the subject, via drugs and escapism, says Mr Stuart. But Amrou al-Kadhi, a magazine editor and drag performer, frets that others are in denial. Treatment has so improved that some assume they no longer need worry. He worries that some men treat post-exposure prophylactics like the morning-after pill. (Such medicine may stop infection if taken straight after exposure to HIV.) There is a divide, he suggests, between older gay men, who saw the horrors of the AIDS epidemic, and the young, who seem more complacent.文化观念的转变也是一个原因。斯图尔特表示,对一些人来说,借着毒品和逃避现实,对HIV的恐慌更可能使它变为一个逃避话题。。但是杂志编辑兼戏剧演员Amrou al-Kadhi担心其他人不肯接受现实。由于当前医疗技术进步不小,有人会认为无需担忧。他担心有些人将做爱后预防药看的跟避药似的,尽管此类药物可能会预防直接暴露于艾滋病后的感染。他建议,经历过艾滋病蔓延的年长男同性恋者和比较自满的年轻人需要分别对待。Analysis by Colin Brown, a research fellow at PHE, suggests that testing may not be as widesp as some believe. In 2011, 58% of gay men in Britain said they had been tested for HIV within the past year. But figures from sexual-health clinics in the capital suggest that 20% or less of HIV-negative gay men there get tested every year, half the rate in San Francisco. That city has seen a steeper decline in the proportion of those infected but unaware of it—who are most likely to infect others—than London has.英格兰公共卫生部门(PHE)的研究员科林·布朗表明测试并不如大家所料的那样普遍。2011年,英国51%的男同性恋表明在过去的一年里做过艾滋病体检。但伦敦性爱健康诊所的数据表明只有20%甚至更低的艾滋病阴性的男同性恋者每年接受艾滋病测试,仅占旧金山的一半。较于伦敦,旧金山感染人数的比例—这些感染人群更易传染他人—已经骤降,但旧金山却并未意识到。Better treatments leave campaigners with a dilemma. They want to see transmissions decline and promote behaviour that minimises risk. But they also want to reassure those who contract HIV that they can still live a long life. Some gay men appear to have taken the second message to heart at the expense of the first.较高的医疗水平让艾滋病活动者进退两难。他们既想降低艾滋病的感染率,又想宣传降低感染风险的行为。但是他们也想确保那些已感染了艾滋病毒的人们活的更久些。有一部分同性恋因为关注了那些宣传行为而感染了艾滋病。译者:毛慧 校对:张娣译文属译生译世 /201412/346872He was praised for trying to restore Germanys greatness and, in the process, spending enormous sums on the Germany military.他因致力德国伟大复兴而受到褒扬,同时他在德国军力上投入大量资金。Hitler came to be seen as a leader far above the squabbles of everyday life.希特勒被看作成超凡脱俗的领导人。As a result, it became possible for Germans to dislike particular Nazis they dealt with,and yet still respect Hitler.德国人有可能讨厌纳粹分子,但仍旧尊敬希特勒。There is great sympathy amongst the population for the Fuehrer and Reich Chancellor, Adolf Hitler.德国人民极度认可国家元首,德意志帝国总理,希特勒。I have never heard any negative comment directed at his own person.我从未听过针对他的负面言论。Rather, one hears now and then,yes, if Hitler could do everything himself,;some things would be different.然而经常听到人们说,若希特勒能身体力行,结果会截然不同。But he cant keep a watch on everything.但他不可能亲自过问每件事。This myth that if Hitler only knew about unpopular aspects of the Nazi regime,he would change them,was a safety valve in the system,one that protected Hitlers image as a charismatic leader.若希特勒知道,纳粹体制中不尽人意之处,他肯定有所作为,这种烟幕是此体制的安全阀,维护着希特勒卓越的领袖形象。 译文属201512/416602

Drugs policy“毒品”政策Marijuana milestone大麻合法化的里程碑Almost half of American states have taken steps to legalise cannabis. The federal government should follow美国几乎一半的洲都已经步入了大麻合法化的大门。联邦政府也应该紧随大流。BESIDES choosing lawmakers, on November 4th voters in three American states and the District of Columbia considered measures to liberalise the cannabis trade. Alaska and Oregon, where it is legal to provide “medical marijuana” to registered patients, voted to go further and let the drug be sold and taken for recreational purposes, as Colorado and Washington state aly allow. In DC, a measure to legalise the possession of small amounts for personal use was passed. A majority of voters in Florida opted to join the lengthening list of places where people can seek a doctors note that lets them take the drug. However, the measure fell just short of the 60% needed to change the state constitution. Even so, that such a big state in the conservative South came so close to liberalising shows how Americas attitude to criminalising pot has changed.除了选择国会议员,11月4日美国三大洲以及哥伦比亚地区的选民们考虑开放大麻自由贸易。在阿拉斯加和俄勒冈对已注册病人提供“医用大麻”是合法的,他们希望像科罗拉多和华盛顿已经实行的一样,可以通过投票进一步的允许买卖以及用途。在华盛顿,把私人拥有少量大麻作为权衡合法化的标准提议已经被通过。弗罗里达的大多数选民们希望越来越多的地方可以遵医嘱使用医用大麻。然而,这种方法还是没有成功,毕竟需要60%选民的赞成来改变宪法。即便如此,在保守的南方如此一个大洲差一点就通过议案,显示了美国对毒品罪的定义已经发生了改变。After this weeks votes only 27 states outlaw all sale or possession of marijuana. In the rest, a thriving “canna-business” is emerging: trade in the drug is escaping the grasp of organised crime and becoming normal, just as alcohol did after the end of Prohibition. But even as moves to legalise and regularise the business continue at state level, the federal government and Congress remain dead set against the drug. A panoply of federal laws to curb the marijuana trade remain in place; and in recent months the Drug Enforcement Administration has raided cannabis dispensaries in California that are operating under state licences.经过一个星期的选举,仅仅有27个洲禁止出售或拥有大麻。在剩下的洲,“大麻事业”蒸蒸日上:正如酒精被解禁后一样,毒品交易从有组织的犯罪变为正常现象。但是尽管州级政府循规蹈矩的进行大麻交易,但联邦政府和国会仍然坚决反对毒品。完善的联邦法律时刻准备着遏制大麻交易。最近几个月美国禁毒局搜查了加利福利亚在政府许可下经营的大麻药房。The cannabis industry is now in a legal no-mans-land. In some states the distinction between medical and recreational use is hazy: just fake a back problem and you can join the ranks of licensed pot-heads. Entrepreneurs are creating a range of products that is, literally, mind-blowing: not just smokes, but cannabis cakes, chocolates and massage oils. Yet even where state governments allow people to partake of the weed for pleasure, growers and sellers face the constant threat of seizure or arrest by the Feds. National laws make it hard for them to open bank accounts or get credit, and thus to rent premises or invest in production. They cannot sell across state lines.大麻产业正处于合法和非法的灰色地带。在一些洲,医用和用处界限模糊不清,只要声称背痛就可以当合法的“瘾君子”。企业家们正生产一系列产品,美其名曰:让人兴奋:不仅仅是大麻烟,还有大麻蛋糕,巧克力和大麻油。然而即使在那些政府允许人们享用大麻的地方,种植者和售卖者仍要面对联邦政府一系列的威胁或逮捕危险。联邦法律让他们很难在开户或贷款来租用场地或进行投资生产。他们也不能跨界销售。This makes it harder for the business to distance itself from the criminal underworld, which is one of the main purposes of legalisation. It also has safety implications. Smaller states will struggle to monitor quality standards and set safe doses for the huge variety of marijuana products coming to market. The federal Food and Drug Administration—the worlds foremost regulator of drug safety—refuses to inspect the cottage industry for fear of legitimising it. (Strangely enough, such qualms do not deter the Internal Revenue Service, which ily taxes the proceeds.)这让大麻商业更难从地下黑市脱离出来,这也是使之合法化的主要原因之一。同样还有安全剂量监控。较小的洲应该加强对质量标准的监控,并且对大量涌入市场的各式各样的大麻产品设置安全剂量标准。联邦食品和药物—是世界上最具权威的药品安全监督机构,拒绝检查这种家庭式产业,以防其合法化。(奇怪的是,这些疑虑仍然没有阻止国家税务局对该行业实行税收的脚步)Marlboro, man万宝路和人Opponents of legalisation are happy to see the business stay small, amateurish and nervous. They argue that if it got into the hands of giant corporations with big marketing budgets, as tobacco and alcohol have, pot use would surge. However, the weed business is aly vast—worth some 40 billion by one estimate—and it is largely in the hands of gangs that, unlike big, stockmarket-listed firms, would not hesitate to sell dodgy stuff, to youngsters as well as adults. A legal, well-regulated pot industry would be a safer, less crime-infested one, but it would not necessarily be a bigger one: tobacco use has plunged as regulation has been tightened and public education about its health risks has improved.反对其合法化的民众们很乐意看到大麻商业无法扩大,无法专业化,永远暗无天日。他们认为就如香烟和酒一样,如果让拥有大市场份额的公司参与进来,那么大麻的消费将剧增。然而,大麻商业已经是巨大的,有人估计大约价值四百亿美元,而其中大部分是掌握在那些团伙手中,不像大的上市公司一样,他们会毫不犹豫的将劣质产品卖给年轻人和成人。良好的合法监督将有利于提供一个更安全的产业环境,少一些犯罪,而不是不可避免的扩大。随着监管的不断加强,关于大麻对健康危害的公共教育不断提高,香烟的消费也会骤减。The federal government and Congress should face up to the reality that across swathes of America, pot is now all but legal—and voters want it that way. They should redirect their efforts to making it as well-regulated as booze and cigarettes.联邦政府和国会应该面对现实,在辽阔的美国土地上,大麻已经站稳脚跟,只等其合法化,这也是选民的意愿。他们应该调转船头,改变策略,像管理酒和香烟一样好好管理大麻。译者:黄梅 译文属译生译世 /201412/346121

Thank you so much! Thank you so much!Hi! Thank you so much!Oh boy! Thanks so much!Yeah! Right? Okay. Have a seat.Thanks so much! That is so nice of you.谢谢 谢谢大家 谢谢你们 非常感谢 好的 大家请坐 很感谢大家 你们真好Back at you. I feel the same way,about all of you, each everyone of you,thanks so much.我也爱你们 爱你们每一个人 谢谢大家I think I wave too, just about all of you.I am pretty sure.Any closer, and than it is weird.我也在对你们招手 我很肯定 再近一点就会很奇怪了Its... You can wave from this far,and then but if you get too close,its so weird to wave to something just like that.这么远招手很正常 要是距离太近了 会感觉怪怪的Suppose to be waving. I think its 6 feet, thats the rule.I dont know.合适的招手距离 我觉得是六英尺 我也不知道Boy, oh boy, its nice outside, its spring.You can tell its spring.外面天很好 春天到了 你能看出来是春天I am seeing the signs everywhere in Los Angeles.洛杉矶到处都能看到 春天的迹象The grass is turning from greenish-brown to brownish-green.草地从绿棕色 变成了棕绿色So,here is what I want to talk about today.所以说 这就是我今天的话题You know what I wanna talk about?Well, cant tell you. Its mystery.你们知道话题是什么吗 才不告诉你 这是秘密I love a good mystery, do you?Dont tell me, its a mystery.我喜欢有趣的秘密 你们呢 别告诉我 这是秘密Our story began two weeks ago,it was a simpler time.故事发生在两周前 那是纯真年代Zayn was still in One Direction,and Indiana you can still have a pizza at weddings.泽恩还在单向乐队 在印第安纳州 你还能在婚礼上吃披萨It was Tuesday evening.The Mrs and I were in the our parlor, and we were ing.那是在星期二的晚上 太太和我在起居室 我们在看书By parlor, I mean living room.By ing, I mean watching Netflix.起居室的意思是 客厅 阅读的意思是 看网飞剧 /201602/428337

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