青岛激光祛痘价格服务咨询

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Science and technology科学技术Combating addiction打击毒瘾Can a vaccine stop drug abuse?疫苗能阻止药物滥用吗?It may be possible to vaccinate people against addictive drugs人们也许能通过疫苗来阻止成瘾药物的使用THE idea of vaccinating drug addicts against their affliction is an intriguing one.对药物滥用者进行免疫来对抗他们受到的折磨是一个吸引人的课题。In principle, it should not be too hard.原理上,这应该不会太难。The immune system works, in part, by making antibodies that are specific to particular sorts of hostile molecule.免疫系统可以部分参与产生那些针对某些有害分子的抗体。Such antibodies recognise and attach themselves to these molecules, rendering them harmless.这些抗体可以识别并与那些有害分子结合,使他们变成对身体无害的物质。Vaccines work by presenting the immune system with novel targets,疫苗则是通过向免疫系统提供新的靶物质的方法起作用的,so that it can learn to react to them if it comes across them again.因此当免疫系统再次遇到这些物质时,它就会知道该如何作出反应。The problem is that the molecules antibodies recognise and react to are the big ones,问题是抗体能识别和做出反应的分子是大分子,such as proteins, that are characteristic of bacteria, viruses and other infectious agents.比如蛋白质,这是细菌,病毒和其他致病原的特征。Small molecules, such as drugs, go unnoticed.小分子,如毒品,就不被识别了。But not for much longer, if Kim Janda of the Scripps Research Institute in San Diego has his way.如果位于圣迭戈斯克里普斯研究所的金-简达有解决办法的话,这种情况就能结束了。In a paper just published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society,在刚出版的一期《美国化学会会志》中,Dr Janda and his colleagues suggest how a vaccine against methamphetamine, a popular street drug, might be made.简达士在一篇论文中指出了一种对抗街上常见药-甲基苯丙胺的疫苗可以被合成的方法。If their method works, it would open the possibility of vaccinating people against other drugs, too.如果他们的方法凑效的话,那将使给人们注射疫苗来对抗其他药物成瘾成为可能。The idea of a methamphetamine vaccine is not new.甲基苯丙胺疫苗的想法并非什么新鲜事。The problem is getting the immune system to pay attention to a molecule that is such a small target.问题在于要使免疫系统对如此小的目标做出反应。The way that has been tried in the past is to build the vaccine from several components.之前曾尝试过的方法是利用几种物质共同构建疫苗。First, there is a large carrier protein that forms a platform for the target.首先,要有一个大的载体蛋白来构成给靶物质的平台。Then there is the target itself, a set of smaller molecules called haptens that are attached to the carrier.然后是与载体结合的靶物质本身,他们是一组叫做半抗原的较小的分子。These may either be the drug in question or some analogue of it that,这些小分子可以是目标药物或其它一些类似物,for one reason or another, is reckoned to have a better chance of training the immune system.他们有这样或那样的理由被认为能够更好地锻炼免疫系统。Finally, there is a chemical cocktail called an adjuvant that helps get the immune system to pay attention to the carrier protein and the haptens.最后,有一种叫做佐药的鸡尾酒帮助免疫系统对载体蛋白和半抗原做出反应。Dr Janda noticed that past experiments on methamphetamine vaccines had all revolved around tweaking either the carrier protein or the adjuvant,简达士意识到过去对甲基苯丙胺的实验中,疫苗一直在周旋,使载体蛋白或佐药发生扭曲,rather than tinkering with the haptens.而非与半抗原互补。He thought he might be able to change that, on the basis of work he had carried out previously, trying to design a vaccine against nicotine.他觉得基于之前所展开的工作,他有能力改善那种情况,并尝试设计出一种对抗尼古丁的疫苗。In particular, nicotine is a highly flexible molecule.尼古丁是一种尤其高活性的分子。That makes it hard for the immune system to recognise.这使得免疫系统难以识别它。To overcome this, his team on the nicotine project had to work out how to fix their haptens to the carrier protein in a way that rendered them less capable of twisting and turning, and thus made them easier for the immune system to identify.为了克这个问题,他的尼古丁项目的团队必须使他们的半抗原以一种特定方式与载体蛋白结合,从而使得这些蛋白不易扭曲反转,从而让免疫系统更容易识别。In the new study, Dr Janda and his colleagues report that they have performed a similar trick with methamphetamine haptens.在一篇新的研究中,简达士和他的同事指出他们用类似的方法处理甲基苯丙胺半抗原。They used computer models to visualise the haptens in three dimensions and thus work out how the molecules could be rearranged such that they could not spring,他们利用电脑模型来展现三维半抗原并解决了分子重新排布的问题,twist or turn when being examined by the immune system.使他们在免疫系统检查时无法弹出,扭曲,旋转。In light of this information they designed six new methamphetamine-like haptens.在该办法的启发下,他们设计出6种新的甲基苯丙胺样的半抗原。Once built, they attached the new hapten molecules to carrier proteins, mixed them with adjuvant, injected the results into mice and waited.一旦构建完成,他们把这些新的半抗原分子结合到载体蛋白上,并与佐药混合,注射进小鼠体内,等待结果。After several weeks they tested the mice to see if the animals’ blood contained antibodies to methamphetamine.数周后他们检测小鼠血液内是否含有甲基苯丙胺的抗体。Of the six new haptens, three successfully provoked the mice to make such antibodies.在6种新的半抗原中,其中3种成功刺激小鼠产生这些抗体。As a bonus, one of those three also stimulated the production of antibodies against another widely used drug, amphetamine.另外有一个意外收获,在那3种当中有一种可刺激产生另一种广泛使用的药物--苯丙安的抗体。That is still a long way from providing a working vaccine,虽然距离能够供应疫苗的日子还有很长一段路要走,but it is an important step forward.但这是前进中重要的一步。And if human immune systems react in the same way to the new vaccines as murine ones do,如果人类免疫系统对新疫苗的反应机制就像鼠科动物那样的话,the day when a drug addict might be offered vaccination rather than opprobrium will have come a little closer.药物成瘾的人获得的是疫苗而非外界辱骂的这一天的来临就更近了。 /201305/240980

Books and arts文艺Bookreview书评Civil liberties公民自由Robocops机械战警Rise of the Warrior Cop: The Militarisation of Americas Police Forces. By Radley Balko.《战警的崛起:美国警力军事化》RADLEY BALKOS writing has long been by people who care about civil liberties.Radley Balko长期以来撰写公民自由类的文章,对这方面感兴趣的读者一定有所耳闻。First for the Cato Institute, a libertarian think-tank, then for his own blog, “The Agitator”, now part of the Huffington Post, he has written about criminal-justice policy, with a focus on police abuses: not corruption so much as the excesses that have become inherent in ordinary policing.他先供职于有美国自由者智囊团称号的卡托研究所,然后专心撰写自己的客“煽动者”。现在,他是赫芬顿邮报的一名记者,撰写罪犯公正政策类的文章,主要切入点为警察的虐待问题,相对于腐败来说,这个问题是一般执法中固有的问题,而且十分普遍。Mr Balko manages to avoid the clichés of both right and left, and provokes genuine outrage at the misuse of state power in its most brutal and unaccountable form.Balko成功地绕过了左派或右派的陈词滥调,激起民众对公共权力滥用的深刻愤慨。这种渎职行为是极为残酷且无法量化的。Heavily armed police raiding the homes of unarmed, non-violent suspects on the flimsiest of pretexts, and behaving more like an occupying army in hostile territory than guardians of public safety.全副武装的警察闯进手嫌疑犯的家里,这些人无缚鸡之力,仅仅是因为警方臆想的罪责就被当做凶残的恐怖分子一样。这些警察全然没有公共卫士的形象。“Rise of the Warrior Cop”, Mr Balkos interesting first book, explains what policies led to the militarisation of Americas police.Balko第一本有意思的书名为“战警的崛起”,书中介绍了什么样的政策导致了美国警察的军事化。To his credit, he focuses his outrage not on the police themselves, but on politicians and the phoney, wasteful drug war they created.他在书中表示,他并不对警察本身感到愤怒,而是对政治家和制造了无用的毒品战的骗子们感到愤怒。After the obligatory backward glances to the colonial era—in which the sort of social shaming possible only in small, homogeneous communities obviated the need for standing police forces—and the American civil war, Mr Balkos story really begins with the Supreme Courts 1963 ruling in Ker v California, which allowed the police to enter someones home without a warrant and without knocking or announcing themselves.作者必要地回顾了一下殖民地时期,在当时,战警的现象还只是存在于小而均匀的社区中,为的是消除常规警力的必要。同时,书中还回顾了美国的内战时期。而Balko真正要记叙的则是从1963年最高法院的建立开始的。当时的最高法院坐落于加州,法院允许警察不经批准进入居民家中,他们甚至不需要敲门或提前通知。That was the first in a long series of rulings that gutted the Fourth Amendments protection against unreasonable searches and seizures.这是漫长统治时期中第一个破坏第四修正案中保护无正当理由搜查和逮捕条款的做法。The social upheaval of the 1960s caught the attention of ambitious politicians and led them to focus on crime.1960年的社会动荡使得雄心勃勃的政治家们开始关心并关注犯罪。Daryl Gates, then a rising star in the Los Angeles Police Department, created Americas first SWAT team in 1965.达瑞尔盖兹,当时为洛杉矶警察局轰动一时的新星,他于1965年首创了美国第一特警队。Richard Nixon ran successfully for president on a law-and-order ticket in 1968, bolstered by a “Silent Majority” which, in Mr Balkos view, “began to see a link between drugs, crime, the counter-culture and race”.理查德?尼克松因宣扬严肃法纪,在“沉默的大多数”的持下,于1968年成功当选总统,在Balko看来,也正是那时,当权者看到了“毒品、犯罪、反文化、种族和犯罪的联系”。Ronald Reagan made Nixons drug policies tougher.罗纳德?里根上台后,继续强化尼克松的毒品政策。He dramatically increased both federal involvement in combating drugs and asset forfeiture, which allows law enforcement to seize goods and property believed to be used in crime or, more controversially, purchased with the proceeds of crime.他在抗击毒品和财产没收中大大增加了联邦的干涉权,这就允许执法能够掌握牵涉到犯罪的商品和财产,更乃至犯罪过程中获得的财物。This gave the police an incentive to find connections between property and drug activity, often at the expense of more serious crimes.这更加激励警察们去寻找财产和毒品活动之间的联系,而这样的寻找往往伴随着更多的恶性犯罪。As Mr Balko notes, “Closing a rape or murder case didnt come with a potential kickback to the police department. Knocking off a mid- or low-level drug dealer did.”正如Balko 说的,对警局来说,结束一宗强奸案或谋杀案并没有潜在利益可图,打击一起中低等的毒品交易商才是利益之源。Financial incentives also came through drug-war grants and, after the attacks of September 11th 2001, homeland-security grants that allowed police departments to buy surplus military hardware of dubious utility.资金激励的来源也正是这些毒品案,2001年9月11日的毒品案告破后,警局用获得的本土安全的奖金购买了一大堆不知道什么用的军事硬件。Fargo, North Dakota, has received m in grants to buy goodies such as an armoured truck with a rotating turret—used “mostly for show, including at the annual city picnic, where police parked it near the childrens bouncy castle”.法戈,北达科他州获得了800万美元的奖励,购买了设有旋转炮的装甲车等物品。多数被用来显摆,无论是一年一度的城市野餐还是其他地方,他们一定会停在孩子的充气城堡边。Mr Balko is adept, in “Rise of the Warrior Cop”, at finding outrageous examples of SWAT-team misuse, such as deploying heavily armed police to break up small-stakes poker games, raid fraternity parties suspected of serving alcohol to underage patrons and arrest barbers for operating without licences.Balko是个内行,在“战警的崛起”一书中找到了大量特警队滥用职权的案例。例如,他们调用全副武装的警察来取缔小赌注的扑克赛,因为怀疑慈善晚会向未成年人提供酒类而突袭晚会,以无照经营的名义逮捕理发店员。But he is too dismissive of arguments that stricter policing may have helped produce the remarkable drop in Americas crime rate.但是他严重忽视了一点,就是在这样严苛的政策下,美国的犯罪率确实有了显著下降。Thanks to his book, Americans will be more aware of the costs of those methods.也正是因为他的这本书,美国人更加注意到了这些方法带来的副作用。But they—and he—should also consider possible benefits.但是他和这些人都应该考虑到这些政策也是有所裨益的。 /201404/285513

Most people will agree they cannot remember much, if anything, prior to around age four. 大部分人都很难回忆起四岁以前的事情。What is remembered often comes in ;spot; images, floating in an otherwise gray area of uncertainty. 能记得东西都是来自于一些影像点,漂浮在不确定的灰色区域里。Yet when we look at a two or three year-old,perception and basic cognition appear to be in place and to have been functioning for a good long while. Why are those years lost to us?但是当我们看一个两,三岁的小孩子时,感觉和基本认知都已经形成并且发挥作用有一段时间了。为什么我们那些年的记忆却消失了呢?One possibility is that memory in humans requires a narrative context. ;Narrative context; means that it isnt enough to provide, say, a random visual image to the brain in order for it to form a working memory: 一种可能性是人类的记忆需要一个叙事语境。但“叙事语境”也不是什么都能提供,或者说,大脑中的任意的一个片段都能产生一个流动的记忆:the image needs to be put in place alongside a number of other images, with which it helps to establish a pattern. 这种影像需要被置于一系列的影像中,这样才足以建立一个图景。The very first time you see a tree, your brain cant do anything with it yet ---the information may simply be stored until it can be connected to other things, such as the back yard where you saw it, its size and color, or events of significance that occurred at the same time. 你第一次看见大树的时候,你的大脑可能不会做出任何反应——但到你下次再看见类似的东西的时候,这种印象又会蹦出来。例如,你曾经见过的后院,随之后院的面积,颜色,还有一切相关的事物都会同时出现。Once enough relationships are in place, it then becomes possible to remember -- not just ;tree; as an abstraction, but ;the big green tree I saw when I was walking this morning behind the house.;一旦足够的关系是到位时,它就变成了可能记住——不仅仅是“树”作为一种抽象概念,而是“大青翠树我走路的时候我看到今天早上在他的房子后面。”Learning words probably aids in this process, but is not strictly necessary. Still, the brain may provide context for memories by telling itself miniature stories, complete with setting, characters, and relationships. 在这个过程中可能会学到东西,但并不一定是必须。尽管如此,大脑可以联系前后关系进行记忆,从而完成与背景,人物,和人际关系的缩影。According to this idea, early childhood events occur at a time before we have developed enough narrative skills to tell the stories necessary for the formation of memories. 由此看来,早期无法回忆的童年往事,往往发生在我们还不具备充分的、能够阐述情节以构成记忆的技能之前。No narrative context, no long-term memory -- end of story. 没有叙事背景,没有长期记忆——故事结束。 201308/253540Italys parliament意大利议会High-class errand boys高级务生Parliamentary workers are facing a cut in their generous pay议会的工作人员们面临着丰厚薪水削减的窘境。Gold braid and a golden job 金色穗带与金饭碗TO EARN 136,000 (1,590), a browse of the internet suggests, you need to be an IT operations director at a British firm, governor of New York state—or an usciere (usher) in the Italian parliament. An uscieres duties include carrying messages, accompanying visitors and looking dignified in uniforms laden with gold braid. The sole occupational hazard is of a punch in the eye while intervening in the occasional brawl between lawmakers.在网友们的心目中,如果想要赚取136,000,你需要成为英国公司里的TI运营主管,或者纽约州的州长,抑或意大利国会里的招待员。国会招待员的指责包括收发信息,游客陪同以及身着缀着金色穗带的制以保持高贵庄严的形象。而这个职业唯一的职业病就是在国会议员们偶尔争吵上去劝架的时候会被误伤打成乌眼青。Now, however, the uscieri face a second danger: a cut in their salaries. In May, Matteo Renzis government put a 240,000 cap on annual public-sector earnings. That will directly affect “only” about 130 of Italys 2,300 parliamentary employees. But other salaries are to be reduced to keep pay differentials the same. Earnings of an usher nearing retirement are expected to drop over a three-year period from 136,000 to a miserly 100,000-105,000.现如今,这些国会招待员们面临着第二个危机,他们工资的削减问题。今年五月,伦齐政府在年度公共部门收入上仅仅投入了240,000。这意味着2300名国会雇佣员工中“只有”130名会受到影响。然而其他人的薪水也会被削减,以保薪酬差异一致。一名临近退休的招待员在三年之内很可能从 136,000 降到吝啬的100,000-105,000。Last month several hundred parliamentary workers besieged a meeting of deputies who had gathered to agree on a draft plan. As the deputies left, they encountered a barrage of ironic applause and shouts of “Didnt touch your own salaries, did you?” This unprecedented scene was a foretaste of the difficulties Mr Renzi faces as he attempts to take on entrenched interests in Italian society.上个月,数百名国会工作人员包围住一群正在开会拟定计划草案的国会议员。当议员们离开的时候,讽刺的掌声与嘘声此起彼伏:“没能波及自己的薪水是不是很开心?”这种前所未有的场面预示着伦齐先生改革意大利社会的既得利益时将压力山大。The speaker of the lower house reminded the protesters that beyond Montecitorio, the palace housing the chamber, there was a real country—one where more than a decade of economic stagnation has reduced real GDP per person to the level of 1998. Inside parliament, years of long service have kept salaries rising inexorably. Figures leaked to a television reporter last year showed that most parliamentary workers could expect their salaries to quadruple in real terms over a 40-year career.下议院发言人提醒抗议者,在蒙地奇拖利欧的宫殿外才是真正的意大利,超过十年经济停滞,实际人均GDP已经降至1998年的水平。在国会内,常年的务使得国会内工作人员的薪水疯狂上涨。一些人告诉电视台的记者,在去年,多数的国会工作人员有望当工龄超过四十年的时候,自己的薪水可以涨到目前水平的三倍。“The justification for all this is a word, ‘autodichia, the doctrine that says parliament should have total freedom to manage itself so it does not come under pressure from the government,” says Sergio Rizzo, co-author of “La Casta”, a best-selling book on the privileges of Italys political class. Talks between the government and the trade unions representing the uscieri will take place in the next few weeks. Theyll need a big table: there are 11 unions who have members working in the lower house and 14 in the Senate.而这一切的理由全都是一个字眼,“autodichia”,即国会应该有完整的自由来自我管理,只有这样它才不会受到来自政府的压力。意大利政治阶级权贵们的畅销书La Casta的合编者Sergio Rizzo如是说。政府与代表招待员们的谈判联盟应该在未来几周进行对话。他们需要一个大的平台,因为有11个工会联盟都有来自下议院的工作者并且有14名成员是来自参议院。 /201408/321410Diarmuid:Hi Jean. You look very pleased with yourself today.戴拉蒙德:嗨,珍。你今天看起来很高兴。Jean:Hi Diarmuid.珍:嗨,戴拉蒙德。I am in a very good mood today.我今天心情很好。Diarmuid:Whys that then?戴拉蒙德:怎么了?Jean:Well, Ive had some good news.珍:哦,我有些好消息。Diarmuid:Really, whats happened?戴拉蒙德:真的,发生什么了?Jean:Ive been given a promotion and a pay rise.珍:我得到了晋升和加薪。Diarmuid:Result!戴拉蒙德:结果!Jean:Sorry?珍:对不起?Diarmuid:I said… result!戴拉蒙德:我说…结果!Jean:Result?珍:结果?Diarmuid:Thats right, result. R.E.S.U.L.T.戴拉蒙德:没错,就是结果。R e s u l t。We can use it when we get some good news.当我们有些好消息的时候就可以用它。Jean:But why do we use this when we get good news?珍:可是当我们有好消息为什么用这个?A result could be good or bad.一个结果可能是或好或坏。Diarmuid:Very true Jean.戴拉蒙德:完全正确,珍。A result could be a good result or a bad result, thats why we need to use intonation when we use this word in this way.一个结果可能或好或坏,这就是为什么我们以这种方式使用这个词的时候需要使用语调。Jean:So you need to say result with a particular intonation?珍:那照你所说要结果与特定的语调相关?Diarmuid:Yes, you need to say it in such a way that you sound excited and happy.戴拉蒙德:是的,你需要以这样一种方式来表达你听起来兴奋和快乐。Lets hear some examples:让我们听一些例子: 201310/259214

Our sense of smell can have a large impact on how we think and feel.我们的嗅觉对我们的思维和感觉能够产生很大影响。But did you know that mood can affect how we smell?但你知道吗,心情也是能够影响嗅觉的。According to a study by researchers at the University of Wisconsin Madison, feeling anxious can make typically neutral smells seem repugnant.根据威斯康星麦迪逊大学研究人员的一份报告显示,焦虑的心情能够让典型的中性气味变得刺鼻。The study involved a dozen volunteers who rated a panel of neutral smells.该项研究邀请了12名志愿者并让他们辨别一组中性气味。Then, while inside an MRI machine, subjects were made to feel anxious with disturbing images of car crashes and grisly war scenes.然后通过向他们播放撞车和可怕的战争场景图像来使他们产生焦虑的情绪,并用核磁共振仪进行观察。They were then asked to rank the panels of neutral smells once again.接着,志愿者们被要求再次对这组中性气味进行辨别。But now, after having been made anxious by the images, they described some of the smells as negative.但是由于之前看到的影片产生了焦虑感,他们这次则表示闻到的气体是刺鼻的。MRI revealed that during induced anxiety, the smell related circuits of the brain became intertwined with the brains emotional circuitry.核磁共振结果显示,由于心情焦虑,大脑中跟嗅觉有关的回路跟情绪相关的回路产生了交织。Normally, those circuits dont interact much, but when the subjects were anxious, the circuits morphed into something like a unified network, essentially rewiring the brain.正常情况下,这些回路并不会发生太多的互动,但是当人体变得焦虑时,这两种回路就会变成一个看似交织在一起的网络,本质上来说就是对大脑的回路进行了重组。And somehow, that rewiring affected how the subjects interacted with theworld through smell.而且,不知何故,这种改变影响了志愿者通过嗅觉与外界进行联系的方式。So why does this matter?为什么知道这一点会很重要呢?First, because it helps explain how anxiety can feed on itself.首先,它可以有助于解释焦虑是如何变强的。In sofar as being anxious makes things smell generally worse, those worse smells may in turn cause greater anxiety, creating an anxiety feedback loop.如果说一定程度的焦虑会让人感觉闻到的东西很刺鼻,那么越刺鼻的气味则会反过来引发更强烈的焦虑感,由此便产生了一种焦虑的恶性循环。On the bright side, understanding how emotion and smell can intert wine may also lead to ways to use smell as a way to combat anxiety and other mental disorders an intriguing possibility that maybe borne out with more research.好的一面是,如果理解了情绪跟气味是如何互动的原理,我们可以利用气味来战胜焦虑和其他的心理疾病,但是这种有趣的可能性还需要投入更多的研究来加以实。 201404/292306Business this week一周商业要闻Jul 13th 2013 |From the print editionThe European Commission unveiled its proposed “single resolution mechanism” that would give it the authority to wind down failing banks in the euro zone with the support of a new cross-border fund. Germany is opposed, arguing that such an expansion of the commission’s powers would require a treaty change. France, Italy and Spain are fairly happy with the idea.欧洲委员会公布此前提议的“单一解决机制”计划的细节,根据该计划,欧盟可以获得一跨境资金,用以安抚行情低迷的欧元区。德国持有不同观点,认为实施这种扩大委员会权利的做法,有可能需要欧盟条约。法国,意大利跟西班牙则乐此不疲。American regulators outlined plans to increase the amount of capital that eight systemically important banks must hold. The banks will be required to increase their leverage ratios to 5% of their total assets, which is above the 3% agreed to by international regulators in the Basel 3 accord. Although the banks would have until 2018 to comply, they might in practice need to meet these thresholds earlier. 为了增加八所具有系统重要性的应有资产数额,美国监管部门对此草拟出一份方案。要求在其总资产中将杠杆比率增加到5%,高出于巴塞尔协议Ⅲ中国际监管机构所商定的3%。尽管各只需在2018开始实施这项方案,实际上,他们也许该尽早地达到这项指标。A committee set up by the British Treasury to choose a new administrator for LIBOR gave the job to NYSE Euronext, which operates the New York Stock Exchange. It is paying a token 1 pound (1.50 dollars) for the honour and expects to start managing the international benchmark interest rate early next year. The British Bankers’ Association has overseen LIBOR since the 1980s, but the scandal surrounding the manipulation of the rate by traders dented its reputation.英国财政部设立一组委员会,来决定由谁管理伦敦同行业拆借率。最终将这项工作交给纽约泛欧交易所集团,这个集团经营着纽约券交易所。明年年初,在象征性地付一英镑(1.5美元),换取这项荣誉后,此集团将带着众人的期望开始管理国际准基利率。自1980年以来,英国家协会便一直关注伦敦间拆放款利率,但是一些包含交易者操纵利率内容的丑闻流出,使之名声受损从而失去选票。The global asset-management industry grew to a record 62.4 trillion dollars last year, according to the Boston Consulting Group, passing the previous high set in 2007, before the financial crisis. Most of the gain is explained by roaring equity markets, which increased the value of assets under management.据波士顿咨询集团报道,金融危机之前,全球资产管理行业总值在去年达到62.4万亿美元,超过之前2007年的高峰值。之所以能够达到这么高的总值,原因在于产权投资市场的快速增长,增加了受制资产的价值。China’s Ministry of Public Security accused GlaxoSmithKline, a British drugs company, of bribing doctors in three cities to prescribe its medicines to patients and of receiving kickbacks through conference fees. China has been an important growth market for GSK over the past decade.中国公安部指控英国药物公司葛兰索史克的不法营业手段,此公司贿赂三个城市的医生给患者开自家生产的药品,并且从会议费中扣取回扣。在过去十年中,中国已经变成葛兰索史克公司首要成长型市场。Faring slightly worse进展稍显不顺The IMF shaved its forecast of growth for the world economy from a previous estimate in April. It lowered its projections for this year in America, the euro zone, China, Brazil, Russia and India, though Britain, Canada and Japan all had their GDP growth figures revised up. The IMF’s list of looming risks includes a sharper slowdown in emerging markets and the possible tapering of quantitative easing in America, which, it said, could lead to “sustained capital-flow reversals”. Meanwhile, the cooling of China’s economy was underlined by official figures showing that its exports unexpectedly fell by 3.1% in June compared with the same month last year. Imports were down by 0.7%.较之前四月份显示的总值,国际货币基金组织预测世界经济增长将减弱。尽管英国,加拿大和日本的国内生产总值上调,IMF还是降低了对美国,欧元区,中国,巴西和印度的预测值,IMF列出的潜在危机包括新兴市场的剧烈减缓,以及美国量化宽松政策消退的可能,后者据说可以导致“持续的资本流动逆转”。与此同时,官方数据明确显示中国经济正在冷却。数据表明中国出口总值较去年同月,出人意料的下降了3.1%,进口值则下降了0.7%。Royal Dutch Shell appointed Ben van Beurden as its new chief executive. Mr Van Beurden, who has spent a large part of his 30 years at the energy company working at its liquefied-natural-gas division, had not been regarded as a front-runner.荷兰皇家壳牌公司任命范伯登为其新一任的首席执行官。范伯登曾为该公司液化天然气精炼部门任职,30年来一直默默无闻。Spoiling the books plot打击书市阴谋A judge in America ruled that Apple had conspired with five big publishers to push up the price of e-books and break Amazon’s grip on the market. The judge found that the “evidence is overwhelming that Apple knew of the unlawful aims of the conspiracy” hatched with the publishers, which have all reached separate settlements with the Department of Justice. Apple is to appeal against the decision.美国联邦法官近日作出判决,认定苹果公司与5家图书出版商串通,提高电子书价格以打破当下亚马逊垄断图书市场的现状。法官查明,据的确实:苹果公司清楚自己与出版商共同策划的阴谋意图是非法的。出版商已分别与司法部达成协定,苹果公司则将提出上诉。The chief executive of Barnes amp; Noble resigned, two weeks after its latest quarterly earnings report made for troubling ing. The book retailer’s Nook e-er doubled its losses as it struggled to compete with the Kindle and iPad, a blow to the company’s hopes that digital publishing would offset falling sales of books.在做出有关阅读便利方面的季度收益报告两周后,Barnes amp; Noble公司首席执行官提出辞职。这个书本零售商发行的NOOK电子书跟kindle和ipad拼力竞争,结果导致损失加倍。本以为靠数字出版能抵消书本销量下降带来的损失,结果确让公司深受打击。Tribune became the latest media company to announce it is splitting in two, with a plan to separate its newspaper arm from its television and internet division. The publisher of the Los Angeles Times and other dailies gets around two-thirds of its sales from newspapers and websites, but only a fifth of its operating profit. It recently bought 19 local TV stations in a 2.7 billion dollars deal.作为最新宣布将公司一分为二的媒体公司,论坛报计划将报纸从电视、网络部门中分裂出去。出版商销售洛杉矶时报以及其它日报的营业额里,报纸和网站大概占有三分之一,而营业收益只占五分之一。此公司最近以2.7亿美金收购19家地方台。Global personal-computer shipments continued to slump, falling by about 11% in the second quarter, according to Gartner and IDC, two tech-market research firms. Both also reported that China’s Lenovo overtook Hewlett-Packard as the world’s biggest seller of PCs.全球个人计算机发货量持续下跌,据技术市场调研公司高德纳和互联网数据中心报告,个人电脑的销量第二季度下降了11%,同时中国的联想笔记本销量超过惠普,成为世界最大笔记本销售商。Delivering on a promise履行承诺The British government set out its plan to privatise the Royal Mail. Valued at up to 3 billion poumds (4.5 billion dollars), it will be the biggest privatisation in Britain since the mass sale of state industries more than two decades ago. Postal workers will be handed 10% of the shares, though unions remain opposed. The privatisation does not include post offices英国政府开始实施私有化皇家邮政计划。皇家邮政价值高达3亿英镑(4.5亿美元),这将会是继20多年前大量国有工厂出售以来,规模最大的民营化。尽管公会仍然反对,私营后邮局职员有望分享10%的股份。私有化范围并不包括邮政局。201307/248914

Business商业报道Air conditioning空调行业Cool innovation很酷的发明An upstart hopes to make rival cooling companies sweat一家新贵公司有望使制冷方面的竞争对手汗流浃背ON A hot July day in 1902, the worlds first air conditioner was switched on in Brooklyn.1902年的炎热7月,世界上第一台空调在布鲁克林区开始运转。Since then, air conditioning has saved lives, raised productivity and made the American South liveable in the summer.自从那时起,空调就开始拯救生命、提高生产力,并且让夏天的南非更适于生活。Yet as it turns 110, critics fume that the technology cooks the planet even as it cools homes.时值110年后,批抨者们却很不满,因为这项科技成果既加热了地球,也加热了我们的家。As Stan Cox points out in his book, Losing Our Cool: Uncomfortable Truths About Our Air-Conditioned World,正如Stan Cox在他所写的《失去我们的清凉:我们这个被空调冷却的世界中,一些让人不安的事实》一书中指出的,America uses more energy for air conditioning than Africa uses for everything.美国在制冷方面消耗的能源比非洲总的能源消耗还多。Enter Advantix Systems, a firm that makes air-conditioning systems that consume 30-50% less energy than conventional ones.一家空调制作商Enter Advantix Systems的产品能耗比普通产品少30%-50%。Many air conditioners work something like this.很多空调制商都在制产下面这样的产品:First, cool the air to well below the desired room temperature.首先,将空气冷却到低于理想室温的程度。Then, blow it over a metal plate to make the moisture in it condense.然后,将它吹过一个金属版,使其中的水分被压缩。Then, warm the dry air back up to the desired temperature.最后,将干燥的空气再加热回理想温度。Advantixs liquid desiccant technology, by contrast, passes the air through a brine solution to dehumidify it, without the need to waste energy overcooling it.Advantix的液体干燥技术则正相反,空气通过卤水系统燥,因而不需要浪费能源过度冷却它。Its machines are especially effective in humid places, which is where much of the world’s growth is.这种机器在潮湿的地方尤其有效,而这些地方也正是世界的主要增长区域。Advantix, which used to be known as DuCool, stumbled on the technology.过去被称为DuCool的Advantix公司曾在技术上遇到问题。It was founded in the 1980s by Israeli brothers who built ice rinks in the Middle East.它由建造了滑冰场的尤太人于19世纪80年代建造。They found that many coolers could not cope well with the humidity there, so they created ones that could.他们发现许多冷却设备都不能应对潮湿的情况,因此他们制造了能解决这一问题的设备。MatlinPatterson, a private-equity firm, bought a stake in 2010 and brought in managers who concocted an ambitious plan to sell cooling systems for commercial and industrial buildings.私人股权公司MatlinPatterson在2011年入股并且带入了一位有雄心壮智将产品卖到商务和工业建筑中的经理。Advantix recently announced a big deal to air condition a Procter amp; Gamble factory in India that makes laundry liquid pods.Advantix近期也宣布了一项大合约:该公司将为印度一家制造箱装洗衣液的宝洁公司安装空调设备。Competition will soon heat up, however, as rivals develop their own liquid desiccant air conditioners.但是竞争对手也开发了他们自己的液体干燥技术空调,竞争将会越来越白热化。In this business, you have to sweat to keep up.在这行,你得努力工作才能不被落下。 /201307/249940Business商业报道The circus business马戏团商业Sunstroke日射热Cirque du Soleil may be struggling, but the cluster around it is thriving太阳马戏团或许正处于苦斗之中,但围绕其四周的星团正熠熠发光。No lions, no bearded ladies 没有狮子,没有胡子的女士IN THE deconsecrated church of Saint-Esprit, jugglers toss fluorescent orange clubs in front of the former altar, trapeze artists soar under the gaze of stone saints and wobbly unicyclists use two lines of repurposed pews as handrails.在蓬圣埃斯普里神圣的教堂里,杂耍艺人们在从前的祭坛前抛掷橙色荧光棒,高空表演者在石像圣人的凝视下飞来飞去,摇摆的骑独轮自行车表演者用两条赋予了新用途的教堂长凳作为扶手。Declared surplus to requirements after Quebeckers deserted Catholicism in droves, the church is now the ecole de Cirque de Quebec, through which 20,000 aspiring entertainers pass each year.在魁比克人成群结队地公然宣布放弃天主教后,教堂被余下来,通过每年录取20000多个有抱负的艺人,成为了现在的魁比克马戏团学校。The schools director, Yves Neveu, says only half-jokingly, Someone said the archbishop should be jealous because Im filling my church.学校的主任,伊夫?奈芙,半开玩笑地表示,有人说大主教应该嫉妒,因为我正填满我的教会。Nearby Montreal boasts an even bigger school for circus performers.而在不远的蒙特利尔,还有一间更大的杂技表演学校。Although only a handful of students go on to a career in the circus, the popularity of the programmes offered to would-be acrobats,尽管仅有少数学生会继续在马戏团的职业生涯,但为想要成为杂技演员的人提供了普及课程,local children and even tourists off cruise ships is the visible manifestation of the circus craze that has gripped Quebec.当地的孩子,甚至游轮中游客的狂热程度都明显表示马戏团的热潮已经席卷整个魁北克。At its heart is the privately owned Cirque du Soleil, started in 1984 by a troupe of stilt-walkers from nearby Baie-Saint-Paul.浪潮的核心正是由圣保罗湾附近的一个踩高跷戏班子1984年开创的太阳马戏团。It is now one of Canadas most important cultural exports, employing 5,000 people at eight permanent shows in Las Vegas and at 12 others that tour the world.现在,太阳马戏团是加拿大最重要的文化输出产业之一,员工达5000人,有八场在的固定演出和十二场世界巡演。In 2012 its turnover was about C1 billion—it does not reveal its profits.2012年其营业额约1000000000加元-其利润并未透露。In 2005 this newspaper asked whether Guy Laliberte, majority owner of the circus, could keep it flying.2005年杂志向马戏团创始人盖?拉利伯特问道,能否保持马戏团风光下去。That question was raised again early last year when the company laid off 400 employees, mainly at its head office in Montreal.去年年初,蒙特利尔公司总部裁员400人时,这个问题再次被提出。The company has blamed the strong Canadian dollar and the after-effects of the global recession, which hit sponsorship income.太阳剧团将此归咎于加币走强和全球经济衰退的后续效应,削弱了赞助收入。It has launched a cost-cutting drive but insists it is not in crisis虽然剧团开始削减成本,但坚称并未面临危机。.However, the company that reinvented the circus by eschewing traditional acts such as lion tamers and bearded ladies, and by targeting adults rather than children, is certainly finding it tougher going these days.然而,避开马戏团的狮子驯兽师、大胡子女士们等传统表演方式,将目标人群定位在成年人而非儿童,重新改造了的马戏团,现在的处境一定是艰难的。It enjoyed early and rapid success because it had created an uncontested blue ocean in which to swim, according to two management strategists from INSEAD business school in France.两位法国INSEAD商学院的战略管理专家表示,剧团能够享受到早期快速的成功,是因为其建立了一个没有竞争的蓝海。That ocean is now full of sharks, says Gilles Ste-Croix, one of the original stilt-walkers, who is now the companys artistic guide.现如今那片海满是鲨鱼。最初的高跷步行者之一,现公司年代艺术指导,吉尔斯圣克鲁瓦如是说。Competition comes not just from older circuses that have updated their acts, such as Ringling Bros. and Barnum amp; Bailey, but also from a trend in the arts to merge various disciplines, for instance by bringing acrobats into operas.剧团的竞争压力不仅来源于更新表演内容的旧有马戏团,如林林兄弟巴纳姆贝利马戏团,而且也来自于在多种学科融合的一个艺术趋势,比如让杂技走进歌剧。Smaller rivals have also emerged from the large shadow Cirque du Soleil casts in Quebec.小型竞争竞争者也在太阳马戏团投射在魁北克巨大的阴影下崛起。A troupe called Les 7 doigts de la main set a box-office record at the Broadway theatre where they performed a show called Pippin.剧团七指马戏团在百老汇剧院表演彼平正传,创造了票房纪录。Flip FabriQue, formed by a group of friends just two years ago, is now travelling the world.由一群朋友就在两年前创立的FabriQue也开始世界巡回。And Cirque Alfonse toured Europe, Asia and America in 2013 with a truly Canadian spectacle called Timber!, which features chainsaw-juggling lumberjacks.阿尔冯斯马戏团2013年带着真正的加拿大表演伐木乐园游历了欧洲、亚洲和美国,该剧充分展现电锯杂耍伐木工人的特点。These newer outfits are both a source of competition and collaboration for Cirque du Soleil, with performers moving back and forth.表演者来来去去,这些新的组织既是太阳马戏团的竞争者也是合作对象。It also collaborates with notable local talents, such as Robert LePage, a director, playwright and actor whose company Ex Machina is based in Quebec City.此外,马戏团与当地的知名人才合作,如罗伯特-勒帕热,一位公司总部位于魁北克市的导演,演员和剧作家。This has reinforced what has become a Quebec entertainment cluster.强化魁北克的产业。Mr Neveu, a Cirque du Soleil alumnus, thinks that rather than serving a spell with his former employer, many of the students at his school will go straight to work in one of the many smaller troupes, which he sees as a healthy trend.太阳马戏团的校友奈芙先生认为,学校的很多学生将直接在新的小团中工作而不是为其前雇主轮流演出,他也相信这是一个好的趋势。Even so, Cirque du Soleil remains the sun around which all the others are orbiting.即便如此,太阳马戏团仍是其他团体围绕旋转的太阳。 /201402/276622

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