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2019年07月22日 01:57:47 | 作者:39专家 | 来源:新华社
The Nature of the Scientific Attitude科学态度的本质What is the nature of the scientific attitude,the attitude of the man or woman who studies and applies physics, biology, chemistry,geology, engineering, medicine or any other science?科学态度的本质是什么?那些研究并应用物理学,生物学,化学,地质学,工程学,医学或其他所有科学的男男女女们所具有的态度的本质是什么?We all know that science plays an important role in the societies in which we live.我们都知道科学在我们的社会中所起的重要作用Many people believe, however,that our progress depends on two different aspects of science.但很多人认为,社会进步靠的是科学的两个不同方面的内容The first of these is the application of the machines, products and systems of applied knowledge that scientists and technologists develop.第一个方面是对科学家和科技人员开放的机器,产品以及应用型知识体系的运用Through technology, science improves the structure of society and helps man to gain increasing control over his environment.通过这些技术,科学完善社会结构,帮助人类获得对周边环境越来越多的控制The second aspect is the application by all members of society of the special methods of thought and action that scientists use in their work.第二个方面是社会所有成员对科学家工作时采用的特殊思考和行动方式的应用What are these special methods of thinking and acting?那什么是特殊思考方式和行动方式呢?First of all, it seems that a successful scientist is full of curiosity—he wants to find out how and why the universe works.首先,一个成功的科学家似乎总是充满着好奇心—他想探寻宇宙万物运行的方式和原因He usually directs his attention towards problems which he notices have no satisfactory explanation,and his curiosity makes him look underlying relationships even if the data available seem to be unconnected.他通常会把注意力放在那些他注意到还没有得到满意解释的问题之上;即便现存数据似乎互不关联,他的好奇心也驱使他去寻找潜在关系Moreover, he thinks he can improve the existing conditions and enjoys trying to solve the problems which this involves.而且他认为他能改善现存条件,并享受自己为改善条件而解决问题的努力He is a good observer, accurate, patient and objective and applies logical thought to the observations he makes.他是个好的观察家—精准,耐心,客观,对所做观察总赋予逻辑思考He utilizes the facts he observes to the fullest extent.他总是最充分地利用他观察到的事实 example, trained observers obtain a very large amount of inmation about a star mainly from the accurate analysis of the simple lines that appear in a spectrum.比如说,训练有素的观察家主要是通过对光谱中出现的简单线条进行精确分析来获取某个星球的大量信息He is skeptical—he does not accept statements which are not based on the most complete evidence available—and theree rejects authority as the sole basis truth.他是多疑的—他不接受那些不以可活动的最完整据为基础的言论,因而拒绝把权威视为真理的唯一依据Scientists always check statements and make experiments carefully and objectively to verify them.科学家总是要检查种种论断,用客观仔细的试验去实它们Furthermore, he is not only critical of the work of others,but also of his own,since he knows that man is the least reliable of scientific instruments and that a number of factors tend to disturb objective investigation.此外,他不仅挑剔他人工作,也对自己的工作吹毛求疵,因为他清楚人类是最不可靠的科学工具,有一系列因素会影响到它们调查研究的客观性Lastly, he is highly imaginative since he often has to look relationships in data which are not only complex but also frequently incomplete.最后,他极具想象力,因为他经常不得不在既复杂又往往不全面的数据中寻求它们之间的关系,Furthermore, he needs imagination if he wants to make hypotheses of how processes work and how events take place.而且,如果他想对程序如何进行,事件如何发送提出假设,他同样需要想象力These seem to be some of the ways in which a successful scientist or technologist thinks and acts.以上似乎就是成功的科学家或科技人员的一些思考方式和行动方式 6595Nice Surprises美妙的惊喜Do you like surprises?你喜欢惊喜吗?Sure, there are bad surprises, like a pop quiz given by your teacher or an unexpected bill.当然,也有;坏;的惊喜,就像你的老师安排的突击测验或者一张意想不到的账单Those are no fun.那些都是不快乐的But there are also nice surprises.但也有好的惊喜Have you ever had a surprised party?你参加过惊喜派对吗?Didnt it feel great to be surprised by all your friends and family?这没让你所有的朋友和家人感到惊讶?Especially when you thought theyd gotten your birthday.尤其是当你认为他们已经忘记你生日的时候Have you ever given someone a gift, and that person wasnt expecting it at all?你曾经给予某人一个礼物,而出乎那个人意料?What kind of look did that person have on his face?那个人当时脸上是一种什么样的表情?It probably looked like complete happiness.可能看起来像完全的幸福How about a surprise phone call?一个惊喜电话怎么样呢?Right out of the blue...?抚慰忧伤……?Those are the best surprises.那些是最好的惊喜Have you ever called someone no particular reason----just besause you wanted to hear that person voice or because you wanted to catch up on old times?你有没有没什么特殊的原因而给别人打电话--只是因为你希望听到那个人的声音,或者你只是想回忆下以前的美好时光?Or because you wanted to say hi.还是只因为你想说;你好;Those are some of the surprises that I like the most.还有一些惊喜是我最喜欢的A surprise like a party or a gift or a phone call that is unexpected somehow feels better than you were expecting.像一次聚会或一个惊喜礼物或电话,感觉让你意想不到的那种I wonder why that is.我想为什么会是那样I try to surprise my family sometimes.我试着有时候给自己的家庭带来惊喜I bring my wife flowers or give something to my children.我会送我的妻子鲜花或给孩子买些礼物You should see the looks on their faces.你应该看看他们脸上的表情And that makes me happy, too.而且这让我也快乐You should surprise people.你应该给人些惊喜Youll probably make their day, and it might make your day, too.你可能会使他们一天快乐,而这也会让你的一天快乐Talk aout it谈论下面的话题When was the last time you give someone a nice surprise?你上次给人美妙的惊喜是什么时候?Do you like surprises?你喜欢惊喜吗?Have you ever heard a surprise party?你听说过惊喜派对吗?How was other surprised you?其他人怎么让你惊喜?What was the good surprise youve gotten?你已经有过的好惊喜是什么?What was the bad surprise youve gotten?你已经有过的坏惊喜是什么?Have you ever give a surprise gift to someone?你有没有给人一个惊喜礼物?What was the person reaction?那人的反应是什么?Who would you like to give a phonecall to?你想给谁打电话?How would people always react to surprises?人们会对惊喜如何反应? 1985

People in the ed States honor their parents with two special daysMother Day,on the second Sunday inMay,and Father Day,on the third Sunday in June.Mother Day was proclaimed a day national observance by President Woodrow Wilson in 19.Ann Jarvis from Grafton,West Virginia,had started the idea to have a day to honor mothers.She was the one who chose the second Sunday in May and also began the custom of wearing a carnation.In 19,Mrs.Dodd from Spokane,Washington,thought of the idea of a day to honor fathers.She wanted to honorher own father,William Smart.After her mother died,he had the responsibility of raising a family of five sons and a daugther.In 19,the first Father Day was observed in Spokane.Senator Margaret Chase Smith helped to establish Father Day as a national commemorative day,in 197.These days are set aside to show love and respect parents.They raise their children and educate them to be responsible citizens.They give love and care.These two special days are celebrated in many different ways.On Mother Day people wear carnations.A red one symbolizes a living mother.A white one shows that the mother is dead.Many people attend religious services to honor parents.It is also a day when peolple whose parents are dead visit the cemetery.On these days families get together at home,as well as in restaurants.They often have outdoor barbecues Father Day.These are days of fun and good feelings and memories.Another traditon is to give cards and gifts.Children make them in school.Many people make their own presents.These are valued more than the ones bought in stores.It is not the value of the gift is important,but it is ;the thought that counts;.Greeting card stores,florists,candy makers,bakeries,telephone companies,andother stores do a lot of business during these holidays. 6588

;Surely;, I suggested to Jim teacher, ;the course Jim got on with such low marks would be the sort of course that wouldnt be worth doing anyway.;“真的是这样,”我和吉米的老师建议道,“吉米得分很低的课程就没有必要再读下去”;Not at all,; the teacher insisted, and then named a string of universities Id barely heard of, claiming theyd be perfect Jim.“这是不对的,”老师坚持说,然后拿出一系列我几乎都没有听过的大学的列表给我看,说这些学校都适合吉米It was at this point I realized how completely out of touch I was with the current educational thought.此时此刻我感觉自己完全不了解现在的教育理念In the early 1980s when I was at school, a student with such poor grades as Jim would never be considered university material.世纪80年代早期,我还是学生的时候,像吉米这样成绩差的学生会被视为不适合读大学Since then the percentage of eligible population in Britain has risen from % to an astonishing %. The educational system is cramming even the most mediocre students into a degree curse.从那时起,英国符合上大学的学生比例从%上升到了%填鸭式的教育系统使得普通学生都可以继续读大学It affects the sort of the courses that universities offer undemanding ones such as film studies and surfing; it affects the way universities advertise themselves—with student bar sizes and local clubs given priority over the quality of the courses.这影响了大学教授的课程:要求不高的电影研究和冲浪;影响大学推销自己的方式——学生酒吧大小和当地社团的重要性高于课程质量Another fact is that when I went to university, a degree still counted something.还有一个事实,我上大学时,学位还是有价值的These days, the degree is so devalued that you are far better off going straight into the job market than spending three years ting water, running up big debts.而现在,学位已经贬值,你还不如直接参加工作,而不是冒险浪费三年的时间,积累巨额债务Maybe it would be worth it if, as a result of his or her degree, your child would have a well-paid career.上大学也许是值得的,因为他或者她的学历,你的孩子能有一份高薪的职业But there are now too many graduates running after too few graduate obs, and employers are becoming suspicious of the value of degrees.但是太多的毕业生没有达到毕业的要求,雇主们开始怀疑学位的价值 583

Guido: Whoa, check you out! That’s a great costume. Are you going to the Star Trek Convention? Rita: Yeah, it’s in town until Sunday. Have you ever been to one? Guido: Me? No way! Don’t get me wrong. I’m a fan of the shows. And, no offense, but I thought only geeks went to the conventions. Rita: Yeah, I thought that, too, until I went last year with my friend Claire and we had a great time. Guido: Claire? Your gorgeous roommate Claire? That Claire? Rita: Yeah, there were exhibitions from collectors and we got autographs from two of the show’s stars. The highlight was when the stars came out and spoke to the crowd…Hey, do you want to come with us? Guido: It actually sounds like fun, but I can’t make it today. Rita: How come? Guido: Uh…well…I’m going to the comic book convention. Rita: Oh, I see. Well, maybe next year. Live long and prosper… Guido: Uh, yeah. You, too. Hey, tell Claire I said “hi.” Rita: Sure. See you later. Script by Dr. Lucy Tse 19

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