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2020年01月18日 21:17:46

Ever feel like you’ve been hit on the head after a bad night’s sleep? According to scientists, the thought isn’t as far-fetched as it seems.如果晚上没睡好,第二天会不会有种撞过头的感觉?据科学家研究,这种想法和实际情况相差不远。A study found going without sleep for just one night causes changes in the brain similar to those that occur after a blow to the head.一项研究发现,即使只通宵一晚,对大脑造成的损伤足以抵得上对头部的一次重击。The researchers said the healthy young men examined in the study showed a spike in the same chemicals which indicate brain damage.研究人员说,研究中接受检查的健康年轻人显示出一种会导致脑损伤的化学物质剧增。Professor Christian Benedict, of Uppsala University, Sweden, explained that the chemcials NSE and S-100B are biomarkers for brain damage, such as concussion.瑞典乌普萨拉大学克里斯蒂安·本尼迪克特教授解释说,化学物质NSE和S-100B是脑损伤(比如脑震荡)的生物标记。He said: ‘What we found was their levels in the blood rose in the group that went without sleep for a night. This was not to the extent that would happen after a head injury, for instance, but it was still significant.他说:“我们发现的是在一晚没睡的人群中,NSE和S-100B在血液中含量上升了。这虽然还不到一次头部外伤的程度,不过也很值得注意了。”‘During sleep, the brain cleans itself of toxic substances and NSE and S-100B increase in response to these substances.’“大脑通过睡眠来清除自身的有毒物质,NSE和S-100B则对这些物质做出反应”。He said the findings back up previous research showing how the brain uses sleep to cleanse itself.他说这项研究持了之前的研究结果,即大脑如何用睡眠来自我净化。Professor Benedict also said his study could support previous studies which linked a lack of sleep with increased risk of Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and multiple sclerosis.本尼迪克特教授还说,他的研究可以持之前的研究,睡眠不足和阿兹海默、帕金森以及多发性硬化风险上升有关。The rise of the chemicals in the blood after sleep loss may suggest not getting enough sleep is conducive to a loss of brain tissue, he explained.他解释说,血液中的这些化学物质在睡眠缺乏后上升,暗示缺觉会导致脑组织损伤。Professor Benedict, whose study is published in the journal Sleep, added: ‘In conclusion, the findings of our trial indicate a good night’s sleep may be critical for maintaining brain health.’本尼迪克特教授的研究已经在杂志《睡眠》上发表,他补充说:“总之,我们的实验发现表明,一夜好眠对维持大脑健康来说是非常重要的。”A third of the UK population suffer from sleep-related problems, while the average person now sleeps for only seven hours a night, compared with almost nine a few decades ago.英国三分之一人口有睡眠问题,现代人每晚平均睡眠时间是七个小时,而几十年前,差不多是九小时。Many scientists believe irregular sleeping patterns lead to illnesses ranging from aches and pains to heart disease, while less than eight hours’ sleep a night can lower the IQ the next day.一些科学家相信,不规律的睡眠可导致从头疼到心脏病等的各种疾病,不到八小时的睡眠会降低第二天的智商。 /201401/271385浙江省金华丽都医院整形医院浙江金华市中医医院收费标准告示浙江第一医院怎么样

浙江金华一院切眼袋多少钱永康市妇女儿童医院治疗疤痕多少钱A three-year old girl with an IQ above 160 has just become the youngest person in Arizona to be accepted into Mensa.一个智商超过160的3岁女孩刚刚成为门萨俱乐部在亚利桑那州最小的会员。In fact, doctor#39;s said young Alexis Martin did so well on intelligence tests they couldn#39;t even calculate her IQ score exactly.医生说小Alexis Martin 在智商测试中表现优异,事实上他们并不能测出她的准确智商。Mensa is an international club which only accepts members who have an IQ score in the top two per cent world wide.门萨是一个只接受智商排全世界前百分之二的人为会员的国际俱乐部。The average person scores an IQ of approximately 100.普通人的智商约为100。But when Martin scored 160, the highest possible rating on the test, she matched the IQs of geniuses like Albert Einstein, Stephen Hawking, and BIll Gates, who are also thought to be in a similar range.但Martin得到了智商测试中的最高分160,她的智商和阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦、史蒂芬·霍金以及比尔·盖茨等天才相近,他们的智商测试结果与此相似。Martin#39;s parents said their little girl had given them signs she might be gifted for a long time.Martin的父母说,很长时间以来他们的小女儿都在给他们一些信号,仿佛在告诉他们自己是个天才。#39;From 12-18 months old, we#39;d be driving around in the car and she would recite her bedtime story from the night before,#39; her father, Ian, told A 15.“她12到18个月大我们开车兜风的时候,她就能准确地背诵出前一天晚上我们给她讲的晚安故事。” 她的爸爸伊恩告诉亚利桑那州新闻网站A15的记者。#39;She didn’t just recite them, she recited them exactly.#39;“她不仅仅是背诵出来了,她背得简直一字不差。”She#39;s currently consuming books at a 5th grade ing level and even taught herself Spanish on the family#39;s iPad.她目前正在读小学五年级水平的读物,甚至使用家里的iPad自学西班牙语。#39;Anytime she learns a word and just picks it up through anything, she never ever uses it in the incorrect context, ever,#39; said Ian.“每次她学到一个新词都信手拈来,从未使用出错。” 伊恩说道。And while her parents are grateful for her intellectual prowess, they are worried about what unique challenges it might give to raising Alexis.尽管她的父母对她的天赋心怀感恩,他们还是有点担心在抚养Alexis 长大过程中需要面临的挑战。One of the doctors who tested her said Alexis could never go to a normal school and that children with her level of intelligence often suffer from high anxiety unless they#39;re around similarly gifted boys and girls.一位给Alexis做智商测试的医生说,她不能去普通学校上学,因为像她这样的高智商孩子,如果不和同样高智商的孩子在一起就会感到焦虑。#39;Does she go into kindergarten early? We are kind of hesitant because we do want her to get that social aspect,#39; Ian said.“她上幼儿园早了吗?我们有点犹豫,因为我们确实想让她正常社交。” /201402/276276兰溪市第三医院做双眼皮开眼角手术多少钱In order for human cells and organs to function properly, we need an adequate amount of water in our bodies. Since nearly all activities cause people to lose water, it#39;s essential to replenish our water levels. The standard rule for water replenishment is the 8x8 method: eight ounces of water, eight times a day. However, other dietary recommendations, such as those from the Institute of Medicine, recommend 13 cups a day for men and 9 cups a day for women. The exact amount of water that people should consume each day depends on factors such as body weight, level of activity and diet.我们需要充足的水分让身体细胞和器官正常运作。因为人类所有活动都会消耗水分,而补水就成了必要的一步。标准的补水方案是8x8:每日8次,每次8盎司。但是也存在其他的饮食建议,如医学研究所:男性每天应喝13杯水,女性每天应喝9杯水。其实,人体日常准确的补水量取决于个人体重,活动量和饮食。While hydration is absolutely essential to a healthily functioning body, too much water, especially over a short period of time can be dangerous and even fatal. If a person drinks more water than her kidneys can excrete, the overall electrolyte level in the blood will drop significantly and the excess water can enter and swell your brain cells, resulting in a potential seizure and/or coma.水虽然是身体健康运作不可或缺的因子,但过多的量,尤其是短时间内大量补充实则有害健康,甚至还会致命。如果人体吸收的水分超过其肾脏可排泄范围,血液中整体的电解质水平将会大幅度下降,一旦多余水分进入大脑,大脑细胞受到膨胀,就会导致潜在疾病发作或引发昏迷。One of the most serious results of too much water consumption is hyponatremia, a decrease in the blood#39;s sodium level. If more water enters the body than the kidneys can process, the mineral content of the blood decreases and the blood#39;s overall sodium levels drop. When sodium and electrolyte levels drop in the blood, water can escape the blood and enter the cells as the blood and the cells struggle for electrolyte equilibrium. While the swelling of cells because of water is never good, it#39;s particularly dangerous when it occurs in the brain (known as cerebral edema). Since the brain is housed within the skull, with little room to grow, brain cell swelling will lead to brain damage if severe enough. If a person continues to add water to his body, the swelling process will continue and the damage may be irreversible.低钠血症是过度补水带来最严重的结果,血液中的钠含量会降低。倘若体内吸收的水分超过了肾脏承受范围,血液中的矿物含量将会减少,而整体的钠含量也会骤降。钠离子和电解质含量一旦减少,血液和细胞就会抢争电解质,而水分也会同时脱离血液进入细胞。水肿的细胞对身体绝对无益,若是脑细胞出现水肿更是危险(称为脑水肿)。因为头骨紧密覆盖大脑,其中伸展空间极小,脑细胞若极度肿胀就会导致大脑受损。此时人体若继续补水,细胞也就会持续肿胀,对大脑造成不可逆的损害。In addition, a massive increase in water will add to the body#39;s overall blood volume and put tremendous strain on the heart and circulatory system. The most severe symptoms of water intoxication occur when hyponatremia leads to cerebral edema. Symptoms of cerebral edema mirror other brain conditions such as tumors and concussions. Common symptoms of cerebral edema start with a headache that increases in intensity followed by mental confusion and seizures. Vomiting and exhaustion are also possible. As the brain cells continue to swell, the risk of death from water intoxication increases.当低钠血症引发脑水肿时,就会出现最严重的情况。脑水肿可诱发其他大脑疾病,如脑肿瘤和脑震荡。常见的脑水肿始于剧烈的头痛,伴随着的症状还有精神混乱和癫痫症。也可能出现呕吐和乏力的状况。倘若脑细胞继续水肿,死亡的风险也将攀升。The easiest way to avoid water intoxication is not to make a conscious attempt to drink as much water as possible. Water drinking contests, whereby contestants try to drink gallons of water in short periods of time, are especially dangerous. Marathon runners and others who may lose large amounts of water are at risk if they try to rehydrate too quickly. For people who require above average amounts of water, it is best to ration that water and sip it rather gulp it. If you begin to suffer any of the symptoms of cerebral edema, immediately stop drinking water and seek professional assistance.杜绝潜意识里企图喝水的习惯是预防水中毒的最简方式。耗水量大的竞赛,即在短时间内需喝数加仑的水的竞赛,尤其危险。马拉松选手和其他在比赛中失水量大的选手,如果他们补水速度过快,就会产生风险。若有人对水的需求量高于平均值,最好是定额配给,小口啜,切忌一饮而尽。如果你开始出现脑水肿症状,立即停止饮水,寻求专业救护。 /201312/270212金华市中心医院开双眼皮多少钱

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