双河双眼皮多少钱问医晚报

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 双河双眼皮多少钱健康知识

A Belgian woman took an astonishing 1,800 mile detour through six countries after her car navigation system went wrong.一名比利时女子汽车上的导航系统发生了故障,她开车行驶了1800英里,穿越了6个国家,路程之远令人惊叹。Sabine Moreau, 67, had intended to drive to Brussels from her home in Solre-sur-Sambre to pick up a friend from the train station - a journey of just 38 miles.67岁的萨宾·莫罗本打算从位于桑布尔河畔索勒尔市的家开车去布鲁塞尔,去火车站接她的一位朋友——总路程只有38英里。But she took a catastrophic wrong turn and eventually ended up 900 miles away in Zagreb, Croatia.但她在一个拐弯处犯了致命的错误,最后将车开至了900英里之外克罗地亚的萨格勒布市。Despite crossing five borders and seeing multiple-language traffic signs, she did not stop to question her sat-nav until two days later when she realised that she may not be in Belgium any more.尽管穿过了5个国界,看见了各种语言的标志,她都没有停下来想想是不是她的导航系统出了问题。直到两天之后,她意识到自己可能已经不在比利时了。Although she stopped to refuel her car several times, Ms Moreau did not think her TomTom could be leading her down the wrong path.虽然好多次她停下来给车加油,莫罗女士没有想到过她车上装的TomTom导航仪会带她驶向错误的方向。‘I saw all kinds of traffic signs. First in French, then in German - Cologne, Aachen, Frankfurt,’ she told a Belgian news website. ‘But I didn#39;t ask myself any questions. I was just distracted, so I kept my foot down,’ she added.“我看到各种不同的交通标志。先是法语的,然后是德语的——科隆、亚琛、法兰克福这些城市的名字,”她对比利时一家新闻网站说。“但我什么都没有问自己。我当时心不在焉,所以我也没觉得不安,”她又补充说。Police believe she crossed through France, Germany, Austria and Slovenia before finally getting to Croatia. Then she faced another 900 mile journey back to get to her home in Solre-sur-Sambre. By this stage her worried son had reported her missing to police.警方认为,她在到达克罗地亚之前已经经过的法国、德国、奥地利和斯洛文尼亚。然后她必须再开900英里,回到她在桑布尔河畔索勒尔市的家。现在她担心的是,她的儿子已经跟警方报告她失踪了。Officers searched her house and were about to launch a full scale manhunt when she phoned home to say she was in Zagreb.当她打电话回家说她在萨格勒布市的时候,比利时的警方已经搜过了她的家,准备开始大规模搜索了。She told police: ‘I didn#39;t really notice anything was wrong until I suddenly arrived in Zagreb and realised that I was no longer in Belgium.’她告诉警方:“我一直没有发现有什么不对劲,直到我突然发现自己到了萨格勒布,我才意识到我已经不再比利时了。”When asked if she did not find the length of the journey - or the change in language - strange, Ms Moreau replied: ‘Maybe, but I was just preoccupied.#39;当被问道她难道没有发现路程长得不对劲,或者语言已经变了的时候,莫罗女士回答说:“可能吧。但是我在想心事。”So preoccupied that even after being forced to stop for petrol several times - as well as a snooze on the side of the road - Ms Moreau still did not question her satnav.莫罗女士的心事可不少,虽然她好几次需要停下来给车加油,在停在路边打盹,就算这样都没有让莫罗女士怀疑她的导航系统坏了。#39;I stopped several times for petrol and paid with my credit card. When I felt tired I stopped for a few hours sleep in the car on a lay-by,#39; she said. #39;I was a bit absent-minded as I had a few things to think about, I suppose.#39; Ms Moreau finally made it home 60 hours after embarking upon her inadvertent odyssey.“我想我大概有点心不在焉,我在想一些事情。”[/en][cn]“我停下来加了几次油,用信用卡付的钱。累的时候我就停下来,在路边的停车带睡几个小时,”她说。莫罗女士最后在60小时漫不经心的长途跋涉后回到了家。A spokesman for police in Belgium, who had been on the brink of launching a hunt for Ms Moreau after being alerted by her son, said: #39;This is an incredible story.比利时警方在收到莫罗女士儿子的信息之后,已经差点要发起搜索莫罗女士的行动了,警方的一名发言人说:“这个故事太不可思议了。”#39;These GPS systems cause problems from time to time but nothing like this. But this woman has done nothing wrong and we just have to believe her,#39; he added.“GPS系统总是会带来很多麻烦,不过还没有像这样的。不过这位女士什么都没有做错,我们要相信她。”他又这样补充道。 /201301/221182At Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, doctor#39;s orders can include an unlikely prescription: meditation.波士顿柏斯以色列狄肯尼斯医学中心(Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center)开出的医嘱中会包含一项令人难以置信的处方:冥想。#39;I recommend five minutes, twice a day, and then gradually increase,#39; said Aditi Nerurkar, a primary-care doctor and assistant medical director of the Cheng amp; Tsui Center for Integrative Care, which offers alternative medical treatment at the Harvard Medical School-affiliated hospital. #39;It#39;s basically the same way I prescribe medicine. I don#39;t start you on a high dose right away.#39; She recommends that patients eventually work up to about 20 minutes of meditating, twice a day, for conditions including insomnia and irritable bowel syndrome.郑与崔中西医结合护理中心(Cheng amp; Tsui Center for Integrative Care)的医疗主管助理、初级保健医师阿底提#8226;内鲁卡(Aditi Nerurkar)说,“我建议进行五分钟的冥想,每天两次,然后循序渐进、逐渐增量。”内鲁卡还说,“这与我开药的方式基本相同。我不会让你在一开始就立马尝试高剂量的药物。”她建议患者循序渐进、最终达到约20分钟时量的冥想,且每天进行两次。这种疗法适用于失眠症和肠道易激综合症等疾病。郑与崔中西医结合护理中心在哈佛医学院附属医院向患者提供替代性医学治疗。Integrative medicine programs including meditation are increasingly showing up at hospitals and clinics across the country. Recent research has found that meditation can lower blood pressure and help patients with chronic illness cope with pain and depression. In a study published last year, meditation sharply reduced the risk of heart attack or stroke among a group of African-Americans with heart disease.包括冥想在内的中西医结合项目在全美各地的医院、诊所变得越来越常见。新近一项研究已发现,冥想能降低血压、帮助慢性病患者应对疼痛和抑郁。去年发表的一项研究表明,在一组患有心脏病的非洲裔美国人中,冥想极大地减少了他们的心脏病和中风的发病风险。At Beth Israel Deaconess, meditation and other mind-body therapies are slowly being worked into the primary-care setting. The program began offering some services over the past six months and hopes eventually to have group meditation classes, said Dr. Nerurkar.在柏斯以色列狄肯尼斯医学中心,冥想和其他身心疗法正慢慢融入初级保健体系。内鲁卡说,该项目在过去的六个月中已开始提供一些务,他们希望最终能开办团体冥想班。Health experts say meditation shouldn#39;t be used to replace traditional medical therapies, but rather to complement them. While it is clear that #39;when you breathe in a very slow, conscious way it temporarily lowers your blood pressure,#39; such techniques shouldn#39;t be used to substitute for medications to manage high blood pressure and other serious conditions, said Josephine Briggs, director of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, part of the National Institutes of Health. In general, she said, meditation can be useful for symptom management, not to cure or treat disease.健康专家说,冥想不该被用来替代传统药物治疗,而应当作为补充疗法。隶属于美国国立卫生研究院(National Institutes of Health)的国家补充替代医学中心(National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine)负责人约瑟芬#8226;布里格斯(Josephine Briggs)说,“很明显,当你以一种非常缓慢、刻意的方式呼吸,这么做能暂时降低你的血压。”但这样的方法不该被当作治疗高血压和其他严重疾病的药物替代品。她还称,一般而言,冥想在并发症和综合症处理上是有所作用的,但它却无法治愈或治疗疾病。Dr. Briggs said the agency is funding a number of studies looking at meditation and breathing techniques and their effect on numerous conditions, including hot flashes that occur during menopause. If meditation is found to be beneficial, it could help women avoid using hormone treatments, which can have detrimental side effects, she said.布里格斯说,国家补充替代医学中心正在资助一系列针对冥想、呼吸方法及它们对诸多疾病影响的研究,包括女性在更年期出现的热潮红现象。如果冥想被发现对这些疾病有疗效的话,它有可能帮助女性避免使用激素治疗。后者会产生不良的副作用。Martha O#39;Boyle, a 51-year-old in Fremont, Calif., has suffered from chronic pain in her arms, chest and elsewhere since suffering from a heart attack two years ago.来自加州弗里蒙特(Fremont),现年51岁的玛莎#8226;奥伊(Martha O#39;Boyle)自两年前突发一场心脏病后,就一直饱受着遍布胳膊、胸部及其他部位慢性疼痛的折磨。#39;Here#39;s a cardiologist telling me to go and meditate,#39; said Ms. O#39;Boyle. #39;I#39;m thinking, does she think I#39;m crazy?#39;奥伊说,“这儿有位心脏病专家建议我去进行冥想。当时我就想,她是以为我疯了吗?”Ms. O#39;Boyle began taking meditation classes at Stanford Hospital amp; Clinics in 2011. The eight-week class consisted of once-a-week sessions lasting two to three hours. #39;Once I started the class I saw the benefits of it,#39; she said. Now, Ms. O#39;Boyle meditates every day for 20 to 45 minutes. #39;The pain is not gone, but it helps me cope with it,#39; she said.2011年,奥伊开始参加斯坦福医院诊所(Stanford Hospital amp; Clinics)开办的冥想课。该课程为期八周,每周上课一次,每次持续两到三个小时。奥伊说,“我一上课,就感受到它的好处了。”奥伊现在每天都会冥想20到45分钟。她说,“疼痛虽然没有消失,但冥想却能帮我应对它。”The most common type of meditation recommended by doctors and used in hospital programs is called Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, which was devised at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. Dr. Nerurkar said she doesn#39;t send patients to a class for training. Instead, she and other physicians at Beth Israel Deaconess will demonstrate the technique in the office. #39;Really it#39;s just sitting in a quiet posture that#39;s comfortable, closing your eyes and watching your breath,#39; she said.医生最常推荐的,且最常用于医院项目中的一种冥想类型叫做“正念减压”。它是由麻省大学医学院(University of Massachusetts Medical School)研发出来的。内鲁卡说,她并未将患者送到那里参加课程训练。相反,内鲁卡和柏斯以色列狄肯尼斯医学中心的其他内科医生将在办公室演示这种冥想方法。内鲁卡说,“实际上就是以一种你觉得舒的姿势安静地坐着,闭上你的眼睛、并注意你的呼吸。”Murali Doraiswamy, a professor of psychiatry at Duke University Medical Center in Durham, N.C., says it isn#39;t clearly understood how meditation works on the body. Some forms of meditation have been found to activate the parasympathetic nervous system, which stimulates the body#39;s relaxation response, improves blood supply, slows down heart rate and breathing and increases digestive activity, he said. It also slows down the release of stress hormones, such as cortisol.北卡罗莱纳州达勒姆的杜克大学医学中心(Duke University Medical Center)精神病学教授穆拉利#8226;多雷斯瓦米(Murali Doraiswamy)说,目前还不清楚冥想是如何作用于身体的。有些形式的冥想已被发现能激活副交感神经系统,而这又会刺激身体的放松反应,改善血液供给、降低心率、放缓呼吸并促进消化活动。多雷斯瓦米还称,冥想也能减缓皮质醇等压力激素的分泌。Dr. Doraiswamy says he recommends meditation for people with depression, panic or anxiety disorders, ongoing stress, or for general health maintenance of brain alertness and cardiovascular health.多雷斯瓦米说,他向那些患有抑郁症、恐慌症、焦虑症、长期饱受压力折磨的人,以及那些注重大脑养生与心血管健康的人都推荐冥想疗法。Thousands of studies have been published that look at meditation, Dr. Doraiswamy said. Of these, about 500 have been clinical trials testing meditation for various ailments, but only about 40 trials have been long-term studies. It isn#39;t known whether there is an optimal amount of time for meditating that is most effective. And, it hasn#39;t been conclusively shown that the practice causes people to live longer or prevents them from getting certain chronic diseases.多雷斯瓦米说,成千上万种针对冥想的研究成果都已发表。这其中,约有500项研究针对各种疾病进行了冥想疗法的临床试验,但仅仅只有约40例试验经过了长期的研究。目前还不清楚多长时间的冥想活动效果最佳。而对于此类活动能否延长人们的寿命或使人们远离某些慢性病,至今仍尚无定论。Some short-term studies have found meditation can improve cognitive abilities such as attention and memory, said Dr. Doraiswamy. Using imaging, scientists have shown that meditation can improve the functional performance of specific circuits in the brain and may reduce age-related shrinkage of several brain centers, particularly those that may be vulnerable in disorders such as Alzheimer#39;s disease.多雷斯瓦米还称,有些短期研究已发现,冥想能提高如注意力和这样的认知能力。科学家利用成像技术发现,冥想能改善人们大脑中某些特定回路的功能特性,还可能减少随着年龄增长而出现的大脑中枢萎缩状况,特别是对于那些容易患上老年痴呆症(Alzheimer#39;s disease,又称阿兹海默症)等病症的人更是如此。In a study published last year in the American Heart Association journal Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, African-Americans with heart disease who practiced Transcendental Meditation regularly were 48% less likely to have a heart attack or stroke, or to die, than those who attended a health-education class. Among the meditation group, there were 20 such occurrences, compared with 32 in the control group. The study, which ran for more than five years, involved about 200 people.美国心脏协会(American Heart Association)《循环》(Circulation)期刊上去年发表的一项名为《心血管特性和效果》(Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes)的研究表明,在患有心脏病的非洲裔美国人中,那些经常练习超觉冥想的人突发心脏病或中风、死亡的风险比那些参加健康教育课的人要低48%。在冥想小组中出现了20个这样的病发案例,而在实验对照组中,这一数据为32。该研究持续的时间超过了五年,总共涉及约200人。Recent research found that meditation can result in molecular changes affecting the length of telomeres, a protective covering at the end of chromosomes that gets shorter as people age. The study involved 40 family caregivers of dementia patients. Half of the participants meditated briefly on a daily basis and the other half listened to relaxing music for 12 minutes a day. The eight-week study found that people who meditated showed a 43% improvement in telomerase activity, an enzyme that regulates telomere length, compared with a 3.7% gain in the group listening to music. The participants meditating also showed improved mental and cognitive functioning and lower levels of depression compared with the control group. The pilot study was published in January in the International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry.最近的研究发现,冥想能引起影响端粒长度的分子变化。端粒是染色体末端的一种保护覆盖物,它会随着人的年事增高而变得越来越短。这项研究涉及40名照料痴呆症患者的家庭医护人员。有一半的参与者每天都会进行简短的冥想,而另一半的人则会每天聆听12分钟放松身心的音乐。这项持续了八周的研究发现,那些冥想者的端粒 ──端粒 是一种修复端粒长度的 ──活性提高了43%,而听音乐的那组人只提高了3.7%。与实验对照组相比,参与冥想的人还表现出更强的心理和认知功能、更低的抑郁程度。这项试验性研究于一月份发表在《国际老年精神病学杂志》(International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry)上。Government-funded research also is exploring meditation#39;s effect on dieting and depression.由政府资助的研究也正在探索冥想对节食和抑郁的影响。 /201305/239162An 18-stone mother-of-one was shamed into losing weight after snapping her daughter#39;s bed while ing her a bedtime story.一位体重达到了18英石(约为228斤)的母亲,因为在女儿床边读睡前故事的时候压坏了女儿的床,感觉非常丢脸所以愤然减肥成功。Cacia Griggs, 26, from Peterborough, Cambridgeshire, spent her whole 20s as a morbidly obese size 24, but crushing four-year-old Isabelle#39;s bed was the final straw, and she embarked upon a life-changing diet.这位26岁的励志妈妈是来自剑桥郡彼得伯勒市的卡西亚-格里戈斯。在她20多年的人生中一直保持着病态的肥胖状态,要穿24号的衣。不过压坏4岁女儿伊莎贝尔的床,犹如压死骆驼的最后一根稻草,她决心开始改变人生的减肥方案。Just one year later she has lost eight stone, dropped to a size 10, and married her fiance Chris in her dream wedding dress.仅仅用了一年她就减掉了8英石(约101斤)的体重,现在可以穿10号的衣。现在她可以穿着梦想中的结婚礼嫁给未婚夫克里斯了。One night, having asked her 29-year-old fiance to carry Isabelle up to bed because she couldn#39;t fit through the stair gate, Cacia followed them upstairs and lay down on the edge of the bed with her daughter to her a story.当天晚上,她让29岁的未婚夫把女儿伊莎贝尔抱到床上去,因为身材的缘故她没办法抱着女儿穿过楼梯门。卡西亚跟在他们身后上楼,躺着女儿的床边给她读睡前故事。#39;I heard a loud snap,#39; she said. #39;I#39;d literally broken the entire side beam of her bed because I was overweight. I was devastated.#39;她描述当时的场景:“我听到非常响的劈啪声。毫不夸张的说,我真的是把我女儿床的侧梁整个给压断了,这都是因为我太胖了。当时我就崩溃了。”Cacia had a similar moment of clarity while on her first family holiday with Chris and Isabelle in Turkey last year when she couldn#39;t fit the aeroplane seatbelt around her.卡西亚还经历过类似这样让她警醒的时刻:去年她第一次和克里斯还有伊莎贝尔全家一起出门去土耳其旅行,结果在飞机上她没办法系上安全带。Cacia began the Cambridge Weight Plan in June 2011, swapping her high-calorie diet for soups, shakes and bars. In August this year, Cacia reached her goal weight of 10 stone and dropped from a size 24 to a size 10. 卡西亚在2011年7月开始执行剑桥体重计划,把之前吃的高热量食物都换成了汤、奶昔和能量棒。今年八月,卡西亚达到了她的目标体重10英石(约为127斤),体重下降后她可以穿10号的衣了。#39;My weight literally began to drop off,#39; she said. #39;In no time at all I was wearing smaller clothes and was over the moon the first time I brought a size 16, I couldn#39;t believe it fitted.”她说道:“我的体重真的开始下降,没用多久我就开始穿小一些尺寸的衣。第一次给自己买16号衣的时候我简直欣喜若狂,我简直不敢相信衣我穿竟然合身。”Cacia says the best thing about losing the weight is being able to lay with her daughter again on her bed instead of sitting on the floor next to her.卡西亚说,减肥对于她来说最好的一点是:她现在可以跟女儿一起躺在床上,再也不用像以前一样坐在地板上看着女儿了。 /201212/212950

No matter how tough the life is, you will eventually find someone who’d make you willing to stay with.无论生活得多么艰难,最后你总会找到一个让你心甘情愿傻傻相伴的人。Love comes fast. You either risk it, or you regret it.爱情来得如此之快。你要么冒险一搏,要么遗憾一生。If you leave me, please don’t comfort me because each sewing has to meet stinging pain.离开我就别安慰我,要知道每一次缝补也会遭遇穿刺的痛。Though no one can go back and make a brand new start, anyone can start from now and make a brand new ending.虽然没人可以从头开始,但任何人都可以从现在开始,创造一个全新的结局。Life is sad at times, but it is up to you to make your own life happy.生活有时是令人沮丧的,但你可以努力让自己的过得开心。When you feel that the whole world is betraying you, please believe he just turns around to brew a more beautiful hug for you.当你觉得整个世界都背弃了你时,请相信,他只是背过身去,酝酿一个更美的拥抱。Your smiling at me is my daily dose of magic.你嫣然的微笑是我每日享受到的魅力。Do you have a map? Because I just keep losing in your eyes.你有地图么?因为我刚在你的眼神中迷失了。Look into my eyes – you will see what you mean to me.看看我的眼睛,你会发现你对我而言意味着什么。Love is not a matter of counting the days. It’s making the days count.爱情不是数着日子过去,它让每个日子都变得有意义。 /201212/217331这是关于一个女孩、女人、女性的成长漫画On A Claire Day:亲情、友情、爱情;家庭,朋友、婚姻,工作,生活……一切的一切~今日嘱咐:世事无常,有了贼心,有了贼胆,但是往往贼没了译者:koogle

Your flight gets canceled and the airline says it doesn#39;t have a seat for you for a full day. But you find another airline has a flight leaving in one hour. What to do?你的航班取消了,航空公司说全天都无法给你安排座位,但是你发现另一家航空公司一小时后有一趟离港的航班,你该怎么办?Beg the airline to send your ticket to its competitor. Do it nicely, because there#39;s no rule that says the airline has to help you.你只能请求航空公司把你的机票转给它的竞争对手。要好好求人家,因为没有一条规定说航空公司必须帮你的忙。How to regulate good service and fair dealings, if at all, has been a quandary for years. But stakes are higher now. The average airline load factor -- the percentage of seats filled -- rose to 82.8% last year, the highest for scheduled air service since 1945. With planes so full, airlines have limited reserve capacity to rebook customers after flights get canceled. Some passengers wait for days to get to destinations.如果航空业规范优质务和公平交易多年来一直是一个让人为难的问题,而现在的风险则更高了。航空公司的平均载客率──座位使用的百分比──去年上升到了82.8%,是1945年以来定期航班载客率的最高水平。由于飞机载客太满,当航班取消之后,航空公司为乘客重新订票的备用票源非常有限。有些乘客等了好几天才到达目的地。The Department of Transportation says over the last four years it has taken a more aggressive stance on passenger rights, pushing through regulations to curb long tarmac delays, increase compensation for ticketed passengers involuntarily bumped from flights and require airlines to always display the full price of airfares, including taxes and fees. Airlines let passengers either cancel or hold a reservation without penalty for 24 hours and reimburse baggage fees if bags are lost, because DOT requires them to.美国交通部(The Department of Transportation)表示,它在过去的四年里为保障乘客的权利采取了更加激进的姿态,通过制定规章来限制长时间的停机坪延误,增加对那些非出于本意而未能上飞机的持票乘客的补偿,并要求航空公司始终明示含税费的全价机票价格。航空公司在24小时内可以允许乘客选择取消或保持预订而不用付违约金,如果行李遗失,航空公司还要赔偿行李费用,因为交通部责令它们这么做。Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood, who is stepping down after four years, said in an interview he became frustrated with airline service flying between Washington, D.C., and his home state of Illinois, and set out to force improvement. #39;When people are paying a pretty good amount of money to fly, they ought to be given the service they paid for and they ought to be treated with respect and treated like adults,#39; he said.履职四年后即将卸任的交通部长雷#8226;拉胡德(Ray LaHood)在一次采访中说,他本人在华盛顿特区和家乡伊利诺伊州之间往返时的乘机体验,让他对航空务深感不满,于是着手强制整改。他说:“当人们花了可观的一笔钱来坐飞机时,他们应该得到物有所值的务,应该受到尊重,得到一名成年人理应得到的待遇。”The Republican supported passenger-rights legislation every year when he was a U.S. representative, but every attempt in Congress has failed. As DOT secretary, Mr. LaHood grew outraged at passengers stuck on planes for nine-plus hours in deplorable conditions, and pushed through hefty penalties for airlines that keep people on planes longer than three hours without a chance to deplane. The tarmac delay rule has dramatically curbed lengthy strandings.当拉胡德还是一名众议员的时候,共和党每年都持有关乘客权利的立法,但是每次尝试都未能在国会获得通过。身为交通部长的拉胡德对乘客被迫在飞机上悲惨地滞留九个多小时这种事大为愤慨,于是他对那些让乘客在飞机上呆了三个小时以上时间还无法下飞机的航空公司开出了高额的罚单。限制停机坪延误的规定则大大抑制了飞机长时间滞留停机坪这类事情的发生。Passengers have some other protections:乘客还能享受到其它一些保护:Airlines typically provide meals and hotels when travelers are stranded overnight because of an airline problem, though not because of weather or other exceptions.由于航空公司的原因旅客被迫整夜滞留机场的时候,航空公司通常要为旅客提供餐饮和住宿,不过天气及其它一些意外原因不在此规定之列。When airlines lose bags, they#39;re on the hook to pay out as much as ,300 per passenger for domestic trips. (Carriers set the value of possessions lost, however.)当航空公司遗失了行李时,它们将面临为每位国内乘客付可能高达3,300美元的赔偿。(不过,丢失财产的价值由承运商确定。)Fliers bumped from overbooked flights and stuck for hours are entitled to four times their ticket price, up to ,300, on the spot in cash.因航班超额预订而未能登机的乘客以及被困机场数小时的乘客有权当场获得四倍于购票价格、最高达1,300美元的赔偿。But beyond overbooking, baggage and tarmac delays, government and Congress have largely struggled to figure out rules and requirements. Last year Congress created a four-member committee to advise the DOT on what passenger protections were needed.在超额预订、行李和停机坪延误等方面的问题之外,联邦政府和国会做出了很大的努力来制订其他方面的相关规章和要求。去年,国会组建了一个四人委员会,向交通部提交有关必要的乘客保护措施的建议。The panel, which included airline and airport officials, advocated some basic principles like knowing the cost of the entire trip before purchasing a ticket.成员包括航空公司和机场高管的这个委员会提出了一些基本的原则,比如,让乘客在购买机票前了解整个旅程的费用。The only firm recommendation? That DOT require airports and airlines to provide #39;animal relief areas.#39;唯一具体的建议是什么呢?建议交通部要求机场和航空公司设立“动物排便区域”。Passenger advocates say plenty more should be done. #39;Passengers have very few rights and many of the ones on paper are not really enforced,#39; says Paul Hudson, executive director of the nonprofit Aviation Consumer Action Project, which advocates for airline passengers.乘客权益倡导者表示,应该规定的事项还有很多。为飞机乘客代言的非盈利组织“航空消费者行动计划”(Aviation Consumer Action Project)的常务董事保罗#8226;哈德森(Paul Hudson)说:“乘客本来就没有多少权利,而已成文的规定中有很多实际上并没有得到真正的贯彻。”One of the biggest problems, Mr. Hudson says, is that Congress exempted airlines from state laws so consumers can only take disputes to federal court, not state court. That raises the cost and the legal threshold to sue an airline. #39;In every other industry you have consumer protection laws that are state and local,#39; Mr. Hudson said. #39;Airlines argue they can#39;t be regulated by patchwork state laws, but Wal-Mart is.#39;哈德森说,最大的问题之一是,国会让航空公司免于州法律的约束,因此消费者只能将纠纷起诉到联邦法院而不是州法院。这就提高了起诉航空公司的费用和法律门槛。他说:“对于其它的所有行业,你都可以找到保护消费者的州及地方法律。航空公司声称他们不能受各州不同的法律管理,可是沃尔玛(Wal-Mart)却可以。”Airlines for America, the industry#39;s lobbying group, says air travel is almost always crossing state lines and airlines can#39;t be subjected to a particular state#39;s rules. Carriers have improved service on their own and are responding to passenger issues without legislation or regulation that could raise ticket prices, the group says.航空业的游说组织美国航空运输协会(Airlines for America)表示,航空旅行差不多都是跨越州界的,航空公司不能受某个特定州的规定约束。该组织表示,承运商已经自行改善了务,并且对法律、法规没有规定、却又可能引起机票涨价的客运问题做出了回应。#39;Other industries are not subjected to such irrational rules,#39; A4A Chief Executive Nick Calio said in recent Senate testimony.美国航空运输协会的首席执行长尼克#8226;卡利奥(Nick Calio)在最近的参议院听会上说:“其它行业面临的情况没有这么特殊。”When the industry was regulated before 1978, a federal rule known as Rule 240 required airlines to send customers to competitors if they canceled flights. Without Rule 240, passengers often can#39;t use their ticket on another airline that might have available seats.1978年以前,当航空业受到监管的时候,一项名为Rule 240的联邦法规要求航空公司在取消航班的时候把乘客转给竞争对手。如今没有了Rule 240的约束,乘客经常无法凭原有的机票改乘到另一家有空余座位的航空公司的航班。Eight years ago, the European Union established what seemed like far-reaching consumer protections, requiring that airlines compensate passengers for long delays and cancellations. The intent was to force carriers to reduce delays and cancellations due to light bookings.八年前,欧盟(European Union)制定了似乎可以切实保护消费者的措施,要求航空公司对长时间的航班延误和航班取消给予乘客赔偿,这样做的目的是强制承运商减少航班延误以及由于订票数量少而取消航班的行为。But the groundbreaking effort didn#39;t go particularly well. Passenger protections proved confusing and, to a large extent, hollow. Airlines were given a broad exemption for #39;extraordinary circumstances#39; and often refused to pay passenger claims. Little has changed.但是这一开拓性的努力并没有达到特别好的效果。这些乘客保护措施最终明是令人费解的,而且在很大程度上是空洞无用的。航空公司被赋予了一大堆“非常情况”的豁免权,多数情况下都拒绝了乘客的索赔。情况没有怎么改变。The European Commission#39;s latest stabs at regulation take a more pragmatic approach. If enacted, it would give European travelers firmer protections than what U.S. passengers receive.欧盟委员会(European Commission)最近起草了更为务实的监管政策。如果获得通过,它给予欧洲旅客的保护比美国旅客得到的保护会更实在。Earlier this month, the commission proposed revisions that would strengthen some areas for consumers and give airlines more latitude in others. If an airline can#39;t re-route a passenger within 12 hours, it would have to book a customer on another airline or train. But airlines would have five hours before they#39;d have to pay compensation for delays, instead of three hours.上个月,欧盟委员会提出了修订案,强化了维护乘客利益方面的一些内容,而在另一些方面给予了航空公司更多的回旋余地。如果航空公司在12小时内不能为乘客安排另一个航班,它就必须为乘客预订另一家航空公司的机票或者火车票,不过航空公司因为航班延误而赔偿乘客的时限从三小时改成了五小时。#39;Cancellations are always worse for the passenger than delay,#39; says Frank Laurent, a policy officer for the European Commission in Brussels who helped draft the rules. #39;This proposal is much more realistic.#39;布鲁塞尔欧盟委员会里参与起草这些法规的政策官员弗兰克#8226;劳伦特(Frank Laurent)说:“航班取消对乘客的影响一般比航班延误更大。这项提案要务实得多。”The EC plan has been criticized by consumer groups as a watering down of passenger protections and by airlines as an unnecessary burden in compensation and rerouting. Mr. Laurent says the criticism from both sides probably means the proposal found middle ground.欧盟委员会的计划被消费者组织指责为削弱了对乘客的保护,而航空公司则批评该计划增加了不必要的赔偿及重新安排航班的负担。劳伦特说来自双方的批评也许意味着这项提案找到了中间立场。#39;What we tried to do with this proposal,#39; he said, #39;is to find a balance.#39;他说:“对于这项提案我们尽力要做到的,就是找到平衡。” /201304/236290

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