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吉安脸上去斑吉州区去咖啡斑多少钱The Bulls lost another game, and would have to go the full seven in a series for the first time in years. By the end of game six, doubters were saying that Michael was finally running on empty.公牛队又输了另一场比赛,就得在这一年内第一次在7场比赛中不能丢分。在第六场比赛的最后,持怀疑态度的人都说迈克尔好像形同梦游一般。Bulls trail by two. Here we go. MJ one-on-one with McKey. Michael a drive, tripped off his feet, and McKey stole the ball, and thats gonna do it. That will do it. Indianas gonna win it.公牛队落后两分。现在我们可以开始了。乔丹与米基正针锋相对,后者偷球得手。这就行了。印地安那州会赢的。He may have been devastated that night, and I assume he was, but he had the ability to believe that we were going to win. And he was going to do well. Probably one of the most remarkable shots that everybody remembers is the shot he made against Cleveland.那晚他可能已经被摧毁,我假定他已经如此,但他有能力力挽狂澜,他相信我们会赢。他要做得很好。可能每个人都记得他技惊四座的一次投篮是对克里夫兰的那场比赛。The in-bounds pass comes in to Jordan. Heres Michael at the foul line. A shot on Ehlo. Good! The Bulls win! They win it!乔丹掌控球权。现在迈克尔站在罚球线上。在Ehlo面前投中了球。太漂亮了!公牛队赢了!他们赢了!注:听力文本来源于51VOA201201/168819吉安去蝴蝶斑多少钱 Science and technology.科技。Robots and psychology机器人与心理学Mapping the uncanny valley了解恐怖谷理论Why androids are scary为什么人形机器人那么吓人ARTIFICIALLY created beings, whether they be drawn or sculpted, are warmly accepted by viewers when they are distinctively inhuman. As their appearances are made more real, however, acceptance turns to discomfort until the point where the similarity is almost perfect, when comfort returns. This effect, called ;the uncanny valley; because of the dip in acceptance between clearly inhuman and clearly human forms, is well known, particularly to animators, but why it happens is a mystery. Some suggest it is all about outward appearance, but a study just published in Cognition by Kurt Gray at the University of North Carolina and Daniel Wegner at Harvard argues that there can be something else involved as well: the apparent presence of a mind where it ought not to be.无论是画出来的还是造出来的机器人,当它们与人类很不相像时,人类就能很好地接受它们。但是,随着它们的外貌越来越近似真人,这种接受就会转变为反感( ——shadowing的译法:人会对这种机器人的态度从好感变为厌恶)。直到它们与人类的相似度达到一个几近完美的状态,人类又会重新接受它们。因为在不够拟人和非常拟人之间人们对机器人的接受度有一个下降的过程,所以这种效果被称为;恐怖谷;①。(——lovewj1989的调整译法:这个效应之所以被称作;恐怖谷理论;,是因为从机器人与人类外表差异极大到差异极小,人类对机器人的接受度曲线先下后上,形成一个低谷。)(因为在不够拟人(传统机器人)和(真人机器人)非常拟人之间,人类好感度突然下降,所以这 种效果被称为;恐怖谷;。)恐怖谷理论众所周知,尤其是对动画家来说,但它的出现原因却是个谜。一些人认为这一理论只和外表有关,但最近北卡罗来纳大学的Kurt Gray与哈佛大学的Daniel Wegner在《认知》上发表了一篇研究文章,称这其中可能还包含着别的东西,即本不该出现在机器人身上的明显的思维能力。According to some philosophers the mind is made up of two parts, agency (the capacity to plan and do things) and experience (the capacity to feel and sense things). Both set people apart from robots, but Dr Gray and Dr Wegner speculated that experience in particular was playing a crucial role in generating the uncanny-valley effect. They theorised that adding human-like eyes and facial expressions to robots conveys emotion where viewers do not expect emotion to be present. The resulting clash of expectations, they thought, might be where the unease was coming from.根据哲学家的说法,思维由两部分构成:执行(计划并完成事情的能力)和体验(感受事物的能力)。这两者都能将人与机器人区分开,但Gray士和 Wegner士推测,在产生恐怖谷效应方面,经验起着尤其重要的作用。他们建立了一个理论,即如果使机器人拥有像人类一样的眼睛和表情,它们就能传递感情,但在观察者的预期中这种感情是不该出现在机器人身上的。他们认为这种预期所产生的冲突可能就是不适感的来源。To test this idea, the researchers presented 45 participants recruited from subway stations and campus dining halls in Massachusetts with a questionnaire about the ;Delta-Cray supercomputer;. A third were told this machine was ;like a normal computer but much more powerful;. Another third heard it was capable of experience, by being told it could feel ;hunger, fear and other emotions;. The remainder were told it was capable of ;self-control and the capacity to plan ahead;, thus suggesting it had agency. Participants were asked to rate how unnerved they were by the supercomputer on a scale where one was ;not at all; and five was ;extremely;.为了验这个想法,研究者从马萨诸塞州的地铁站或大学食堂征集了45位参与者,就;Delta-Cray超级计算机;对他们做了一份问卷调查。参与调查问卷的人中有三分之一被告知这台机器;和正常的电脑一样,但强大许多;;另外三分之一的人被告知它有体验的能力,即它能感受到;饥饿、恐惧以及其他一些情感;;剩下的三分之一则被告知它能;自我控制,并有能力提前制定计划;,也就是说它具有执行力。研究者请他们从一分(一点都不)到五分(非常恐惧)对这台超级电脑给他们带来的恐惧感进行打分。 -(---敛刃的译法:研究者请参与者按照自身受到的恐惧感对这台超级电脑进行打分,从一分到五分不等,一分表示;一点都不紧张;,五分则表示;非常紧张;。)Dr Gray and Dr Wegner found that those presented with the idea of a supercomputer that was much more powerful than other computers or was capable of planning ahead were not much unnerved. They gave it a score of 1.3 and 1.4 respectively. By contrast, those presented with the idea of a computer capable of experiencing emotions gave the machine an average of 3.4. These findings are consistent with the researchers hypothesis. There seems to be something about finding emotion in a place where it is not expected that upsets people. This led Dr Gray and Dr Wegner to wonder if the reverse, discovering a lack of experience in a place where it was expected, might prove just as upsetting.Gray士和 Wegner士发现,那些被告知这台电脑只是一台比其他电脑强大许多的超级计算机和它有提前制定计划的能力的问卷参与者都没有感到十分恐惧。他们给出的平均分分别是1.3和1.4分。相比之下,那些被告知这台电脑有体验情感能力的参与者打出的恐惧分数为3.4分。这一发现与研究者的假设相吻合。似乎是发现一个不该有情感的机器却有了情感这类事使人类感到不安。这使Gray士和 Wegner士不禁想问,如果将情况反过来,人类发现一个该有情感的人却没有体验情感的能力时会不会同样会感到不安。To explore this, they presented a further 44 volunteers, recruited in the same manner as those in the earlier experiment, with a picture of a man. A third were told that he was normal; a third that he was unable to plan; and a third that he was unable to feel pain, pleasure or fear. As in the first experiment, participants rated how unnerved they were by the man on a five-point scale.为了弄清这一问题,两位士以同样的方式再次征集了44位志愿者,并向他们展示了一张男人的照片。其中三分之一的人被告知这个男人是正常的,另外三分之一的人被告知他没有制定计划的能力,剩下的三分之一则被告知他没有感受疼痛、愉悦或恐惧的能力。和第一次实验一样,士们要求参与者按五分制给这个男人给他们带来的恐惧感进行打分。Those who were told the man was normal, or was incapable of planning, gave scores that averaged 1.8 and 1.9 respectively. Those told he could not feel pain, pleasure or fear were much more unnerved. They gave average scores of 3.0.那些被告知这个男人是正常的和他没有能力制定计划的参与者给出的平均分分别是1.8分和1.9分。但那些被告知这个男人没有能力感受疼痛、愉悦或恐惧的参与者要比前两批人恐惧得多,他们给出的平均分为3.0分。Dr Gray and Dr Wegner believe their findings argue that a big part of the uncanny-valley effect stems from expectations not being met. Robots are not expected to have feelings and when such feelings are found, it seems somehow wrong. Humans, by contrast, are expected to have feelings-and when such feelings are not found, the effect is equally frightening. Their conclusions will perhaps give pause to those who see the ultimate robot as something which physically resembles a human being.Gray士和 Wegner士认为:他们的发现表明引起恐怖谷效应的大部分原因根源在于人们的预期没有得到满足。人们认为机器人不会有情感,当发现它们拥有情感时,人们就会觉得这是不正常的。相比之下,人类是有情感的,当人们发现某个人没有情感时,他们同样会感到恐惧不安。一些人认为机器人发展到最后,会在物质形态上与人类十分相似,但这次研究的结论可能会让他们断了这种念头。201208/193297吉安保仕柏丽整形美容医院去痘印多少钱

吉安妇幼保健院口腔美容中心Books and Arts; Book Review;Capital punishment in America;文艺;书评;美国的死刑;Justice, delayed and denied正义, 姗姗来迟甚至无处可伸?Anatomy of Injustice: A Murder Case Gone Wrong. By Raymond Bonner.《不公正的剖析:一种谋杀案出的差错》,Raymond Bonner著。What sort of town was Greenwood, South Carolina in the early 1980s? It was the kind of place where a prominent white man could get away with shooting and killing a black man who walked across his property at night. When the local chief prosecutor, William T. Jones, brought the case before a grand jury, he was not looking for an indictment. Surely anyone would have behaved the same way under the circumstances, he argued. Surely, he told the jurors, they too would have picked up a shotgun. The grand jury did not indict.上世纪80年代早期,美国南卡罗来纳州的格林伍德是怎样的一个城镇呢?这是这样的一个地方,一个身份显赫的白人在射击杀死一个晚上穿过他私人土地的黑人后并没有受到什么惩罚。在当地首席检察官William T. Jones将这个案件拿到大陪审团面前时,他并不是在寻求一种控诉。他认为,在同样的情况下每个人肯定都会采取同样的行动。他很坚定地告诉陪审团,他们也会拿起一把猎。陪审团没有起诉。A few months later Jones persuaded the same grand jury to indict Edward Lee Elmore, a 23-year-old black man, for the murder of Dorothy Edwards, a 75-year-old white woman. She was found inside her bedroom closet, bruised and repeatedly stabbed. Mr Elmore was sentenced to death less than 90 days later. This grim case is the subject of “Anatomy of Injustice”, a gripping and enraging book from Raymond Bonner, a veteran investigative journalist at the New York Times.Mr Elmore would spend 27 years on death row, despite strong circumstantial evidence suggesting that he did not commit the crime. His capital sentence was ultimately overturned thanks to the tireless efforts of Diana Holt, his lawyer and the books hero, who spent more than a decade seeking justice on his behalf.几个月之后Jones说这相同的大陪审团起诉 Edward Lee Elmore,一个23岁的黑人谋杀一位75岁的白人妇女Dorothy Edwards。她是在自己的卧室衣橱被发现的,身上青肿并被刺了很多刀。Elmore先生在90天内就被判处死刑。这个残酷的例子就是《不公正的剖析》这本书的主题,这本吸引人的书是一位纽约时报资深调查新闻记者雷蒙德·邦纳(Raymond Bonner)写的。尽管大量的间接推测都表明Elmore先生并没有犯罪,但他也将在死刑房耗尽27年。他死刑的罪状最终在戴安娜·霍尔特(Diana Holt)的不懈努力下推翻了,戴安娜·霍尔特(Diana Holt)是他的律师也是这本书的主人翁,他花费了10多年的时间为Elmore声张正义。Mentally disabled and barely literate, Mr Elmore was 14 years old when he dropped out of school. He could add and subtract using his fingers, but he could not tell the time, he did not know the seasons and he could not understand directions. He became a neighbourhood handyman, and he cleaned Edwardss gutters and washed her windows two weeks before she was killed. He was arrested because his fingerprint was found at her house.智力上的缺陷以及知识的匮乏,Elmore在他14岁的时候就辍学了。他可以用手指进行加减但是他不能识别时间,不知道一年四季,没有方向感。他成了邻居街坊里的勤杂工,就在Dorothy Edwards被杀的前两周,他还在清洗她家的水沟,擦洗他的窗户。由于在Edwards家发现了他的指纹就被逮捕了。At his trial, Mr Elmore was given two lawyers. One was known as the “bourbon cowboy”. He was twice arrested for drunk driving, and his breath smelled of alcohol in court. The other lawyer referred to his client as a “redheaded nigger”. They had Mr Elmore testify, a rarity in murder trials, and they called no other witnesses. The judge dismissed four potential jurors because of their opposition to capital punishment. (This judge later served on South Carolinas Supreme Court, and landed in some hot water by professing to find racist jokes inoffensive and funny.) It took the jury less than three hours to convict Mr Elmore, and an additional 50 minutes to sentence him to death.在审讯过程中,Elmore有两位律师。一位被称作“波旁牛仔”(“bourbon cowboy”)。这位律师曾两次酒后驾驶被拘留,同时在法庭上他呼吸里有浓重的酒味。另一位提到的律师对于他的客户来说就是“红发黑人”。他们让Elmore自己作,这是在谋杀案件中少有的事,他们称没有其他人了。法官解散了四个潜在的陪审团,正由于他们对死刑裁决的反对。(这位法官后来务于南卡罗来州的最高法院,……自认发现有关种族主义的没有恶意且又有趣的笑话)这就使得陪审团在不到3个小时就判Elmore有罪,并在额外的50分钟内就对他判了死刑。But Mr Elmore did not die in jail. After the Supreme Court ruled in 2005 that states could not execute the mentally disabled, his sentence was commuted to life in prison, where he still sits. Opponents of capital punishment may be familiar with arguments about its expense, unjust application and inefficacy as a deterrent. But it is another thing entirely to about patently biased judges, policemen who lie under oath (and may well have planted evidence) and bloodthirsty prosecutors.但是Elmore并没有死于监狱。在2005年最高法院裁决认为美国各州不能对精神障碍者进行处死之后,他的宣判减刑成终生监禁。死刑的反对者可能熟于争论其代价,即不公正的运用以及威慑性不强。但是这对于带有明显偏见的法官、可以在宣誓下撒谎的警察(很可能已经有了栽赃的据)、嗜血的检察官理解起来完全是另外的一回事。In telling Mr Elmores story, Mr Bonner deftly weaves in a brief history of American capital punishment and its discontents. Following a brief moratorium in 1972, when the Supreme Court ruled that the death penaltys application violated the Eighth Amendments ban on cruel and unusual punishment, it was reinstated in 38 states from 1976. By 2010, 1,226 more executions had taken place, 1,010 of them in the South. Most of these executed inmates have been black; a vast majority of the victims in capital cases were white. But Mr Bonners book is not a treatise against the death penalty. Rather, it is a dismal look at what happens in Americas justice system when justice is absent.在讲述Elmore的故事的时候,奥·邦纳(Mr Bonner)很快的就编织出了关于美国死刑刑罚的简洁历史,并表示不满。随后就是1972年的一个简洁的禁令在那时,这最高法院裁定这死刑刑法的运用违反了第八修正案禁止“残忍与异常的刑罚”条款,到了1976年在38个州才恢复使用。截止2010年,执行了1226多次死刑的裁决,其中南方占到1010例。大部分的死囚犯是黑人,而大多数的受害者是资本阶级白人。但是Bonner的书不是一本反对死刑的论述。然而,它是对美国的司法系统当公正不在时所发生的事的一点心痛的看法。 /201212/216552吉州区去除眼袋多少钱 吉安双眼皮手术哪家医院好

吉安保仕柏丽整形医院治疗疤痕多少钱 After the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church was destroyed by a British bombing raid in World War II all that remained was its ruined tower.自从在第二次世界大战中遭到英国的突袭轰炸之后,威廉皇帝纪念教堂所剩就只有一个被毁坏的钟塔了。Built in 1895, the tower has remained a poignant reminder of the horrors of war, as well as being a symbol of West Berlins determination and extraordinary post-war recovery. But now the gaunt and jagged tower is making news of another kind: Traffic vibration has caused its walls to crumble, with chunks threatening to fall off onto pedestrians below.威廉皇帝纪念教堂的钟塔始建于1895年,如今提醒着人们莫要忘了战争的残酷和恐怖。同时,它也象征着西柏林的决心和德意志民族伟大的战后复兴。但如今,这座破旧不堪的钟塔还传达了异样的信息:往来车辆引起的震动使它的墙壁摇摇欲坠,墙壁的大块剥落甚至还危及到了下面行人的安全。Earlier the church authorities put the cost of repairing its neo-Gothic facade at 3.5 million euros (US.1 million), but now due to continuing disintegration the cost has soared to 4.1 million euros.早些时候,教会权力机关把这座钟塔的新哥特式的正面的修复成本定在350万欧元(510万美元)。但现在,鉴于这座钟塔的持续解体,修复成本已飙升至410万欧元。Charles Jeffrey Gray, 85, a former British pilot who carried out bombing raids over Germany, was one of the first to call for the rescue of Berlins most famous wartime ruin, contributing US0 to help spur the campaign. Since then donations have flooded in, with the Berlin city government pledging 1.5 million euros to the repair fund.85岁的查尔斯bull;杰弗里bull;格雷是当初轰炸德国的英国前飞行员之一。他是最早号召人们修复柏林这个最有名的战争废墟的人中的一员。为了推动这项修复运动的开展,他捐献了930美元。随着捐款越来越多,柏林市政府投入了150万欧元的修缮资金。Grays last bombing raid over Berlin was in February 1944. Around that time 500 to 700 planes were involved in raids over Germany, a reprisal for earlier nightly operations over London by German bombers.格雷对柏林的最后一次轰炸是在1944年的2月。当时大约有500至700架飞机参与了对德国的袭击,以报复之前德国轰炸机对伦敦的夜间轰炸。;The tower must remain as a reminder for future generations of the horror of war,; Gray said.;这座钟塔必须保存下来,警示后人不要忘了战争的恐怖。;格雷这样说。201203/173086遂川县妇幼保健人民医院修眉多少钱万安县除皱的费用

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