楼主:搜医新闻 时间:2019年11月22日 04:08:27 点击:0 回复:0
The No Make Up Selfies which have taken the internet by storm over the last two days are thought to have raised a staggering #163;1 million for charity.素颜自拍活动这两天在网络上掀起了一场风暴,由此活动募捐的善款达到令人惊讶的一百万英镑。And now the Fellas of Facebook and Twitter have decided they too want to get their mugs in on the action and a flurry of selfies featuring men in make-up have started appearing online.现在Facebook和Twitter上的小伙子们也坐不住了,想在这个活动里露一把脸,于是,一汉子们的化妆照在网络上传播开来。Some of the fellas seem to have gone girly and cute, while others were maybe inspired by Halloween outfits when they got out the slap, but their efforts were all commendable.这其中有一些看起来女孩子气而可爱,另一些则像是换上了万圣节装扮。当然了,他们的良苦用心是值得称赞的。Meanwhile the #NoMakeUpSelfie shows no signs of dieing down just yet as women continue to strip back their look in the name of charity.与此同时,“素颜自拍”慈善活动并没有因此消失,女性们依然在为了慈善活动上传素颜照。Kath Abrahams, Director of Engagement and Income generation at Breakthrough Breast Cancer, said: #39;We are delighted to see the success of the no make-up selfie viral campaign. It is great to see the British public getting behind the campaign and helping to raise awareness of breast cancer.#39;“突破乳腺癌”项目参与与创收一代主管Kath Abrahams说道:“我们很高兴看到素颜自拍活动病毒性宣传的成功。看到英国民众持和提高人们对乳腺癌认知度的感觉很棒。”#39;Here at Breakthrough, we have seen a huge spike in the number of unique visitors to our website, smashing our record to date. We have received hundreds of donations from people simply texting PINK to 70300 in the past 24 hours. We would like to thank all those who have supported us, enabling our scientists to continue their life-saving research.“在活动中,我们看到了网站独立用户访问大幅上升,打破了记录。在过去的24小时里,我们收到了成百上千通过发送‘PINK’到70300捐款的短信。我们非常感谢持我们的人,这些捐款使得我们的科学家能够继续拯救生命的研究。”#39;Breast cancer is not yesterday’s problem; every ten minutes a woman is diagnosed with breast cancer. Anything that gets the public behind this important cause is to be celebrated. It isn’t too late to get involved, so go ahead and text PINK to 70300.#39;“乳腺癌并不是已经过去的问题,现在每十分钟就有一位女性被诊断出乳腺癌,任何一个能拉动公众关注这个重要议题的事情都值得庆贺。任何时候参与都不晚,所以行动起来,发短信‘PINK’到70300捐款吧。”Most women usually shy away from the camera if they#39;re not wearing at least a slick of mascara or a pop of colour on their lips.任何一位女性如果没有上睫毛膏或抹口红都很羞于站在镜头前。But anyone using social media over the last 48 hours can#39;t fail to have noticed a flurry of snaps featuring women with no slap on.但是任何使用社交媒体的人都可能看到一大堆没有抹口红的女性照片。In fact the trend has taken Twitter and Facebook by storm with thousands of females wiping off their make-up and posting photos using the hash tag #NoMakeUpSelfie.事实上,Twitter和Facebook上数以千计的女性卸下妆容,拍下了自己的素颜照片上传网络,并带上标签“素颜自拍”。Everyone from cancer survivors to men in full drag have been posting pictures in on Twitter and Facebook.从癌症存活者到男扮女装者,他们都在上传照片。Though nobody seems to know where the idea came from, the rule seemed to be that women post their picture and then nominate other female friends to do the same with all posting that the photos were to #39;raise awareness of cancer#39;.虽然没人知道这个主题是从哪里来的,但规则似乎是女性上传自己的照片然后提名其他的女性朋友跟上,以此来提高人们对癌症的关注。After becoming aware of the flurry of selfies, Cancer Research sent out a tweet saying: #39;We’re loving your #cancerawareness #nomakeupselfie pics! The campaign isn’t ours but every #163; helps #beatcancersooner.#39; Cancer Research says so far it has raised #163;1million in 24 hours.在注意到这股自拍潮流后,癌症研究中心发布Twitter消息:“我们非常喜欢你们上传的‘关注癌症’‘素颜自拍’照片!这个活动不是我们发起的,但是大家的每一份捐款都会帮助‘日后战胜癌症’。”癌症研究中心称在过去的24小时里他们收到了一百万英镑的募捐。Those posting the selfies or nominating others to do so are texting the word BEAT to 70099 TO DONATE #163;3.这些发布自拍或邀请别人的活动就是发布BEAT到70099,以此捐出3英镑。Carolan Davidge, director of communications at Cancer Research UK said, “The #nomakeupselfie Twitter trend isn’t something Cancer Research UK started – but it’s great to see so many people getting involved to help raise awareness of cancer amongst their friends and family. If people would like to choose to support our work to beat cancer sooner, they can visit www.cruk.org.”英国癌症研究中心媒体总监Carolan Davidge说道:“这股Twitter上的‘素颜自拍’潮流并不是英国癌症协会发起的,但是能看到这么多人加入进来提高周围人们对癌症的认识很棒。如果他们愿意持我们打倒癌症的事业,可以访问www.cruk.org。”It#39;s not known where or how the trend for using a no make-up selfie started this time around although last week author Laura Lippman caused an online storm with a similar campaign in support of actress Kim Novak and her appearance at the Oscars.现在还不知道用素颜自拍宣传癌症这个活动是从哪里或者怎样掀起的,虽然上周作家Laura Lippman在网上发起了一个类似活动持演员Kim Novak和她在奥斯卡上的露面。Now, following this new viral selfie campaign the Facebook group No Make Up Selfie For Cancer Awareness has more than 153,690 likes and hundreds of photo uploads.现在,伴随着这个自拍活动,Facebook上的“素颜自拍关注癌症”小组已经获得153690个赞以及几百张照片的上传。Cancer survivor Deborah Ferguson from Liverpool submitted her photo to the Facebook group and agreed to have it published on MailOnline.来自利物浦的癌症存活者Deborah Ferguson在Facebook小组上传了自己的照片,并同意将照片发布在《每日邮报》上。She said: #39;Can I campaign on behalf of all neglected boobies please? Give them a check, I did that#39;s why I have such a big smile as am a survivor.#39;她说:“我能代表所有那些被忽视的傻瓜们吗?亲亲他们,因为我是存活着,所以我才能有如此的笑容。”Another participant., Abigail Spillman said: #39;I think it is a fantastic way to raise awareness. Its only been going on since yesterday and aly it is trending worldwide.另一位参与者Abigail Spillman说:“我觉得这是提高人们关注的一个奇妙方式。虽然是昨天才开始,但是已经席卷了全世界。”#39;Along with a #nomakeupselfie and a small donation (if you wish) is a massive help. Well done on using Facebook and Twitter for putting it to good use!#39;“上传一张素颜照片,再加上一笔小小捐款就是很大的帮助了,这是充分利用Facebook和Twitter。”Sophie Williams, who works for a PR firm, told MailOnline she posted her #nomakeupselfie and promises to donate 50p for each like she receives to Cancer Research UK.在公关公司工作的Sophie Williams透露,她上传了自己的素颜照,并承诺每得到一个赞就捐出50英镑给英国癌症研究中心。Dancer Felixy Splits posted a fresh faced pic, and told MailOnline: #39;Everyone knows someone who has suffered from this awful disease.舞者Felixy Splits上传了自己容光焕发的照片,她说道:“每个人都知道有些人正遭受着这种疾病的折磨。”#39;It#39;s not only important to raise awareness but to donate anything you can. Make a difference and do something positive today.#39;“光提高人们的注意力是不够的,你还得尽你所能做些实事。与众不同,拿出行动。”Katie Weir of Freya Lingerie also joined in. She told MailOnline: #39;Through the recent nomination trend on Facebook it is easy to see the power of social media and how quickly posts can go viral.Freya内衣品牌的Katie Weir也加入了这个活动。她说:“通过这段时间Facebook的点名活动,我们能轻易看到社交媒体的力量以及病毒式传播的迅速。”#39;It is fantastic to see young women embracing their make-up free faces to raise awareness of breast cancer.#39;“看到年轻女性通过素颜提醒人们关注乳腺癌很好。”#39;I was nominated by my friend and by doing so I donated #163;5 to the charity which I wouldn#39;t have done if I hadn#39;t seen the status!#39;“我是被朋友点名然后上传照片并捐出了5英镑,如果没有看到这个活动我就不会做了。”And it#39;s not just women who are getting in on the action. In solidarity, men too have com up with their own way of raising awareness - but they#39;re slapping on the make-up.而且,不只是女性加入了这项活动,为了团结一致,男性们也通过自己的方式提醒人们关注,不过他们是给自己脸上化妆。Rachel Horkan submitted a photo of her 12-year-old little brother Zach in full make-up.Rachel Horkan上传了自己12岁的弟弟Zach化上浓妆的照片。She wrote: #39;[He] decided to put the make-up on as us girls are taking it of all to help cancer awareness, so proud of him to do this at such a young age! Bless him lots of likes for this young man people xxx#39;她写道:“他决定画上浓妆办成女孩子来持这项活动。他能在这么小的年纪这么做让我很骄傲!希望她的行为能得到大家的很多赞。” /201403/281670Israel and the Palestinians agreed on an open-ended ceasefire that began at 7pm on Tuesday, prompting some Palestinians to take to the streets to celebrate, and raising wary hopes of an end to the seven-week-old war between the Israeli military and Hamas.以色列和巴勒斯坦人同意于周二晚上7点开始无限期停火。在停火消息的鼓舞下,部分巴勒斯坦人走上街头庆祝。这也令人们谨慎预期,以色列军方与哈马斯间持续7周的战事或将终结。On Tuesday evening Mahmoud Abbas, the Palestinian president, announced the truce - the latest of several brokered by Egypt aimed at ending the conflict in the Gaza Strip – in a brief television address. He thanked Egypt, Qatar – Hamas’ main foreign patron – and John Kerry, the US Secretary of State, for their role in arranging the ceasefire.周二晚上,巴勒斯坦民族权力机构主席马哈茂德#8226;阿巴斯(Mahmoud Abbas)在一次简短的电视讲话中宣布了这一停火协议。在讲话中,阿巴斯还对埃及、卡塔尔、及美国国务卿约翰#8226;克里(John Kerry)为促成停火所发挥的作用表示感谢。卡塔尔是哈马斯的主要外国持者。此前,埃及为结束加沙地带冲突而开展了一系列斡旋,该协议就是埃及斡旋下达成的停火协议中的最新一个。“We have accepted once again the Egyptian proposal for an unconditional ceasefire,” a senior Israeli official told the Financial Times. “This ceasefire is unlimited in time, as was the original proposal that we accepted on July 15.”一名以色列高官告诉英国《金融时报》:“我们再次接受了埃及提出的无条件停火提议。和我们在7月15日接受的方案一样,这次停火没有限期。”Full details of what was agreed were not available, but early indications were that Hamas had not secured its demand for a full lifting of the seven-year-old Israeli blockade on Gaza. However, the agreement would see Israel ease some curbs on imports and both sides cease their hostilities, as they agreed to after their last conflict in November 2012.协议的全部细节目前还不得而知,不过初步迹象显示,哈马斯并未坚持要求以色列全面解除对加沙地带长达7年之久的封锁。但是,从该协议中可能会看到以色列放宽了对进口的部分限制。双方也会像2012年11月上次冲突后那样,同意停止对对方的敌对行为。Egypt’s foreign ministry said Israel had agreed to open its borders with Gaza to allow humanitarian aid and reconstruction materials into the enclave. The two sides are due to resume indirect talks on other issues within a month’s time, Egypt said.埃及外交部表示,以色列已同意开放与加沙地带的边境,允许人道主义援助及重建材料进入加沙地带。埃及表示,双方定于一个月内就其他问题重启间接会谈。There were street celebrations in some parts of Gaza on Tuesday evening, with residents cheering, firing guns in the air, or raising green Hamas banners. In east Jerusalem, Palestinians set off fireworks above Damascus Gate, at the entrance to the Old City.周二晚上,加沙地带部分地区开始有人群在街头庆祝,人们欢呼,向空中开火,或举着绿色的哈马斯旗帜。在东耶路撒冷,巴勒斯坦人在通往旧城的入口大马士革门的上空放了焰火。In Gaza City Sami Abu Zuhri, Hamas spokesman, gave what appeared to be a victory speech, in which he said that the agreement reached would “achieve most Palestinian demands” and was “a great achievement for our people and nation”.在加沙城,哈马斯发言人萨米#8226;阿布#8226;祖赫里(Sami Abu Zuhri)就此发表了讲话。讲话的措辞仿佛是胜利后的讲演。他在讲话中表示,达成这一协议会“满足多数巴勒斯坦人的要求”,是“我们国家和人民的一次伟大成就”。The battle in Gaza, Mr Abu Zuhri added, was a prelude “for the liberation of Jerusalem”.阿布#8226;祖赫里补充说,加沙地带的斗争是“解放耶路撒冷”的序曲。In Israel, where 50 days of war and intermittent rocket fire have dented the economy, tested public morale and disrupted life in southern border areas, the reaction was muted and sceptical.而在以色列,历时50天的战争和时不时的火箭弹攻击极大地影响了以色列经济,干扰了南部边境地区的生活,同时也考验着民众的士气,但人们对这次停火的反应却比较平静,甚至抱有怀疑态度。Mark Regev, a spokesman for prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu, said that talk in Cairo on Gaza’s future would go ahead only if there were a “total end to terror attacks from Gaza”.以色列总理本杰明#8226;内塔尼亚胡(Benjamin Netanyahu)的发言人马克#8226;雷格夫(Mark Regev)表示,只有“来自加沙地带的恐怖袭击完全停止”,以色列才会继续在开罗就加沙地带的未来开展磋商。 /201408/324679This week’s landmark agreement between the U.S. and China on limiting emissions of carbon dioxide marks a significant diplomatic milestone in the struggle against global climate change. The fact that the two largest sources of CO2 have finally agreed to do something about it should, in theory, give a boost to next year’s ed Nations climate summit. Whether the actual terms of the deal—which calls for the U.S. to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 26% to 28%, compared to 2005 levels, by 2025, and for China to cap its emissions by 2030—have a realistic shot at being met is another question.上周,中美就限制二氧化碳排放达成重大协议,这在应对全球气候变化方面是一个里程碑式的外交事件。理论上,世界上最大的两个二氧化碳排放国最终同意就此采取行动将为明年的联合国气候变化峰会带来积极影响。按照协议,到2025年,美国的温室气体排放量将比2005年下降26-28%;到2030年,中国将实现温室气体排放零增长。不过,问题在于,这些目标能否真的实现。On the U.S. side, Republicans emboldened by the midterm elections will work to block any attempt to fulfill America’s side of the bargain, which Republican Sen. Jim Inhofe, of Oklahoma, soon to be chairman of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, called “a non-binding charade.”美国方面,中期选举增强了共和党的实力。该党成员将阻止美国政府试图履行协议中的自方责任。即将担任参议院环境和公共工程委员会(Senate Environment and Public Works Committee)主席的俄克拉荷马州共和党参议员吉姆o英霍夫(Jim Inhofe)将中美之间的这份协议称为“毫无约束力。”China’s challenge in meeting the terms of the bilateral agreement are not political but structural: simply put, to reduce emissions growth, China must reduce the size of its coal industry, which supplies some three-quarters of China’s electricity. That is no easy task.就履行这份双边协议而言,中国面临的并非是政治难题,而是结构性挑战:简而言之,要降低温室气体排放增速,中国就必须压缩煤炭行业规模。而煤电约占中国目前发电量的四分之三,这绝不是一项轻而易举的工作。But Beijing must take action, because the smog-choked nation can hardly stick with the status quo. The climate deal is part of a larger strategy to address China’s pollution crisis.但中国政府必须采取行动,因为这个雾霾笼罩下的国家无法再安于现状。而这份气候协议正是中国应对污染危机宏图大略的一部分。The costs of China’s heavy reliance on coal for power generation were highlighted again days before the deal with President Obama was announced, when a pair of researchers at the prestigious Tsinghua University released a study showing that around 670,000 people die prematurely every year as a result of air pollution from coal. Every ton of coal produced in China adds more than 286 yuan () in environmental damage and health costs, reported Teng Fei, an associate professor at Tsinghua University. China produced nearly 4 billion tons of coal in 2013, according to the World Coal Association.就在中美宣布签署协议前几天,知名学府清华大学两名研究人员所发布的一项报告显示,燃煤引发的空气污染每年都会造成约67万人过早死亡,这再次突出了中国严重依赖煤电所付出的代价。清华大学副教授腾飞指出,中国每生产一吨煤,就会产生286元人民币的环境和健康成本。而据世界煤炭协会(World Coal Association)的数据显示,2013年中国生产了近40亿吨煤炭。The Tsinghua study follows a 2011 report by the World Health Organization, published in The Lancet, that estimated that 1.2 million people in China died in 2010 from diseases related to all forms of air pollution. China also has by far the deadliest mining industry in the world: One thousand forty-nine coal miners died in accidents in 2013, down 23% from the year before but still far more than any other country.上述研究成果出炉前,世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)曾于2011年在医学杂志《柳叶刀》(The Lancet)上发表报告称,2010年有120万中国人死于各种空气污染引发的疾病。同时,中国还是世界上死于矿难人数最多的国家:2013年有1049名生产人员死于煤矿事故,虽比上年下降了23%,但仍远高于世界其他国家。Mounting evidence of coal’s environmental damage comes as China’s slowing economy has reduced demand for electricity, creating an oversupply crisis for an industry that has known nothing but steady growth for the last three decades. China has reached “a very critical moment in the management of its coal resources, and in the history of the coal industry,” says Cao Xia, a professor of environmental law at Shanxi University of Finance and Economics, in China’s coal heartland, Shanxi Province.就在经济增速放缓造成中国电力需求下降之际,体现煤炭污染环境的据越来越多,这给30年来一直以稳定增长著称的煤炭行业带来了供给过剩危机。在中国产煤大省山西,山西财经大学环境法教授曹霞认为:中国在煤炭资源管理方面以及在煤炭行业发展史上已经到了“一个非常关键的时刻。”The direct, domestic impacts of the nation’s massive coal industry, which produces and consumes about as much coal as the rest of the world combined, are added to the indirect, worldwide costs in terms of greenhouse gas emissions. No international program to combat climate change can succeed unless China slashes its burning of coal.中国煤炭行业规模庞大,煤炭产销量几乎和全球其他地区的总和相当。除了在国内造成的直接影响,这个行业产生的温室气体排放还给整个世界带来了间接成本。除非中国削减煤炭消费量,否则任何应对气候变化的国际性方案都无法获得成功。“The actions China takes in the next decade will be critical for the future of China and the world,” wrote Fergus Green and Nicholas Stern in a research paper for the Center for Climate Change Economics and Policy, in London. “Whether China moves onto an innovative, sustainable, and low-carbon growth path this decade will more or less determine both China’s longer-term economic prospects … and the world’s prospects of cutting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions sufficiently to manage the grave risks of climate change.”费格斯o格林(Fergus Green)和尼古拉斯o斯特恩(Nicholas Stern)在向伦敦气候变化经济和政策中心(Center for Climate Change Economics and Policy)提交的研究报告中写道:“中国在今后10年采取的行动对中国和全球的未来都很关键。在这10年里,中国能否实现创新和可持续的低碳增长将或多或少地决定中国的长期经济前景……也将决定全世界的温室气体减排幅度是否足以应对气候变化带来的重大风险。”Facing mounting public outrage over air and water pollution, the central government’s actions to limit coal use have multiplied in recent months. The Airborne Pollution Action Plan, unveiled by the central government in September 2013, calls for a reduction of air pollution in the northern region surrounding Beijing by 25%, and 20% in the Yangtze River Delta.随着公众对空气和水污染不满的渐增,近几个月,中国中央政府限制使用煤炭的力度倍增。2013年9月,中央政府发布了《大气污染防治行动计划》,目标是让京津冀地区细颗粒物浓度下降25%,长三角地区下降20%。Aly, strict limitations on coal use in major urban areas, including Beijing and Shanghai, are in place. Planning to cap total coal production at 4.1 billion tons as of 2015, the government said in October it will no longer approve new coal mining projects below 300,000 metric tons (330,000 short tons), effectively banning the small, unregulated mines that have contributed to the coal glut. Hundreds of small mines have aly closed, and the government has also taken steps to restrict imports of “dirty” coal—i.e., coal with high levels of ash and sulfur. (Although China’s coal market is oversupplied, imports continue because domestic transport issues mean it’s often cheaper to purchase coal shipped from Indonesia or Australia than buy domestic coal from the northern provinces of Shanxi and Inner Mongolia.)包括北京和上海在内的主要城市已经对使用煤炭做出了严格限制。按照十二五规划,2015年中国煤炭产能将达到41亿吨。今年10月份,中国政府表示,将不再核准新建30万吨(约合33万净吨)以下的煤矿,这实际上封杀了那些造成煤炭供给过剩的小型不规范煤矿。数百个小煤矿已经关闭,中国政府同时采取措施限制进口“脏”煤,即含硫量和灰分高的煤炭(尽管中国煤炭市场已经供过于求,但受国内运输条件限制,购买印尼或澳大利亚煤炭要比购买山西和内蒙等国内北部省份的煤炭便宜,所以中国一直在进口煤炭)。At the same time, though, China is embarking on a grandiose plan not to shut down the coal industry but to move it inland, away from the big cities of the coast and from the prying eyes of international environmental groups. As I reported for Fortune from Shanxi Province in April, coal producers, under the direction of the central and provincial governments, are building huge “coal bases” in the northwest provinces that will include large mines, power plants connected to coastal cities via gigantic high-voltage transmission lines, huge plants to convert coal to liquid fuel, and related facilities such as concrete plants and chemical plants.与此同时,中国正在实施一项宏伟计划,其内容不是整体关闭煤炭行业,而是将其迁移到内陆,远离沿海地区大城市以及国际环保团体的挑剔目光。今年4月份我曾从山西向《财富》杂志发回过报道,在中央和省政府的指导下,煤炭企业正在西北省份建立大型煤炭基地。这些基地将包括大型煤矿、通过特高压输电线路和沿海城市相连的发电厂、大型煤制油工厂以及混凝土厂和化工厂等配套设施。This huge migration and consolidation may well clean up the skies in cities like Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen, thus reducing rates of respiratory disease and deaths linked to air pollution. It could also rationalize the coal industry, better matching supply to demand, and reduce China’s imports of foreign oil. What it won’t do is reduce the country’s overall carbon emissions; in fact, it could drastically increase them, as more coal gets burned and more carbon-intensive processes – particularly coal-to-liquids conversion – are expanded.这项重大的迁移及整合计划可能会让北京、上海和深圳等城市的天空蓝起来,从而降低空气污染引发的呼吸道疾病发病率和死亡人数。这项措施还有可能理顺煤炭行业格局,让供需更加平衡,并减少中国的石油进口。但它无法降低中国的整体碳排放水平。实际上,此举可能大幅度提高中国的碳排放量,原因是燃煤数量的增多以及碳密集型生产工艺将得到更普遍的使用,特别是煤制油。“We are very concerned” about the coal-base plan, says Ailun Yang, a senior associate with the World Resources Institute who focuses on energy issues in China. “Enforcing tougher air pollution standards along the coast will lead to shutting down coal plants, and create demand for a lot more gas. The western parts of China want to supply the gas by turning coal into gas. That process will be very, very bad for the world.”世界资源研究所(World Resources Institute)重点关注中国能源问题的高级研究员杨艾伦(音译)说:“我们非常担心。在沿海地区执行更严格的空气污染标准意味着关闭燃煤发电厂,这将为天然气带来大量需求。中国西部地区想将煤转换成天然气并对外供应。这对全世界来说是一项非常不好的工艺。”Headline writers often refer to China’s “addiction” to coal. The relationship might be better thought of as a bad marriage, where neither partner can afford to leave. China needs the coal industry to fuel its demand for energy, which will surely continue to rise as the economy grows (even at rates of 7% to 8% a year, rather than the red-hot 10% to 12% annually of the last decade) and the middle class expands. The coal industry, of course, requires rising demand to continue to grow, to generate returns on its huge capital investments of the last decade, and to provide jobs for the hundreds of thousands of people who work in coal mines, coal plants, and related industries. In Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, and Xinjiang, entire cities depend on coal production and processing.新闻头条记者经常用“依赖上瘾”来形容中国与煤炭的关系。将此想象为一场失败的婚姻也许更为合适——在这里,双方谁也离不开谁。中国需要煤炭行业来满足国内能源需求。随着经济的增长(就算年增长率为7-8%,而不是过去10年中白热化的10-12%)和中产阶层的扩大,中国的能源需求必将继续上升。当然,煤炭行业也要依靠需求的不断扩大来保持增长,从而为10年来投入的大量资金提供回报,并通过煤矿、燃煤发电厂以及相关行业创造出数以十万计的就业机会。在山西、内蒙古和新疆,都存在着整座城市都依赖于煤炭开采和加工的现象。Coal in China has created an economy within an economy, and reducing the size of the coal industry would result in massive unemployment across large swaths of the country. Notwithstanding China’s huge push on renewable energy and natural gas, it’s hard to see how this co-dependency will be broken any time soon.煤炭行业已经在中国经济体系中自成一体。压缩煤炭行业的规模将造成大量人员失业。尽管中国正在大力推广可再生能源和天然气,但很难想象中国经济和煤炭的这种相互依存关系很快就会被打破。That’s not to say there’s no hope. China’s overall energy intensity (the amount of energy required to produce a given unit of GDP) has gone down in recent years, as the export-led economy shifts toward higher-tech products and services. Most areas of the country are on track to meet or exceed energy-conservation targets for 2015, according to the National Development and Reform Commission (as reported by Reuters), and the rate of growth in energy use is expected to fall by half this year compared to 2013. According to China-based researchers for Greenpeace, the total amount of coal burned in the first three-quarters of 2014 was 1% to 2% lower than the same period a year earlier.但这并不是说没有希望。近几年,随着中国的出口型经济向科技含量较高的产品和务转移,中国的整体能源密集度(创造单位GDP所需的能源)已经下降。据路透社(Reuters)报道,国家发改委表示,中国大多数地区都将达到或者超额完成2015年节能目标;预计今年中国的能源消费增速将比2013年下降一半。绿色和平组织(Greenpeace)驻中国研究人员指出,2014年前三个季度,中国的燃煤总量比上年同期减少了1-2%。“The data suggests the world’s largest economy is finally starting to radically slow down its emission growth,” wrote the Greenpeace analysts.绿色和平组织的分析师们写道:“相关数据表明,作为全球最大的经济体,中国终于开始从根本上降低温室气体排放增速。”Still, the coal beast on the mainland continues to grow. In October, just as the results of the Tsinghua University study of coal fatalities was being released, the national news agency Xinhua reported that a huge coal field, containing 12.8 billion tons, had been discovered in western Xinjiang. Mining has aly begun.不过,难以驾驭的中国煤炭行业仍在增长。今年10月份,就在清华大学公布上述研究结果的同时,新华社报道称新疆西部发现了储量128亿吨的大型煤田,而且已经开始采煤。 /201411/343049

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