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Business商业报道Cinema economics影院经济学Bigger on the inside在里面更大Now showing at your local cinema: operas, circuses and television shows现在正在您当地的影院上映的:歌剧,马戏团和电视节目WHOVIANS habitually sit on the sofa—or hide behind it—to watch their favourite time-traveller battle Daleks, Cybermen, Zygons and other monsters.WHOVIANS习惯性地坐在沙发或隐藏在背后,看着自己喜欢的电影《穿越时空的少女》与Daleks,赛人,Zygons和其他怪物战斗。But on November 23rd thousands of them, all around the world, settled into cinema seats to see Doctor Who in 3D.但11月23日在世界各地数千人去电影院看3D版的神秘士。The 50th-anniversary episode of the British television show was screened on 800 big screens in 20 countries at the same time as being broadcast on the Bs channels.英国电视的50周年庆的插播节目被20个国家的800个大屏幕在同一时间正在播出的B的频道所屏蔽。The Doctors appearance exemplifies the rise of event cinema, in which film theatres show more than just films.士的出现实了实景电影的兴起,不仅仅是剧院里的电影。Cinema-goers can be thrilled by live sporting events or lulled by arias from the worlds great opera houses.电影观众可以通过直播体育赛事感到很兴奋,或因世界上最伟大的歌剧院的咏叹调感到平静。They have still been able to see Life and Death in Pompeii and Herculaneum, although the exhibition at the British Museum closed in September.他们仍然能够看到在庞贝和赫库兰尼姆时期的生和死,虽然大英物馆的展览在九月就已经结束。Event cinema accounts for only around 1% of global box-office takings, but it is growing quickly.实景影院只占全球票房收入的1%左右,但它正在迅速增长。David Hancock of IHS, a research firm, thinks it will bring in 0m this year and maybe billion by 2018.调查公司IHS的大卫·汉考克认为它今年将带来3.8亿美元的收入,到2018年也许可以达到十亿美元。This new breed of programming is made possible by the sp of digital technology.由于数字技术的普及使这种类型的编剧成为可能。Cinemas no longer rely on the delivery of 35mm reels, now that pictures can be delivered over satellite or broadband connections.电影院不再依赖于35mm的胶卷,现在图片可通过卫星或宽带连接传输。Cinema-owners can make fuller use of their screens, and audiences see delights they would otherwise miss.影院业主可以更充分地利用他们的屏幕,和观众欣赏已经播过的电影。We have a presence in 78 Mexican cities, says Alejandro Ramirez, the boss of Cinepolis, which runs plush cinemas in the Americas and India.我们在墨西哥的78个城市都有,Cinepolis的老板亚历杭德罗·拉米雷斯说,他运行在美洲和印度的豪华电影院。In the vast majority of these cities, there is no opera, he notes.在这些城市中绝大多数没有剧院,他说。So far this year nearly 300,000 people worldwide have gone to see opera and other alternative programming, such as Cirque du Soleil 3D, a circus performance, at Cinepoliss theatres.今年到目前为止,全球有近30万人去看戏剧及其他另类节目,如 3D太阳马戏团,在Cinepolis剧院的马戏表演。Cinema-owners want to do more than beam in events.影院的老板除了放电影外还想做更多的事。For instance, Tim Richards, the founder of Vue Cinemas, which operates chains in Europe and Taiwan, predicts that theatres will be rented during off-peak hours to -game players to display contests on the big screen.例如,Vue影院的创始人蒂姆·理查兹,经营在欧洲和台湾的连锁店,预测剧院将在非高峰时段出租给视频游戏玩家在大屏幕上进行比赛。We are not trying to displace Hollywood films, he says.我们并不试图取代好莱坞电影,他说。All we are trying to do is make better use of the assets we have.所有我们正在试图做的只是更好地利用我们的资产。Finding new uses for screens is a product of economic necessity as well as technological opportunity.寻找屏幕新的用途在经济上很有必要,也是因为有技术的机遇。Ten years ago Americans and Canadians went to the cinema almost five times a year on average; now it is closer to four.十年前,美国人和加拿大人平均每年去电影院近五次,现在它更接近四次。In America and Europe in particular, at-home film offerings, including -on-demand, are plentiful—and cheaper than a night out.在美国和欧洲,特别是在家里的家庭影院包括视频点播很丰富而且比夜晚出去看更便宜。To make that night out worthwhile, cinemas, like ageing starlets, are trying to doll themselves up.为了让这个夜晚值得,电影院,像过气的小明星试图让自己年轻起来。They are installing plusher chairs, many of which recline nearly horizontally.他们正在安装plusher椅子,其中有许多低的接近水平。AMC, an American chain, has found that these VIP seats decrease theatres capacity by two-thirds, but can boost attendances by 90% or more, as well as commanding higher prices.AMC美国连锁公司已经发现,这些贵宾席减少剧院的三分之二座位,但可以达到90%以上的上座率以及更高的价格。Cinemas have rarely lived by the price of admission alone—margins on popcorn are around 80%—and many are trying to fatten what they can earn once people are inside the doors.电影院很少只靠门票赚取利润,爆米花的利润率约80%,许多人试图依靠进入影院的人来养肥他们。More cinemas are selling booze, notably in countries where a night at the pictures has usually been a dry affair.很多电影院卖酒,尤其是在一个晚上都看电影的国家。In 2011 Matthew Viragh , the founder of Nitehawk Cinema, an independent theatre in Brooklyn, campaigned successfully to overturn a New York state law banning the sale of alcohol in cinemas.2011年Nitehawk电影院的创始人马修沃夫,布鲁克林一个独立的剧场,成功地推翻纽约州法律禁止在电影院出售酒精。Moviegoers are much likelier to order a second drink than a second tub of popcorn.观众更有可能要第二杯喝的而不是第二桶爆米花。Some offer full meals, served by waiters, so that audiences can eat while they watch.有些影院由务员提供正餐,让观众可以一边吃一边看电影。Nitehawk even provides dishes suited to the films on show.Nitehawk甚至提供适合播出电影的菜肴。One recent evening a viewing of Kill Your Darlings, a new film about Allen Ginsberg, could be accompanied by a Beet Generation salad or an Allen in Wonderland cocktail.不久前的一个晚上上映的《杀死汝爱》,关于艾伦·金斯堡的一个新电影,可能会伴随着甜菜色拉或者艾伦仙境的鸡尾酒。Concocting a mouthwatering for Whovians may be harder: a Zygon, in the Doctors words, is a big red rubbery thing covered in suckers, with venom sacs in its tongue. Bon appetit.为Whovians提供一个令人垂涎的菜单可能会更难:用医生的话说Zygon是一个大红色胶状的东西被一个大吸盘盖着,在它的舌头内有毒液囊。祝你有个好胃口。 /201312/267185Finance and economics财经商业Defining class in Mexico墨西哥阶层划定Middle worth中产阶级的价值Politicians and statisticians hunt for the middle class政治家和统计员们寻找中产阶级IN THE hallowed name of the middle class, Mexicos politicians have been doing a lot of huffing and puffing lately.在中产阶级的神圣名义下,墨西哥的政治家最近一直在进行大量愤怒抨击。The source of their indignation is the presidents plan to raise income tax on annual salaries over 500,000 pesos and impose value-added tax on private schooling and mortgage payments.他们愤怒的起因是总统对年工资收入超过500,000比索的人提高所得税和对私人学校和抵押贷款征收增值税的计划。That, the peoples representatives complain, would beat the stuffing out of ordinary, hard-working families, so they plan to spare them the tax on schooling and housing.这样的话,人民的代表们抱怨道,会使普通的,努力工作的家庭一蹶不振,所以他们打算帮他们在教育和房贷方面减轻税务负担。If only the middle class were so lucky.如果中产阶级有这么幸运的话。According to measurements by the national statistics institute, most of its members earn nowhere near the 500,000-peso threshold, let alone send their children to private school or pay mortgages.根据国家统计局的测量,它的大部分成员每年赚的远远不到500,000门槛,更不用说送他们的孩子去私人学校或者付抵押贷款了。Defining the middle class in Mexico has become a subject of fierce debate since two pundits, Luis de la Calle and Luis Rubio, published a book last year called Mexico: A Middle Class Society.明确在墨西哥的中产阶级成为激烈辩论的一个话题,自从两个学者,Luis de Ia Calle and Luis Rubio,去年出版了一本名为墨西哥:一个中产阶级社会。Poor No More, Developed Not Yet.不再贫穷,尚未发达。It claimed that more than half of Mexicos population had joined the bourgeoisie.它声称超过一半的墨西哥人口已经成为了资产阶级。INEGIs statisticians were sceptical, partly because the book used access to technology as a measure of social status.国家统计局的统计员们对此持怀疑态度,部分是因为这本书以接触到现代科技作为社会地位的估量措施。So the institute set out to develop a new definition, not based on any preconceptions of what a middle-class household should look like.所以这个机构着手发展一个新的定义,不是基于任何对中产阶级的房子应该是什么样子的先入之见。First, INEGI looked at spending rather than income.首先,国家统计局把视线投向花费而不是收入。It reckoned spending is less likely to be underreported in its household surveys, and may also incorporate information about savings and expected future earnings.它认为花费更不可能在家庭调查中被低估,并且它可能还包含着储蓄和预期未来收入的信息。Household spending, however, can be a slippery gauge of social status.不过家庭花费可能是社会地位一个不容易捉摸的标准。It may rise in families with many children and fall among the elderly.它可能在孩子很多的家庭上升和老年人下降。It can be distorted by one-off events, such as illness or funerals.它可能被一次性的事件曲解,例如疾病或者葬礼。So INEGI focused on 17 categories of spending that are recurrent and to some extent discretionary, such as the number of rooms in a home, or outlays on chicken, education or haircuts.所以国家统计局集中关注17种周期性的并且在某种程度上具有任意性的花费,例如家里的房间数,或者在鸡肉上的花费,教育或者美发。This allowed INEGI to sort households into seven groups.这样使国家统计局将家庭分为七个种类。It then analysed these using more typical variables, such as income per head, education, age, family size and type of work.它接着使用更多的典型变量来分析这些家庭,如每个人头的收入,教育,年龄,家庭规模和工作类型。The combination of the two forms of analysis allowed it to establish levels of income at which consumption patterns tend to change.两种分析形式的结合让它能确立收入水平,在这种水平下消费模式有变化的趋势。INEGI concluded that Mexicos middle class, at 39% of the population, was much smaller than Messrs De la Calle and Rubio had estimated, but in keeping with the estimates of institutions like the World Bank.国家统计局总结墨西哥的中产阶级,占人口的39%,远远小于两位学者曾经估计的,而与像世界之类的机构估计一致。Moreover, middle-class Mexicans are not nearly as affluent as the politicians imagine, even if they are a lot more secure than those beneath them. Annual incomes reach only about 120,000 pesos—less than a quarter of the sum needed to enter the top tax bracket.更进一步,中产墨西哥人不是如同政治家们想象的那么富裕的,尽管他们要远远比那些在他们之下的人要安全的多。Only 29% of the middle class have children at private school, and just 9% pay mortgages.年度收入仅仅为120,000比索—少于进入最高税级所需要数额的四分之一。仅仅有29%的中产阶级的孩子在私人学校上学,以及9%在付房贷。Politicians, in contrast, earn upwards of 1m pesos a year, which makes them almost ten times wealthier than a middle-class person as defined by INEGI.政治家们,相反,每年赚超过1百万比索,这让他们几乎比一个被国家统计局定义为中产阶级的人富有十倍。No wonder they are out of touch.难怪他们与现实脱节。 /201310/260335Facing a freeze面临冻结Governments are reviewing plans to open Arctic waters to oilmen政府正审查在北极开采石油的计划WHEN BPs Macondo well began spewing oil into the Gulf of Mexico,当英国石油公司的麦肯多油井开始向墨西哥湾喷出石油的时候,the firm was in the midst of an effort to persuade Canadas energy regulator that safety standards英国石油公司正致力于劝说加拿大的能源监管机构,for offshore drilling in the Canadian Arctic were expensive, impractical and should be relaxed.称在加拿大的北极地区进行海底钻探的安全标准非常昂贵,不切实际,而且应该放弃。Hearings on the subject were promptly suspended and the regulator declared that no new drilling permits would be issued pending a review of existing rules.关于海底钻探的听会立即停止,监管机构称在审查现存规则的时候,不许可任何新的钻探。We have a duty to pause, to take stock of the incident, says Gaétan Caron, head of the National Energy Board.国家能源委员会主席扎艾当凯伦说,我们有义务停止,需要评估一下这次事件。For a time it looked as though the Arctic would be the next frontier for Western oil firms, which have only limited access to the most promising prospects in sunnier climes.一段时间以来,北极似乎会成为西方石油公司的下一个目标,这些石油公司在晴朗的气候要进入最富前景的区域是有限得。The retreat of the polar ice cap is making the region easier to work in, and there is thought to be lots of oil and gas to tap.北极冰盖的消融使得该区域更容易进入,人们认为那儿蕴藏着丰富的石油和天然气。But Canada is not the only country now thinking twice:但是加拿大不是唯一三思而行的国家:America, Norway and even Russia are all contemplating tighter rules for drilling.美国,挪威,甚至俄国都在考虑对钻探实施更严格的规则。Canadas stay on drilling, like a similar one imposed in America, is temporary.同美国的钻探情况一样,加拿大的钻探是临时的。But environmental groups and some indigenous people advocate more lasting restrictions,但是环境组织和一些本地居民提倡实施更持久的限制,on the ground that the Arctic is particularly ecologically fragile, far from clean-up crews and blanketed for much of the year in oil-trapping ice.理由是北极的生态尤其脆弱,这儿远离清理团队,钻取石油的冰面常年是草木不生。A vigorous argument about whether to open pristine bits of coastline to drilling had aly been under way in Norway.关于是否要开放原始的海岸线进行钻探,一直以来在挪威引起激烈的辩论。The spill has made a big impression in the country, says Kristin Halvorsen, who leads one of the parties in the governing coalition and opposes the expansion,执政联盟领导人之一,反对扩大钻探规模的克里斯蒂哈尔芙森称,墨西哥湾漏油事件在全国引起很大反响,because it shows that even with a lot of security measures and top modern technology, you cant insure against accidents when you are working with oil.因为这表明,即使有很多的安全措施和先进的现代技术,当你跟石油共事时,是无法保没有事故得。The row is threatening to undermine the coalition, with the prime minister refusing to rule out further drilling.由于总理拒绝排除未来钻探的可能性,关于钻探的争论威胁要损害执政联盟。Russias parliament, too, has begun debating updated environmental laws to address offshore spills—a move the government supports.俄国的议会同样已经开始就应付近海石油泄漏制定最新的环境法律展开辩论-政府持这一举动。Only Greenland, an autonomous Danish territory with high hopes for an oil-fuelled bonanza, is pressing ahead undaunted with plans to expand oil exploration.只有丹麦的海外郡格林兰岛,义无反顾地推行扩大石油开采计划。Its government has approved drilling this summer in Baffin Bay, close to its maritime boundary with Canada.这个小岛上有着丰富的石油矿藏。政府已经同意今年夏天在巴芬海湾进行开采活动,这个海湾与加拿大的海上国界离得很近。That decision has alarmed Jim Prentice, Canadas environment minister, who wants the highest environmental standards to be applied.这个决定让加拿大的环境部长吉姆普兰提斯大为震惊,他希望实行最高层次的环境标准。Mr Prentice and his counterparts from other Arctic states met in Greenland this week, to discuss offshore drilling among other topics.普兰提斯先生和来自其他北极国家的同行们本周在格林兰岛开会,讨论近海钻探和其他话题。The oil industry is relatively confident that their response to events farther south will not be too restrictive.石油工业对此相对有信心,他们对往更南方开采的反应不会太限制。After all, if the Arctic does not provide new supplies of oil, they will have to be obtained somewhere else.毕竟,如果北极不能提供新的石油,就肯定要从其他地方获取。As Benoit Beauchamp of the Arctic Institute of North America, a Canadian research outfit, notes:北美北极研究所是加拿大的一个研究机构,他的领导人贝诺伊特比查姆普称:That somewhere else might be the oil sands, which have their own environmental problems,有些地方也许有油砂,这些地方有自己的环境问题;or it could be coming from places where you have to deal with warlords and terrorists, like Africa, or the Middle East, where we pretty much have to send armies to protect the oil and gas.或者这些油砂的产地有军国主义和恐怖分子,例如非洲或是中东,我们肯定要派军队去保护石油和天然气。 /201305/237765

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