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2019年09月18日 16:19:20 | 作者:飞度分类 | 来源:新华社
For years, Toshiba, one of Japan’s best-known consumer electronics brands, had been a poster child of the country’s efforts to police corporate behaviour. The 140-year-old company even appeared as a case study in books on governance.多年来,日本最知名的消费电子品牌之一东芝(Toshiba),一直是该国在规范公司行为的努力中推崇的典范。这家拥40年历史的公司甚至曾经成为公司治理图书的研究案例。But what Seiya Shimaoka, an internal auditor at Toshiba, witnessed in late January was the opposite of exemplary behaviour. Instead, he saw the early signs of what would become one of the country’s most embarrassing corporate scandals, involving a company-wide effort to inflate profits by more than bn.但今月底,东芝内部监察委员岛冈圣Seiya Shimaoka)亲眼看到的情况却与典范行为背道而驰。他看到了即将成为日本最令人尴尬的公司丑闻之一的早期迹象,牵涉到全公司范围内将利润虚增0亿美元的行为。Mr Shimaoka repeatedly asked Makoto Kubo, head of Toshiba’s five-person auditing committee and a former chief financial officer of the company, to examine the accounts at its laptop business.岛冈圣也曾多次请求由5人组成的东芝监察委员会的委员长、东芝前首席财务官久保诚(Makoto Kubo)调查该公司笔记本电脑业务的账目。Mr Kubo brushed off the requests with a warning that reopening them would cause the company to miss its deadline for reporting earnings.久保诚没有理会这些请求,他警告称,重新调查账目将导致该公司无法按时提交财报。According to a 294-page report written by a panel of external lawyers and accountants, profits in its struggling PC division were later found to have been overstated.由外部律师和会计师组成的一个专门调查委员会撰写的长94页的报告称,东芝步履维艰的个人电脑业务的利润后来被发现有所夸大。Mr Shimaoka, who declined to comment, was one of the few executives who survived the ouster of nearly half of Toshiba’s 16-member board, including Hisao Tanaka, chief executive, after the panel found that top executives were involved in accounting malpractices over the past seven years.岛冈圣也拒绝置评。在该调查委员会发现过去7年东芝高管参与会计违规行为后,东芝的16人董事会有近一半被迫离职,包括社长田中久雄(Hisao Tanaka)。岛冈圣也是逃过此劫的少数高管之一。The scandal at the Japanese conglomerate with bn in annual sales has shaken a country that has embarked on sweeping governance reform championed by its prime minister, Shinzo Abe. It has also raised awkward questions about processes across corporate Japan, in the biggest scandal since the Olympus one in 2011.年销售额高达520亿美元的东芝的财务丑闻震惊日本,此前日本已启动得到首相安倍晋Shinzo Abe)持的大规模治理改革。这是自2011年奥林巴Olympus)会计丑闻以来日本最大的丑闻,它还引发了外界对于整个日本企业界治理流程的尴尬质疑。Toshiba was one of the early adopters of the reforms. It introduced three external directors in 2001 when Japanese boardrooms were still dominated by long-time company insiders. On paper, it had a structure that gave its external directors the authority to name top executives and an auditing committee to monitor behaviour of the company’s leaders.东芝是较早实施治理改革的日本公司之一。该公司001年引位外部董事,当时日本公司董事会仍由长期任职的公司内部人士主宰。从字面上来看,东芝的治理结构赋予了外部董事任命顶层高管的权力,并设立监察委员会监督该公司高管的行为。It was lauded for its efforts. In 2013, the group was ranked ninth out of 120 publicly traded Japanese companies with good governance practices in a list compiled by the Japan Corporate Governance Network, a Tokyo-based non-profit organisation.这些努力令东芝备受赞誉013年,在东京非盈利组织日本公司治理网络(Japan Corporate Governance Network) 编制的榜单上,东芝在治理良好20家日本上市公司中名列。The company was also featured in a corporate governance book published in May by Mori Hamada amp; Matsumoto, one of the country’s biggest law firms. in it, Mr Shimaoka described in detail the multiple layers of checks that were in place to ensure compliance.东芝还出现在日本最大律师事务所之一森滨田松本律师事务所(Mori Hamada amp; Matsumoto) 5月出版的一本公司治理书中。岛冈圣也在书中详细描述了东芝为确保合规而建立的多层控制体系。Yet the governance framework laid bare by the panel showed woefully ineffective monitoring at the company.然而,调查委员会揭示的治理框架却显示该公司的监督机制非常低效。For example, it said Mr Kubo was aware of improper accounting that was systematically carried out from 2008. It added that no action was taken despite the warnings from Mr Shimaoka.例如,该调查委员会表示,久保诚知晓自2008年开始系统性实施的不合规会计做法。该委员会补充称,尽管岛冈圣也提出警告,但东芝没有采取任何措斀?The panel also noted that the three external auditors included former diplomats and a former banker who had no accounting expertise. “Internal controls by the auditing committee were not functioning,it concluded.该委员会还指出,3名外部监察委员包括两名前外交官和一位前家,他们都没有会计专业技胀?该委员会总结称:“监察委员会的内部控制没有发挥作用。”Mr Kubo, who also resigned from the board yesterday, declined to comment.久保诚周二也从东芝董事会辞职,他拒绝置评。Kota Ezawa, an analyst at Citigroup, says a number of Japanese companies have appeared to be in compliance with the country’s corporate governance code introduced in June.花旗集团(Citigroup)分析师绘泽浩Kota Ezawa)表示,很多日本企业似乎都遵循了日月颁布的公司治理法规。Many have installed more outside directors, unwound large cross-shareholdings and promised higher returns on equity to investors.很多公司增加了外部董事,取消了大规模交叉持股,并向投资者承诺更高的股本回报率。“But look at Toshiba,he cautions. “We need to make sure that companies understand that having structures that look good is not enough.“但看看东芝吧,”他警告称,“我们需要确保企业明白,仅有表面上不错的治理结构是不够的。”“Toshiba was lauded as a frontrunner in governance efforts, but that was a misunderstanding. Its governance structure looked good but the execution was not.Similarly, Hiroyuki Kamano, a lawyer who sits on the board of several Japanese companies, says the aggressive pursuit of profits and pressures to meet earnings targets are not unique to Toshiba.“东芝被称赞为治理的先锋,但这是一种误解。该公司的治理结构看上去不错,但执行起来却并非如此。”类似地,在日本7家公司董事会任职的律师Hiroyuki Kamano表示,对于利润的疯狂追求以及实现盈利目标的压力并非东芝特有的。Nearly half of the overstated profits identified by the panel were attributed to the 2012 financial year when many companies, including Panasonic and Fujitsu, were grappling with pressures from the stronger yen and the aftermath of the 2011 tsunami and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident.该调查委员会确定的虚增利润中,近一半归属于2012财年,当时很多公司(包括松下(Panasonic)和富士Fujitsu))都在艰难应对日元走强所带来的压力,以及2011年日本海啸和福岛第一核电Fukushima Daiichi)核事故的影响。“Increased profits and better performance lead to promotions so there is always an evil incentiveto make the figures look better, says Mr Kamano.Hiroyuki Kamano表示,“利润增加和业绩改善会带来升职,因此总存在一种(让数据变得更好看的)罪恶动机”。Under Mr Tanaka, Toshiba had also sought to mitigate its dependence on chipmaking, which accounts for 26 per cent of its annual revenue and is the sole division which generates a double-digit profit margin.在田中久雄的领导下,东芝还寻求减弱对芯片制造业务的依赖,这项业务占东芝年收入的26%,是唯一取得两位数利润率的部门。“I was midway in my effort to build a second and third pillar of revenue,he said at a news conference announcing his resignation. “But building new pillars of revenue should not be equated with improper accounting.”“我正在努力构建第二个和第三个收入柱,”他在宣布辞职的新闻发布会上表示,“但构建新的收入柱不应等同于会计违规。”Mr Tanaka has denied giving instructions to employees to inflate profit figures.田中久雄否认曾指示员工夸大利润数据。However, analysts including Mr Ezawa say the scandal is not expected to have a significant impact on Toshiba’s earnings outlook despite uncertainties remaining on how far the company will need to write down the value of its assets.然而,包括绘泽浩太在内的分析师表示,预计这桩丑闻不会对东芝的盈利前景造成严重影响,不过现在仍不确定,该公司将需要在多大程度上减记其资产价值。This is especially true for Toshiba’s nuclear business, which struggled in the wake of the 2011 nuclear disaster. Others hope the scandal will accelerate pressures to unload underperforming assets.东芝的核业务尤其如此。在2011年福岛核灾难后,该业务陷入困境。其他一些人希望,这桩丑闻将向东芝施加更大压力,要求其剥离表现不佳的资产。“The change in earnings may be limited, but even more important is to improve the governance system to rebuild confidence in earnings,says Mr Ezawa.绘泽浩太表示:“盈利的变化可能有限,但更为重要的是改善治理体系,重建对盈利的信心。”来 /201507/387785Edward Snowden may have recently received a three-year extension of his stay in Russia, but the former National Security Agency contractor says in a new interview with WIRED magazine that he still clings to hope of returning home to the ed States, even if it means living behind bars.据英囀?当日新闻》网站(Today.com3日报道,爱德华·斯诺登可能已获得俄罗斯为期三年的居留许可。然而,这位前美国国家安全局职工在新一期《连线》杂志采访时表示,即使要遭受牢狱之苦,也愿意重返美国。“I told the government I’d volunteer for prison, as long as it served the right purpose, Snowden said the article released Wednesday. “I care more about the country than what happens to me. But we can’t allow the law to become a political weapon or agree to scare people away from standing up for their rights, no matter how good the deal. I’m not going to be part of that.”“我告诉美国政府只要目的正确,我愿意回国认罪刑,”斯诺登在周三公布的报道中表示。“比起自身的遭遇,我更关心美国的安危。但无论有多大的好处,我们不能让法律成为政治武器,或者成为恫吓人们放弃捍卫自身权利的威胁。我绝不会这样做。”Described by WIRED as “the most wanted man in the world, Snowden is being sought for leaking top-secret documents that unveiled widesp surveillance programs overseen by the federal government. He currently is hiding out in an undisclosed community in Russia, where he says he goes mostly unrecognized.斯诺登因泄漏机密文件、向媒体披露由联邦政府启动的秘密监控项目而被通缉,被《连线》杂志形容为“世界头号通缉犯”。目前,他藏身于俄罗斯一隐秘社区内,并称在那里没人能认出他。The magazine includes numerous photographs of Snowden, including a previously unseen one of him with his former boss Michael Hayden, a past director of both the NSA and CIA. Other photos show Snowden in silhouette in a hotel room, or on a couch looking fatigued. In another photo, Snowden wears a T-shirt with the word “SECURITYon the back. The one expected to draw criticism, however, is the magazine cover showing Snowden, whom many Americans consider a traitor, wrapped in an American flag.这本杂志中包含许多斯诺登的照片,其中一张首次曝光他与前任老板——前美国国家安全局及中央情报局局长迈克尔·海登的合影。其它照片则是关于斯诺登在酒店房间里或沙发上看似疲惫的剪影。在另一张照片中,斯诺登穿了一件背部印有“SECURITY”(“安保”)的T恤。斯诺登被多数美国人认为是卖国贼,原本以为这样的照片是在吸引更多的批评指责,然而,斯诺登拥抱美国国旗的照片却刊登在这本杂志的封面上。“He thought very carefully about that moment, WIRED editor-in-chief Scott Dadich, who wrote about the photo shoot for the magazine, told TODAYs Willie Geist. “He said, ‘I love my country. I feel like a patriot. And this is an important thing for me.And it was at that moment that we knew that we had the cover.”“他仔细斟酌着那一时刻。”《连线》杂志主编斯科特#8226;达迪奇(Scott Dadich)为杂志撰写了这组照片拍摄的故事,他向《当日新闻》记者的威利#8226;盖斯特(Willie Geist)透漏“斯诺登说,‘我爱我的祖国,我是一个热爱祖国的人。这一点对我来说至关重要。’那一刻,我们认为这张照片应作为杂志的封面。”In the WIRED article, Snowden disputed government claims that he lifted 1.7 million documents, calling the figure inflated. He also said he left a trail of digital b crumbs so that investigators would know which documents he copied and took and which ones he only “touched.”在《连线》杂志的一篇文章中写道,斯诺登与美国政府发生争议,政府声称他盗取了170万个文件,他直呼数字被恶意夸大。他还解释到自己故意留下一些蛛丝马迹,以便调查人员知道哪些文件被他复制,以及哪些文件只是被“动过”而已。His intent was to act as a whistleblower, not as a spy for a foreign government, he told the magazine. Government auditors, however, failed to catch on to any of the clues he left behind.他告诉该杂志,他的目的是揭发高密,而不是外国政府间谍。然而,政府审计人员未能理解任何他留下的线索。“I figured they would have a hard time, he said. “I didn’t figure they would be completely incapable.”“我想他们那段时期一定很难度过。”他说。“我没有想到他们会完全没办法。”In audio released by WIRED, Snowden describes technology as “the greatest equalizer in human historyand said his actions were driven by the desire to help educate Americans about their nation and their leaders.《连线》杂志发布的一段音频中,斯诺登将技术描写为“人类历史上最伟大的均衡器”,还称他的行为是为了帮助美国人去了解他们的国家和领导人。“I gave this information back to the public, to public hands, and the reason I did that was not to gain a label but to give you back a choice about the country you want to live in, he said.“我将这些信息公之于众,这样做的原因不是要给自己添加一个标签,而是还你一个选择权,由自己决定要生活在什么样的国家里”他称。Snowden also told WIRED about a top-secret NSA program in the works called “Monstermind, which would automatically retaliate against cyber attacks from foreign countries without any human involvement.斯诺登再次向《连线》杂志爆料,美国国家安全局正推进一个名为“怪兽大脑”的机密NSA项目,这一项目可以自动回击国外网络攻击,无需人工参与。WIRED writer Jim Bamford, who spent three days interviewing Snowden for the article, explained how such a program could go awry.《连线》杂志编辑吉姆·班福德(Jim Bamford)解释了这一项目的漏洞之处,为写这篇文章他耗时三天对斯诺登进行个人专访。“So you can have North Korea maybe attacking the ed States through a cyber attack, but masquerading it through Iran or masquerading it through Russia, he said. “And if you just turn around and automatically fire back, you may be starting an accidental war.”“所以你可以设想,朝鲜要通过网络攻击美国,但它伪装成是来自伊朗或俄罗斯的攻击”他称。“如果你只是转向自动反击,那么你可能会引发一场意外的战争。”The NSA told TODAY in a statement its officials would gladly speak with Snowden but back on American ground.美国国家安全局向《当日新闻》透漏,政府官员声明愿意与斯诺登对话——但要等他回到美囀?;If Mr. Snowden wants to discuss his activities, that conversation should be held with the US Department of Justice. He needs to return to the ed States to face the charges against him, ; the agency said.“如果斯诺登先生想讨论自己的种种行为,那么他应该与美国司法部面谈。他需要回到美国接受指控。”该机构表示。Bamford told TODAY hes amazed by the extent of the documents Snowden had access to.班福德告诉《当日新闻》,他的惊讶于斯诺登所窃取的文件机密程度。“Ive probably interviewed more NSA whistleblowers than anybody else, said Bamford, who is a former agency whistleblower himself. ;I was astonished at the accesses that Ed Snowden had. I mean, he had access to material well beyond top secret. Way over most anybodys head at NSA.”班福德之前也是一名泄密者,他称,“我可能是采访国家安全局泄密者最多的人。”“我对爱德华·斯诺登所窃取的文件机密程度感到很吃惊。我是说,他窃取的材料远远超出最高机密。这已超过了多数美国国家安全局领导的权限。”来 /201408/323301

An Egyptian court upheld a death sentence Tuesday for former President Mohamed Morsi in connection with a 2011 mass prison break. He was originally sentenced last month along with 100 others.埃及一家法院星期二宣布维持对前总统穆尔西的死刑判决。穆尔西被控参与2011年大规模越狱事件. 他上个月被判死刑,同时被判刑的还有其他一百人。The same court also sentenced Mr. Morsi to life in prison on Tuesday in a separate case involving charges of conspiring with foreign groups, including the Palestinian militant group Hamas.这家法院星期二还对穆尔西涉嫌的另一个案件作出判决。穆尔西因被控与巴勒斯坦极端组织哈马斯等外国组织合谋而被判处终身监禁。Since his 2013 ouster led by then-army chief and current President Abdel Fattah el-Sissi, the Egyptian government has brought multiple charges against Mr. Morsi and the leaders of his banned Muslim Brotherhood amid a massive crackdown against the group.前埃及最高军事将领、现任总统塞西2013年领导推翻穆尔西以来,大力镇压被取缔的穆斯林兄弟会,政府对穆尔西和穆兄会领袖提出多项指控。Tuesdays rulings also included a death sentence for Brotherhood leader Mohamed Badie and life in prison for other leaders.法院星期二还宣布维持对巴迪等穆兄会领导人的判决。巴迪被判处死刑,其他领导人被判处无期徒刑。The sentences can be appealed.被告可以对判决提出上诉。来 /201506/381494

Arson is suspected in a blaze that damaged the birthplace of Bill Clinton early Christmas morning. The fire at the William J. Clinton Birthplace, in Hope, Arkansas, broke out around 3:20 a.m. Friday.圣诞节凌晨,美国前总统比尔·克林顿的一处老宅起火受损,被怀疑是有意纵火。起火的房子位于阿肯色州的霍普市,是克林顿的出生地,起火时间大约是周五凌0分。The Arkansas Democrat-Gazette reports that the fire was quickly extinguished and only one room was damaged by flames, although there were also signs of smoke and water damage.阿肯色民主公报称,火势被迅速扑灭,只一个房间受到损毁,但房子仍有烟熏和水渍的痕迹。According to Hope Police Chief J.R. Wilson, the fire is under investigation, but arson is suspected.据霍普市警察局长J·R威尔逊称,起火原因正在调查,但有可能是人为纵火;Theres just evidence and signs that we do believe it was intentionally set,; said Hope Fire Department Chief Dale Glanton. ;It will be investigated and handled as a potential arson fire.; When firefighters first arrived, Glanton says the back wall on the east side of the home was on fire, sping up through the walls and up to the second floor of the house. They were able to douse the flames in a matter of minutes.霍普市消防局长戴尔·格兰顿称:“我们认为,有据和迹象表明,这是故意纵火案,该案将作为疑似纵火案进行调查和处理。格兰顿说,消防员抵达的时候,位于房屋东侧的后墙正在燃烧,并通过墙壁蔓延到了二楼,他们在几分钟之内将火势扑灭。Among the evidence, according to Wilson, is graffiti on the sidewalk leading up to a door, as well as on the door itself. Wilson said this is near where the fire appears to have initially been set, and that there was ;a strong odor of accelerant.;威尔逊表示,目前掌握的据是走道上的涂鸦指向了屋门,同时屋门上也有相同的涂鸦。他说这些涂鸦离纵火的地方很近,并且有强烈的催化剂味道。The building, which is designated a National Historic Site, is operated, staffed and maintained by the National Park Service. Other buildings on the property, including the National Park headquarters and gift shop, werent involved.这栋房屋被认定为美国的“国家历史遗迹”,并由国家公园工作人员进行运营和维护。而范围内别的建筑物,包括国家公园总部和礼品店等都不属于“国家历史遗迹”。The house was owned by Mr. Clintons grandparents, and is where the 42nd president spent the first four years of his life.该住宅此前归克林顿的祖父母所有,美国2任总统的克林顿出生后在此度过了四年的时间。Federal authorities were on their way to hope to assist local authorities with the investigation.联邦政府正派人前去霍普市,协助当地政府调查此案。来 /201512/418789

Assistant attorney-general John Carlin remembers when FBI cyber intelligence specialists sat in a locked room at the US attorney’s office in Washington, cut off from criminal prosecutors in the same building. Now those walls have broken down as law enforcement officials rethink how they work with intelligence to fight the mounting risk from cyber attacks that threaten national security.The shift helps explain why authorities named North Korea as the culprit behind the Sony Pictures cyber attack less than a month after the Hollywood studio was hacked. The approach also represents a more aggressive strategy of naming and shaming cyber attackers.“The world is watching so you need to send a message to regimes about what they can expect our response to be so you’re not operating in a cost-free environment where you think it will never be attributed to you,said Mr Carlin, head of the national security division in the Department of Justice. “We’re not afraid to say it and after we say it, there will be a proportionate response.”Previously, national security cyber cases were seen as an issue for the intelligence community. The strategy meant those incidents were usually kept quiet and, with no prosecutors involved, bringing charges was not an option.The siloed structure went against the trend for more information sharing between agencies after 2001’s September 11 US terrorist attacks.“When it came to cyber, we didn’t think we were applying some of the lessons we’d learned in combating the terrorism threat,Mr Carlin said. “If you don’t have prosecutors looking at it, you don’t know whether that’s a tool in the toolbox.”The approach changed in 2012, when the DoJ’s national security division created the national security cyber specialist network. It meant retraining prosecutors in the division, and in US attorney offices to ensure each had at least one prosecutor focused on national security cyber threats.At the same time, the FBI allowed agents to share intelligence with these prosecutors, who also began working with the FBI’s national cyber investigative joint task force made up of the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, the Defence Intelligence Agency and others.For the FBI, that meant taking classified information from the NSA, CIA and other agencies and translating that into evidence that could be declassified, which could be used in a criminal prosecution or cited to name a culprit, like in the Sony case. “Simply collecting ‘intelmay not be in the national interest when it comes to cyber attacks that threaten the national interest,said John Riggi, the FBI’s cyber division section chief. “We learnt post 9/11 that taking highly classified intelligence and turning it into evidence that can be used is a highly successful way to disrupt our adversaries.”The first public sign that the new approach was working came in the 2014 indictment of five Chinese soldiers accused of cyber hacking and economic espionage against US Steel, Westinghouse Electric and others. It was the first time state actors had been charged in that type of cyber case.FBI agents, the US attorney’s office in Pittsburgh, the NSD and others worked on the case in a way that it could be brought to a criminal court.“There was scepticism in some corners as to whether we’d be able to bring a case,Mr Carlin said. “It was important to show that yes, it can be done.”But the doubts have not disappeared. In the Sony case, sceptics were quick to say the evidence of IP addresses linked to North Korea could have been faked, for example.But translating intelligence into evidence helped authorities put the pieces together to name North Korea and issue new sanctions against the country and some of its officials. Bringing criminal charges could still be an option.The DoJ and the FBI have stepped up their efforts to encourage companies to come forward. Many are still reluctant to report breaches because they distrust agencies. “It makes it very challenging,Mr Riggi said. “Cyber is like no other threat we face and we can’t do our job without private sector help.”美国助理总检察官约翰#8226;卡林(John Carlin)还记得以前,美国联邦调查局(FBI)的网络情报专家坐在他在华盛顿的办公室中一间上锁的房间里,把同一栋大楼里的刑事检察官隔绝在外。现在,随着执法人员重新思考如何运用情报,以对抗威胁国家安全的网络攻击带来的越来越大的风险,隔绝情报人员和检察官的高墙轰然倒塌。这种转变有助于解释为何好莱坞制片公司索尼影Sony Pictures)遭受黑客攻击还不到一月,美国当局就指出朝鲜是这次网络攻击的幕后黑手。这种策略也表明美国当局对网络攻击者采用了更强硬的策略——直接点名曝光使其蒙羞。“世界都在看,因此你需要向其他政权发出信息,告诉他们我们会有什么反应,让他们明白:这不是一个做事没有代价的环境,别以为永远追查不到你头上,”现任美国司法部(Department of Justice)国家安全司主管的卡林说,“我们不怕说出来,而且说了以后,对方就会采取相应的反应。”以前,涉及国家安全的网络案件被视为情报人员要解决的问题。这种策略意味着当局对这些案件往往秘而不宣,没有检察官参与其中,因此根本不可能提起诉讼。这种封闭的机制有悖001/11恐怖袭击之后加强各机构间信息分享的趋势。“对于网络案件,我们认为我们以前没有把对抗恐怖主义威胁时吸取的一些经验运用到其中,”卡林说,“如果没有检察官参与查,你就不知道这个方法可不可用。012年这种策略发生了改变,美国司法部国家安全司创建了国家安全网络专家网,对该司和各个检察官办公室里的检察官重新培训,确保每个办公室都至少有一名检察官重点关注国家安全网络威胁。与此同时,FBI批准探员与这些检察官分享情报,这些检察官也开始与FBI国家网络调查联合特别工作组合作,小组成员来自美国中央情报局(CIA)、美国国家安全局(NSA)和美国国防情报局(Defence Intelligence Agency)。对FBI而言,这意味着将NSA、CIA和其他一些政府部门的机密信息转化成能够解密的据,以用于刑事诉讼,或者就像索尼影视的事件中那样,引为据点出肇事者的身份。“对于危及国家利益的网络攻击,仅仅收集‘情报’或许并不符合国家利益,”FBI网络部的科长约翰#8226;里吉(John Riggi)说,/11以后,我们意识到,将高度机密的情报转化成能够利用的据,是打垮我们的敌人的绝佳办法。”这种新策略首次公开亮相是在2014年,美国当局起诉5名中国军人,指控其对美国钢铁公司(US Steel)、西屋电Westinghouse Electric)等公司发起网络黑客活动和经济间谍活动。这类网络案件中,这是国家人员首次成为被控告的对象。FBI探员、匹兹堡检察官办公室、美国司法部国家安全司和其他参与方共同合作,使案件可以进入刑事诉讼程序。“有些人怀疑我们是否能够提起诉讼,”卡林说,“向世人展示我们能做到,这很重要。”但人们的怀疑并未消散。比如,在索尼影视的事件中,怀疑论者很快就表示,与朝鲜相关的IP地址据很可能是捏造的。然而,将情报化为据帮助当局将碎片拼凑在一起,指朝鲜为罪魁祸首,对朝鲜和一些朝鲜官员采取了新的制裁措施。提起刑事诉讼是可能做到的事情。司法部和FBI已加大努力鼓励企业挺身而出。许多企业在上报违法情况时依然态度勉强,因为它们不信任政府部门。“这让事情极具挑战性,”里吉说,“网络不像我们面临的任何其他威胁,如果没有私人部门的帮助,我们就无法开展工作。

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