2019年08月25日 22:35:15|来源:国际在线|编辑:医大全
An astute American foresaw Britain’s troubles in Europe long before a common market was a mere glint in the eye of Jean Monnet. Edward Stettinius, then US secretary of state, told President Franklin Roosevelt as the second world war drew towards a close in 1944, that the British would always be uncomfortable in any club that they did not lead.早在欧洲共同市场只是让莫Jean Monnet)眼中的一抹闪光很久之前,一位聪明的美国人就预见到了英国在欧洲的困境944年,在二战即将步入尾声时,当时的美国国务卿爱德华斯特提纽Edward Stettinius)告诉美国总统富兰克林圠斯Franklin Roosevelt),英国在任何一个自己不占据领导地位的俱乐部里永远都是不舒的。There are many explanations for the singularity of Britain’s view of its own continent, among them history, geography, political culture and self-image. It really does matter that 1,000 years have passed since the country was last invaded and that the chamber of the House of Commons is laid out for combat rather than consensus. The original sin as far as the EU is concerned, though, was to come late to an organisation in which leadership had aly been claimed by Paris and Bonn.英国对自己所处大陆的观点颇为奇特,这有很多原因,包括历史、地理、政治、文化和自我形象。自从英国上一次遭到入侵已经过000年了,英国下议院的设计是为了对抗而非达成共识,这些事实都很重要。然而,就欧EU)而言,英国的原罪在于,加入这个组织太晚,领导权已被法国和德国夺走了。Britain’s European question is as much about temperament as about the dastardly designs of those on the other side of the Channel. Standing aside in 1957 from the founding Treaty of Rome, before scurrying a few years later to climb aboard, spoke to a frame of mind that ricochets between innate superiority and recurring insecurity.英国的欧洲问题既与脾性有关,也与英吉利海峡对岸国家的卑鄙设计有关957年,英国对欧洲共同市场的创始条约《罗马条约Treaty of Rome)持观望态度,几年后又急忙加入,这说明了一种心态:英国摇摆于天生的优越感与重复出现的不安全感之间。Britain may be convinced it does not need the EU, but history recalls it must not allow its neighbours to conspire against it. So successive governments have rarely ventured more than halfway in an arrangement formalised in opt-outs from the euro and the Schengen frontier-free zone.英国可能认为,它不需要欧盟,但历史提醒英国,不能让邻国合谋反对英囀?因此,历届英国政府往往对欧洲共同市场半推半就:这种安排正式体现在英国选择不加入欧元区和申根区。The psychodrama is unlikely to be front and centre in the referendum on EU membership. Modern campaigning, we are told, is about pocketbook issues. Jobs, growth and living standards take precedence over grand visions. This, I think, is a mistake. Britain’s relationship with Europe stirs deep-rooted emotions and impulses.在就英国的欧盟成员国身份举行的公投中,这种心态不太可能唱主角。我们知道,现代运动关乎财政问题。就业、增长和生活标准盖过了远大理想。我认为,这是个错误。英国与欧洲的关系会搅动深层次的情绪和脉搏。The “outshave it that plucky Britain is better off striking out alone than bending to the will of Brussels. If anyone is nervous about being excluded, the sceptics add, the UK will get a good deal if the vote is to leave. Hmmm. David Cameron, prime minister, is rehearsing the dubious claim that renegotiation has secured “the best of both worldsa place at the table along with an exemption from all that stuff it does not like.“退欧派”人士认为,勇敢的英国单打独斗要好于向欧盟的意志屈。怀疑派补充称,如果有人对自己受到排斥感到担心,那么如果公投结果是脱欧,英国将获得一笔不错的买卖。英国首相戴维愠蕓伦(David Cameron)正默诵下面这种值得怀疑的说法:重新谈判会达到“两全其美”的结果——既在议事桌上获得一席之地,又免除所有英国不喜欢的责任。Valiant souls such as the Conservative Kenneth Clarke are in a minority even among pro-Europeans in recalling that the Union is an essential pillar of peace and security. For the most part such sentiments are seen as relics of the cold war. Today’s deracinated political discourse demands that British pro-Europeans instead sing the praises of, say, the single market in mobile telephony. They are the ones living in the past. Britain is neither safe nor secure. Russian revanchism, Islamist terrorism, and surging migration these are not threats susceptible to national resolution.在回想起欧盟是和平与安全的重要柱方面,即便在持欧盟的人士中,保守党人肯尼斯克拉克(Kenneth Clarke)等勇敢人士也属于少数派。这种观点基本上被视为冷战的残留。如今的脱欧政治言论要求持欧盟的英国人赞颂单一移动通讯市场。他们生活在过去。英国现在既不安全也没有保障。俄罗斯的复仇主义、伊斯兰的恐怖主义以及日益增加的移民,这些威胁不是凭一国之力可以解决的。The UK carries considerable clout: economic, diplomatic, cultural and military. It also confronts an ineluctable strategic fact. Decisions taken by Germany, France, Italy and the rest, whether about hard security, energy supply, climate change, economic management or financial regulation, have an impact on Britain’s national interest. The in-out choice is one between being a maker or a taker of the rules.英国有着巨大影响力:经济、外交、文化和军事。英国还面临着无法逃避的战略现实。德囀?法囀?意大利和其他国家做出的决定会对英国的国家利益造成影响,不管是硬安全、能源供应、气候变化、经济管理还是金融监管。选择留在欧盟还是退出欧盟,就是决定是要成为规则的制定者还是接受者。For now, the “insare in the grip of a certain complacency. Buoyed by largely favourable polls you hear them whisper that the die is cast. For all the inevitable brouhaha of the coming campaign (everyone expects a deal next month in Brussels to be followed by a referendum in June), the British will play it safe. They will opt, albeit with a certain sullenness, for the status quo rather than take a leap into the unknown.目前,“留欧派”陷入了某种自满情绪。受到基本有利的民意测验的提振,你会听到他们小声说木已成舟。尽管即将到来的公投将不可避免地出现骚动(所有人都预计欧盟于下月达成协议,然后英国在6月举行公投),英国人将谨慎行事。尽管情绪有些低沉,但他们将选择维持现状,而不是踏入未知境地。The pro-Europeans have a point. The glaring weakness of the out campaign is the absence of any credible alternative. The sceptics are profoundly divided on the extent to which Britain should cut itself loose. Some look to the Norwegian or Swiss example outside but playing by the single market rules. Others see the inherent absurdity of going to the trouble of leaving and then signing up again for all the rules. Singapore, they say, is a better model.“留欧派”是有道理的。脱欧运动的明显弱点在于没有提出任何可信的替代方案。怀疑派对于英国应获取多大程度的自由分歧严重。一些人考虑像挪威或瑞士那样:不加入欧盟但遵守单一市场规则。还有一些人认为,如此大费周章地退出欧盟、然后又遵守所有欧盟规则,从根本上就很荒唐。他们说,新加坡的模式更奀?Mr Clarke calls the sceptics old-fashioned rightwing nationalists, and there is much of that tradition among the Tory sceptics and in Nigel Farage’s UK Independence party. But Europe is an issue on which far right and far left meet. Jeremy Corbyn, the hard-left opposition Labour party leader, is as hostile to the EU as any rightwing populist. He is kept quiet only by of the threat of open civil war in his own party.克拉克将怀疑派称为旧式的右翼民族主义者,保守党怀疑派人士以及奈杰尔法拉奇(Nigel Farage)领导的英国独立党(UKIP)在很大程度上具有这种传统。但极右翼和极左翼人士在欧洲问题上意见相合。反对党工党(Labour party)的极左翼领导人杰里米科尔Jeremy Corbyn)对欧盟的敌意与右翼民粹主义分子一样深。他保持缄默的原因仅仅是害怕他所在政党爆发公开内战。What the pro-Europeans miss is the powerful emotional pull of the “outs Their appeal is to a mood that rejects the political elites, demonises big business and banking, and casts Brussels as the agent of unfettered globalisation and uncontrolled migration. In truth, there is no guarantee that when the British come to cast their ballots that they will prefer cold economic logic to the siren call of national self-discovery.留欧派忽视了退欧派的强大情感力量。退欧派迎合了这种情绪:反对政治精英,将大企业和业妖魔化,并把欧盟描绘为不受约束的全球化和不受控制的移民的代理人。实际上,谁也无法保,英国人在公投时会喜欢冷冰冰的经济逻辑,胜过国家自我发现的诱人召唤。Stettinius offered his observation as Britain entered the twilight of empire. His concern was that Britain would struggle to adjust to the emerging world of two superpowers. He did not imagine that, seven decades later, Britain would still be vexed by an innate reluctance to accept anything much less than leadership. Mr Cameron says the referendum will settle the matter. He is mistaken. Britain’s European question is about a lot more than membership of the EU.在英国走向帝国的黄昏时,斯特提纽斯提出了他的观点。他担心,英国将难以适应这个存在两个超级大国的新世界。他不会想到0年后,英国仍会因为天生不愿接受远远低于领导者的地位而感到烦恼。卡梅伦表示,公投将解决这个问题。他说错了。英国的欧洲问题远远不仅仅是关于欧盟成员国身什?来 /201602/426172

On Tuesday, in what is becoming a routine occurrence in this election year, Donald Trump cleaned up primary contests in all but four of the 11 US states in contention. And after months of living in denial, Republicans are grappling with the notion that the New York property mogul cum reality television star might win their party’s nomination. 周二,唐纳德#8226;特朗Donald Trump)在美国举行初选的11个州中的7个州碾压对手,这已成为本选举年的常态。在数月自欺欺人之后,共和党人不得不努力面对一种看法,即这位纽约地产大亨兼电视真人秀明星可能赢得本党提名Reactions from what Mr Trump likes to label “the establishmentrange from dutiful acceptance of the “will of the peopleto fervent pledges to oppose him, either by voting for Hillary Clinton or for a candidate from a third party. What is the right call for Republicans? 特朗普喜欢称之为“建制派”的那些共和党人反应各有不同,有的顺从地接受“人民的意志”,有的信誓旦旦地反对他,不是投票给希拉#8226;克林Hillary Clinton),就是投票持第三个党派的竞选人。共和党的正确反应是什么? The question is, by its nature, a personal one. In the US, asking people to say who they voted for or telling them how to vote is not the done thing. Even newspaper endorsements are couched as “our choicerather than an exhortation to vote for a particular candidate. Nor are most Americans party line voters. The people who will decide this election are not hardcore Republicans or Democrats. Many care about ideas; others nurture a sense that the government no longer cares about them. I feel the same way. 就其本质来说,这是个私人问题。在美国,让人们透露投票持谁或者告诉他们如何投票是不礼貌的行为。甚至,报纸会称所持的候选人为“我们的选择”,而不会劝说读者投票给某位候选人。大多数人美国人也不是忠诚拥护某一政党政策的选民。决定此次选举的人不是共和党或者民主党的核心人士。许多人关心理念;其他人则慢慢觉得美国政府不再关心他们。我也是这么认为的As an immigrant who first voted in 1992, standing at the ballot box still fills me with pride and amazement at my good fortune. I am also a Republican, but that is a coincidence of ideology not a matter of party loyalty. The things I believe in individual freedom, small government, US global leadership are moral rather than political choices. The people who share my views have tended to be Republicans but not always. When I vote, foreign policy is the deciding factor in my choice. That is the prism through which Mrs Clinton’s candidacy ought to be judged. 作为一个在1992年首次投票的移民,站在投票箱前仍让我对自己的幸运感到自豪和惊叹。我也是一名共和党人,但这是因为我的意识形态正好与共和党一致,并非是忠诚于共和党。我信仰的东西——个人自由、小政府、美国全球领导力——是道德而非政治上的选择。和我持相同观点的人往往是共和党人,但也并非全都是。当我投票的时候,外交政策是个决定性因素。我们应该从这个视角评判希拉里的候选人资格There will be some Republicans who will vote for Mrs Clinton, not on the merits, but simply because she is not Mr Trump. But it is more important to judge the former secretary of state on her record. She was an unremarkable senator, seemingly ungrounded in any particular set of convictions. As secretary of state she had a record that is at best feckless. 一些共和党人将会投票持希拉里,这不是因为她的优点,而只是因为她不是特朗普。但更重要的是,要从其过往记录评判这位美国前国务卿。希拉里在担任参议员时表现平平,任何观点似乎都没有依据。作为美国国务卿,她的记录能得到的最高评价也只能是平庸She has been attacked by Republicans for her role in the Benghazi debacle in 2012, in which Christopher Stevens, the US ambassador to Libya, was killed. But her graver sin was to support the overthrow of Muammer Gaddafi and then stay silent on the question of how to stabilise Libya in the aftermath. 希拉里由于在2012年班加西袭击事件中的角色而遭受共和党人的抨击——当时美国驻利比亚大使克里斯托弗#8226;史蒂文斯(Christopher Stevens)在班加西遇袭身亡。但她的更为严重的错误是持推翻穆阿迈尔#8226;卡扎Muammer Gaddafi),随后却在如何稳定利比亚局势的问题上保持沉默Even more troubling, her evasiveness about the activities of the Clinton Foundation and her use of a private email server while secretary of state, among other things, mean we cannot assume that anything she says now will be the case if and when she is resident in the White House. 更令人担忧的是,她对克林顿基金会(Clinton Foundation)的活动含糊其辞、在担任国务卿期间使用私人电邮务器、以及其他一些事情意味着,我们不能假定,如果她真的入主白宫,她现在说的任何事情还算数Oddly, this penchant for saying anything is one the likely Democratic candidate shares with Mr Trump. Where does he stand on foreign policy, for example? No one knows. He does not like Muslims but opposes the overthrowing of Middle East dictators such as Syria’s Bashar al-Assad. He says he would deport 11m illegal aliens. Apologists insist a President Trump would be limited by America’s constitutional checks and balances, and rendered incapable of carrying out his more radical plans. This is meant to be reassuring. 奇怪的是,特朗普与这位可能的民主党提名总统候选人都有这种信口开河的嗜好。例如,特朗普的外交政策立场是什么?没有人知道。他不喜欢穆斯林,但反对推翻叙利亚的巴沙#8226;阿萨Bashar al-Assad)等中东地区的独裁者。他说,他将驱100万非法移民。为他辩解的人坚称,特朗普如果当选总统,将受到美国宪法的制衡,无法实施其更激进的计划。这种说法只是安抚人And so America has come to a pretty pass, pitting a woman who is anathema to many against a man who reminds us of Benito Mussolini. Are we not better than this? I would hope so. Many Republicans will never vote for Mrs Clinton; more importantly for the party of Abraham Lincoln, they will never vote for Mr Trump. Libertarians, constitutionalists, small “ddemocrats, minorities and many more are y to fight for the soul of their movement. And if the Republican party no longer embodies that soul, they, like Senator Ben Sasse of Nebraska, will build another one that does. 因此美国陷入了困境,让一位许多人憎恶的女性与一位让我们想起贝尼#8226;墨索里尼(Benito Mussolini)的男性对决。难道不能出现更好的情况吗?我希望能。许多共和党人永远不会投票持希拉里;对亚伯拉罕#8226;林肯(Abraham Lincoln)的政党来说更重要的是,他们将永远不会投票持特朗普。自由派、立宪派、民主派、少数派以及其他许多人准备为他们的核心运动理念战斗。如果共和党不再体现他们的核心理念,他们就会与内布拉斯加州的参议员本#8226;萨斯(Ben Sasse)一样,创建另一个能够体现这些理念的党派At a moment when partisan loyalty and party power are at their weakest, it is time to fall back on the ideas and principles that matter. For conservatives, that means finding a candidate able to speak to the anger of voters who rightly feel betrayed by the parties that dominate the body politic. It does not mean compromising our values by opting for Mrs Clinton or Mr Trump. 在政党忠诚度和政党影响力最为薄弱之际,现在是时候倚重至关重要的思想和原则了。对保守派来说,这意味着找到一个能够直言选民愤怒的候选人——这些选民合理地感受到主导着美国的党派的背叛。这并不意味着要选择希拉里或者特朗普,让我们的价值观让步Being an American is more important than being a Republican or, for that matter, a Democrat. If that means the end of the two-party system, so be it. If it means a brokered convention, I will take it. 身为美国人比身为共和党人(或者就此而言是民主党人)更重要。如果这意味着两党制的终结,那就这样吧。如果这意味着“协商会议brokered convention),我会接受它。来 /201603/430523

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