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时间:2019年06月25日 02:19:08

One of the questions for the scientists一个留给科学家的问题是is how cats establish and defend these territories.猫是怎样建立和保卫这些领地的呢Ginger has lived in the village for ten years,小姜已经在镇上生活了十年了and seems to be a pretty placid, well-behaved cat.看起来像是一只温和乖巧的猫We think that he just goes next door,我们觉得他只是去了隔壁catches the odd bird, and sleeps.抓鸟 睡觉We don#39;t think he goes out at night,我们觉得他晚上没有出门because when you watch him,因为当你观察他时he doesn#39;t seem to like getting his paws wet他似乎不喜欢自己爪子变湿or being out in the rain or he doesn#39;t like the cold,或者在外面的雨里 或者他怕冷he doesn#39;t like the snow.他不喜欢下雪In the summer he#39;ll just sit and sunbathe in the garden,夏天的时候他就会在花园里晒日光浴so, yes, it will be interesting.是的 会很有趣But appearances deceive.但是外表会欺骗人Ginger, it turns out, has a secret life.我们发现小姜的生活有秘密Here#39;s Ginger,这是小姜he came over here and if we just move forward.我们往前移动 他向这边来了The GPS data shows he#39;s making a deliberate, provocative journeyGPS数据显示他会蓄意挑衅地into another cat#39;s garden.进入其他猫的花园重点解释:1.seem to be 看来, 好像例句:We seem to be missing two chairs.我们好像少了两把椅子。2.turn out 结果是例句:It turned out that this method doesn#39;t work well.结果是这方法不太管用。3.come over 从远处来例句:He has come over to China for the summer.他不远万里来中国度暑假。 Article/201607/456840

In Lincoln Cathedral lie the entrails of Eleanor of Castile,Queen to Edward I.林肯大教堂中安葬着埃莉诺的内脏 爱德华一世的皇后She died within months of the expulsions,leaving her husband,她在犹太人被放逐的数月后去世 丢下他的丈夫normally so thick-skinned and emotionally coarse,distraught, plunged into grief.那位通常麻木不仁 冷血无情的君主 心神狂乱 悲痛欲绝Edward#39;s devotion is best reflected in a monument unique in medieval kingship爱德华为了表达对王后的挚爱 建立了中世纪王族中最独特的纪念碑twelve crosses he built to mark the points where Eleanor#39;s body lay en route to Westminster Abbey.他建立了十二座十字架 用来标识 埃莉诺的灵柩在运往 威斯敏斯特教堂途中驻足的地方The most famous being Charing Cross in London.其中最著名的是伦敦的查令十字架Eleanor#39;s death seemed to transfer Edward#39;s reserve of passion埃莉诺的离世使得 爱德华将全部热情to what now became the real love of his life,the single-minded pursuit of imperial power.投向了他毕生真正热爱的事业 对帝王权力的不懈追求It was Scotland that was destined to be on the receiving end of Edward#39;s deadly power games,苏格兰注定将成为 爱德华权力游戏的攻击目标which began, as always,by converting accidents into opportunities.这一次 一如既往 他成功地将意外事件转化为了扩张的机会The accident was the death in 1290 of the last surviving direct heir to Alexander III, king of Scotland.这个意外事件就是1290年 苏格兰国王亚历山大三世 最后一位直系继承人的死亡With her gone,the Scottish nobles were lining up for the throne.随着她的去世 苏格兰贵族们纷纷开始觊觎王位Someone was needed to judge the contestants.Well, guess who?必须有人对王位继承进行裁决 来猜猜是谁吧 /201610/472897

栏目简介:;Shanghai Live; focuses on big events in the city and major issues around the world, and presents them in a practical and audience-friendly manner to meet the ever-evolving needs of Shanghai#39;s English-speaking viewers,both local and expatriate.《直播上海英语电台》集中报道城市大事件以及全球热点话题,并以观众喜闻乐见的方式呈现给大家,从而满足上海本地以及上海海外人士的英语需求。 Article/201608/460626

But the match was a gamble. He was 19, she was pushing 30.但这婚姻是场 他只有十九 而她年近三十He was relatively inexperienced,Eleanor had seen as much of the ways of the world as it could offer.他只是初出茅庐 而埃莉诺见多识广 早已历经沧桑And yet something rather surprising happened between the teenage Arthur and the mercurial Guinevere,虽然以政治谋利益的婚姻 对于年轻的亚瑟王something that wasn#39;t supposed to happen in a marriage of political convenience.与机智的桂妮薇儿 不太可能有什么意外之喜The parties actually fancied each other.然而 他们彼此却真一见钟情Henry found himself at the altar in 1152, beside an older woman1152年 亨利王大婚 身边的女人described as a graceful, dark-eyed beauty,disconcertingly articulate, strong-minded and jocular.年纪稍长 眸子乌黑 形容姣好 举止优雅 才思敏捷 机智善辩 幽默风趣 极有主见Hardly the veiled damsel in the tower.不似养在深闺的懵懂少女One likes to think from her part that Eleanor saw not just the usual spur-clanking bonehead,从埃莉诺的角度来看 他并非只懂骑马打仗的凡夫俗子but beyond a stocky frame and barrel chest,someone who is intriguing peculiarity;在健硕的身躯和结实的胸膛之外 有某种难以名状的奇异特质The rare prince who looked right with a falcon on one hand and a book in the other.这位年轻的王子望向右方 一手托着猎鹰 一手则拿着书It was Eleanor#39;s homeland, Aquitaine,that was the greatest prize.而是埃莉诺的家乡 阿基坦 才是价值非凡的礼物A vast stretch of land between Anjou and the Pyrenees.它位于安茹和庇里牛斯山之间 地域辽阔A place where wine-steeped Latin culture had been polished anew by Provencal sensuality.在这里 普罗旺斯的声色犬马 又将酒色浸淫的拉丁文化发扬光大 /201609/464329

Hablas espanol? Parlez-vous francais? 你会说中文吗?你会说西班牙语吗?你会你讲法语吗?你会说中文吗?If you answered, ;si,; ;oui,; and you#39;re watching this in English,如果你能回答 ;si;,;oui;或是;会;,而且能用英文字幕观看这部短片,chances are you belong to the world#39;s bilingual and multilingual majority.你就跟世界上大多数人一样,属于双语或多语的使用者。And besides having an easier time traveling or watching movies without subtitles,除了旅游时沟通比较方便,或是看电影时不需要字幕这些好处之外,knowing two or more languages means that your brain may actually look and work differently than those of your monolingual friends.通晓两种或三种以上的语言,表示你的脑袋在外表和运作方式上,与使用单一语言的朋友有明显的不同。So what does it really mean to know a language?究竟什么是通晓一种语言?Language ability is typically measured in two active parts, speaking and writing, and two passive parts, listening and ing.衡量语言的使用能力,包含两种主动能力:说、写;另外还有两种被动方式:听、阅读。While a balanced bilingual has near equal abilities across the board in two languages,虽然一个平衡的双语使用者,对于两种语言,具有相近的使用能力;most bilinguals around the world know and use their languages in varying proportions.但是大多数的双语使用者,当初如何学习并运用语言,有许多不同的方式。And depending on their situation and how they acquired each language, they can be classified into three general types.根据个人所处的环境,以及如何学习语言的方式,通常可以把双语使用者分为三类:For example, let#39;s take Gabriella, whose family immigrates to the US from Peru when she#39;s two-years old.举个例子来说,Gabriella在两岁时跟着家人由秘鲁移民到美国。As a compound bilingual, Gabriella develops two linguistic codes simultaneously, with a single set of concepts,作为一个复合型双语者,Gabriella在刚接触这个世界时就同时学英语和西班牙语,learning both English and Spanish as she begins to process the world around her.所以给她一个概念,她的大脑就能同时唤起两种语言信号。Her teenage brother, on the other hand, might be a coordinate bilingual,她有一个十几岁的弟弟,是属于对等型双语使用者,working with two sets of concepts, learning English in school, while continuing to speak Spanish at home and with friends.他运用两组不同的概念,一面在学校学习英语,一面用西班牙语,跟家人、朋友沟通。Finally, Gabriella#39;s parents are likely to be subordinate bilinguals最后是加布瑞拉的父母,他们是从属型双语使用者。who learn a secondary language by filtering it through their primary language.当他们学习第二种语言时,需要透过母语进行翻译。Because all types of bilingual people can become fully proficient in a language regardless of accent or pronunciation,上述三种双语使用者,他们至少都能精通一种语言,无论是在腔调或是发音方面,the difference may not be apparent to a casual observer.因此,一般人难以发觉这三种类型的差异。But recent advances in brain imaging technology have given neurolinguists a glimpse into how specific aspects of language learning affect the bilingual brain.然而现在,由于大脑成像技术不断进步,神经语言学家得以窥探语言学习对于双语使用者的大脑产生何种影响。It#39;s well known that the brain#39;s left hemisphere is more dominant and analytical in logical processes,大家都知道,大脑的左半部主要掌管逻辑思考与分析,while the right hemisphere is more active in emotional and social ones, though this is a matter of degree, not an absolute split.而右半脑则掌管情感与社交活动,虽然左、右半脑有所区别,但并非完全独立运作。The fact that language involves both types of functions while lateralization develops gradually with age,事实上,语言同时包括了左脑与右脑的功能,而随着年纪增长,大脑功能逐渐侧重其中一边,has lead to the critical period hypothesis.这个观点发展出关键时期的假说。According to this theory, children learn languages more easily根据这个理论,儿童通常学习语言较快,because the plasticity of their developing brains lets them use both hemispheres in language acquisition,是因为大脑仍在发展,因此仍具有可塑性,他们可以同时利用左、右两边的大脑学习语言;while in most adults, language is lateralized to one hemisphere, usually the left.然而,多数成人会偏向採用其中一侧的大脑来学习语言,通常是左半脑。If this is true, learning a language in childhood may give you a more holistic grasp of its social and emotional contexts.如果这个观点正确,那么从小就学习语言,能够更容易掌握语言的社会和情感脉络。Conversely, recent research showed that people who learned a second language in adulthood相反地,最新的硏究指出:如果人们到了成年之后才学第二种语言,exhibit less emotional bias and a more rational approach when confronting problems in the second language than in their native one.当他们在使用第二种语言而非母语来处理问题时,会更理性,情绪化的偏见更少。But regardless of when you acquire additional languages, being multilingual gives your brain some remarkable advantages.不管你何时学习新的语言,多语言都能给你的大脑带来明显的好处。Some of these are even visible, such as higher density of the grey matter that contains most of your brain#39;s neurons and synapses,有些好处,甚至可以看得见,例如大脑灰白质的密度增加,那里包含了脑部大多数的神经元和突触,and more activity in certain regions when engaging a second language.而且学习第二语言时,大脑部分区域会变得更活跃。The heightened workout a bilingual brain receives throughout its life can also help delay the onset of diseases,使用双语的大脑,持续不断地接受强化训练,能够让一些疾病的发作,like Alzheimer#39;s and dementia by as much as five years.例如阿兹海默症与失智症,延迟高达五年之久。The idea of major cognitive benefits to bilingualism may seem intuitive now, but it would have surprised earlier experts.关于使用双语有助于人类认知的观点,在今天看似理所当然,但是对于从前的专家,他们必定会大吃一惊。Before the 1960s, bilingualism was considered a handicap that slowed a child#39;s development在1960年代以前,人们认为使用双语对于儿童的发展是一种障碍,by forcing them to spend too much energy distinguishing between languages, a view based largely on flawed studies.因为需要迫使儿童花费精神去分辨两种语言,而这种观点主要来自于错误的研究。And while a more recent study did show that reaction times and errors increase for some bilingual students in cross-language tests,最新的硏究显示,在跨语言测验当中,使用双语学生的反应时间与错误次数增加了it also showed that the effort and attention needed to switch between languages triggered more activity in,这个结果显示,学生需要更努力与专注于转换语言,and potentially strengthened, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.这也使得前额叶脑区不仅更加活跃,而且能强化它的功能。This is the part of the brain that plays a large role in executive function, problem solving,前额叶脑区的主要工作,是进行决策、解决问题,switching between tasks, and focusing while filtering out irrelevant information.以及在多重任务中进行转换,还有集中注意力,同时排除无关的资讯。So, while bilingualism may not necessarily make you smarter, it does make your brain more healthy, complex and actively engaged,虽然学习双语,未必能让你更聪明,但是可以让大脑更加健康、多元以及活化。and even if you didn#39;t have the good fortune of learning a second language as a child,即使在你年幼时,没有机会学习第二种语言,it#39;s never too late to do yourself a favor and make the linguistic leap from, ;Hello,; to ;Hola;、;Bonjour;、;你好;但是现在学习,永远不会太晚。学习外语的第一步,就是开始把;Hello;,转换为:;Hola;、;Bonjour;或是 ;你好;。because when it comes to our brains a little exercise can go a long way.只是小小的训练,就能对于大脑有所帮助。 Article/201707/517141


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