明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年12月12日 23:23:49

#39;Smart#39; Bandage Extracts Bacteria From Wounds新创可贴可从伤口吸出细菌In 1920, Johnson and Johnson employee Earle Dickson created the first bandage to cover the frequent burns and cuts his wife Josephine inflicted on herself while cooking. The hand-made prototype was instantly adopted by his employer and marketed as Band-Aid, a brand that has become synonymous with the word bandage. However, while the adhesive strips may now look different from Dickson#39;s creation they still perform the same job - Prevent bacteria from entering wounds. However, that may soon be a thing of the past, thanks to a new gauze that not only acts as a barrier between external bacteria and the wound, but also, sucks out the ones aly present!1920年,为了把妻子Josephine做饭过程中反复弄伤的手包起来防止感染,Johnson和他的雇员Earle Dickson发明了世界上第一个创可贴。随后,这种最初手工制作的创可贴在员工中迅速传播,并被命名为“邦迪贴”——取用英文“绷带”一词的谐音,开始对外出售。虽然现在的创可贴花样繁多,但用途不变——始终用来防止细菌进入伤口。但是,这即将成为过去,最近新发明的一款创可贴,不仅能防止细菌进入伤口,还能把伤口中的细菌吸出来。The brilliant technology that is still in the early stages of development is being spearheaded by Martina Abirgo, a Ph.D. candidate at the Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne, Australia. The team began by creating nanofibers using a technique called electrospinning. Used to build artificial tissue it entails pushing polymer out of an electrified nozzle to produce strands that are 100 times thinner than a single human hair. The nanofibers were then interwoven to create the smart bandage.这项由澳洲斯威本科技大学的士申请人Martina Abirgo发起的卓越的发明,尚处初始阶段。他们团队首先通过静电纺丝技术,制造出一种纳米纤维。这种纤维最初作人造纤维之用,可以把聚合物从电气化喷嘴中分离成比发丝还细100倍的线。这些纳米纤维缠绕在一起就形成了智能创可贴。Encouraged by the results, Martina and her team collaborated with scientists from the University of Sheffield in the ed Kingdom to conduct similar tests on artificial skin. Though the results are yet to be published, the scientists say that the mesh worked as effectively on the human manufactured living tissue. The smart bandage will now be tested on humans, and if all goes well, patients and doctors will soon be able to just peel away harmful bacteria using this ingenious bandage.受这个结果的鼓舞,Martina和她的团队与英国谢菲尔大学的科学家们一起,在人造皮肤上做了相同的测试。虽然测试结果尚未发布,科学家们已宣称这种材料在人造组织上效果良好。随后,智能创可贴将在人体测试,如果进展顺利,医生和病人们就能使用这种神奇的绷带,把有害细菌从人体分离。Though such a bandage would certainly be real cool for everyday playground scrapes and cuts, the technology is a lifesaver for people with compromised immunity levels. These include patients afflicted with diseases like diabetes and cancer. The researchers believe the technology could also be used to create protective clothing.这种创可贴针对日常的擦伤和刀伤非常好用,对那些不幸患上糖尿病和癌症的人等免疫缺失的人群来说,更是救命稻草。研究者还表示,这项技术也在防护衣的制作中也可以应用。译文属原创,,不得转载。 /201511/412361

The End of Qin Dynasty秦朝的灭亡In the beginning of October 207 B.C, Zhao Gao forced Huhai to commit suicide and replaced him with Fusu’s son,Ziying (子婴).公元前207年十月初,赵高强迫胡亥自杀,另立扶苏之子子婴为帝。Note that the title of Ziying was “ king of Qin” to reflect the fad that Qin no longer controlled the whole of China.子婴的称号是秦王,这也反映了秦朝大势已去,不再控制整个中国。The Chu-Han contention ensued.随之而来的是楚汉之争。Ziying soon killed Zhao Gao and surrendered to Liu Bang (刘邦)in the beginning of December 207 B.C.子婴登机之后不久便设计诛杀赵高,并在公元前207年十二月初投降刘邦。But Liu Bang was forced to hand over Xianyang and Ziying to Xiang Yu.但刘邦被迫将咸阳和子婴拱手让给项羽。Xiang Yu then killed Ziying and burned down the palace in the end of January 206 B.C.公元前206年一月末,项羽杀死子婴并火烧咸阳的宫殿,Thus the Qin dynasty came to an end, three years after the death of Qin Shi Huang, and less than twenty years after it was founded.至此,秦朝付之一炬,走向了灭亡,而这距离秦始皇驾崩仅三年,距离秦朝建立也不过20年的时间。Although the Qin Dynasty was short-lived, its legalist rule had a deep impact on later dynasties in China.虽然秦朝是个短命的王朝,但其法制规则对后世产生了深远的影响。The imperial system initiated during the Qin dynasty set a pattern that was developed over the next two millennia.由秦朝所创的皇权系统在之后的2000年一直被后世所效仿。 /201509/397332



  All dates are subject to change.展览日期有可能出现变动。ASIAN ART AT 100: A HISTORY IN PHOTOGRAPHS 亚洲艺术部百年诞辰:照片中的历史(Asian Art at 100: A History in Photographs) The Met continues its celebration of the Department of Asian Art’s 100th anniversary with 19 shows, including this meta-survey of the Met’s Asian galleries, photographed from 1907 to 1945. Through May 22, Metropolitan Museum of Art.大都会艺术物馆(Met)用19场展览来庆祝亚洲艺术部成立100周年,包括这场自我探究式的展览,展示该部从1907年至1945年以来的照片。大都会艺术物馆,至明年5月22日。FOR A NEW WORLD TO COME: EXPERIMENTS IN JAPANESE ART AND PHOTOGRAPHY, 1968-1979 即将到来的新世界:日本艺术和摄影实验,1968年至1979年(For a New World to Come: Experiments in Japanese Art and Photography, 1968-1979)Vietnam War protests and opposition to a treaty extending American occupation serve as backdrops for this exhibition of Japanese art, organized by the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston. Through Dec. 5, Grey Art Gallery, New York University, nyu.edu/greyart; Oct. 9-Jan. 10, Japan Society Gallery, japansociety.org.这场关于日本艺术的展览以反对越战及延长美军占领协议的抗议活动为背景,组织者是休斯顿美术馆(Museum of Fine Arts in Houston)。纽约大学格雷艺术画廊(Grey Art Gallery,nyu.edu/greyart),至12月5日;日本协会画廊(Japan Society Gallery,japansociety.org),至1月10日。PHILIPPINE GOLD: TREASURES OF FORGOTTEN KINGDOMS 菲律宾黄金:被遗忘国度的宝藏(Philippine Gold: Treasures of Forgotten Kingdoms)Jewelry, ceremonial weapons and funerary masks are among the roughly 120 objects on view, made between the 10th and 13th centuries. Through Jan. 3, Asia Society Museum, asiasociety.org.这场展览共展出约120件10世纪至13世纪的物品,包括珠宝、仪仗武器和丧礼面具。亚洲协会物馆(Asia Society Museum,asiasociety.org),至明年1月3日。FRANK GEHRY 弗兰克·格里(Frank Gehry)Co-organized by the Pompidou Center in Paris and LACMA, the exhibition looks at the career of Canadian-born starchitect Frank Gehry, who set up shop in Los Angeles in 1962. Sept. 13 through March 20, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, lacma.org.这场展览是巴黎的蓬皮杜中心(Pompidou Center)和洛杉矶艺术物馆(Los Angeles County Museum of Art)联手举办,探索加拿大出生的明星建筑师弗兰克·格里的事业。1962年,他在洛杉矶创办自己的建筑事务所。洛杉矶艺术物馆(lacma.org),至明年3月20日。GATES OF THE LORD: THE TRADITION OF KRISHNA PAINTING 神之门:克利须那绘画传统(Gates of the Lord: The Tradition of Krishna Painting)About 70 objects relating to pichwais, paintings portraying a distinct form of the Hindu god Krishna, and which originated in Western India, are on view. Sept. 13 through Jan. 3, Art Institute of Chicago, artic.edu.这场展览展示与pichwais有关的约70件艺术品。pichwais描绘印度教克利须那神的一个独特法相,它起源于西印度。芝加哥艺术学院(Art Institute of Chicago,artic.edu),至明年1月3日。PICASSO SCULPTURE 毕加索雕塑展(Picasso Sculpture)The first museum survey of Picasso’s sculpture in nearly 50 years includes assemblages made from nontraditional materials like plywood, as well as photographs and works on paper that reveal his groundbreaking approach to sculpting in three dimensions. Sept. 14 through Feb. 7, Museum of Modern Art.这场展览探索毕加索将近50年的雕塑创作,包括用胶合板等非传统材料制作的雕塑以及摄影和纸上作品。这些作品展现了他开创性的三维雕塑法。现代艺术物馆(Museum of Modern Art),至明年2月7日。MARK ROTHKO: A RETROSPECTIVE 马克·罗思科回顾展(Mark Rothko: A Retrospective)The first major retrospective of Rothko’s work since 1998, featuring his luminous Color Field canvases divided into hovering rectangles. Sept. 20-Jan. 24, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, mfah.org.这是自1998年以来的首场罗思科作品大型回顾展,包括他鲜艳的色场(Color Field)帆布画。休斯顿美术馆(mfah.org),至明年1月24日。THE POWER OF PICTURES: EARLY SOVIET PHOTOGRAPHY, EARLY SOVIET FILM 图片的力量:早期苏联摄影与电影(The Power of Pictures: Early Soviet Photography, Early Soviet Film)The work of innovators associated with Soviet Constructivism, like Alexander Rodchenko and El Lissitzky, is celebrated in this show. Sept. 25-Feb. 7, the Jewish Museum, thejewishmuseum.org.这场展览展示苏联构成主义创新者的作品,比如亚历山大·罗琴科(Alexander Rodchenko)和埃尔·利西茨基(El Lissitzky)。犹太物馆(Jewish Museum,thejewishmuseum.org),至明年2月7日。PIXAR: THE DESIGN OF STORY 皮克斯动画制片公司:故事的设计(Pixar: The Design of Story)Hand-drawn sketches, paintings and sculptures reveal how story and characters are developed into animated movie blockbusters. Oct. 8-Aug. 7, Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum, cooperhewitt.org.这场展览通过手绘素描、油画和雕塑展现故事和人物是如何演变成动画电影大片的。库珀休伊特史密森尼设计物馆(Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum,cooperhewitt.org),至明年8月7日。INTERNATIONAL POP 国际波普艺术(International Pop)Dallas is the second site, after the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis, for this exhibition of Pop Art that splintered into international movements like Nouveau Réalisme in France, Concretism and Neo-Concretism in Brazil and Capitalist Realism in Germany. Oct. 11-Jan. 17, Dallas Museum of Art.达拉斯艺术物馆(Dallas Museum of Art)是这场波普艺术展的第二站,首站是在明尼阿波利斯的沃克艺术中心(Walker Art Center)。波普艺术分裂成了多个国际潮流,比如法国的新现实主义、巴西的具体主义和新具体主义,以及德国的资本现实主义。达拉斯艺术物馆,至明年1月17日。ANCIENT EGYPT TRANSFORMED: THE MIDDLE KINGDOM 古埃及的转换:中王国时期(Ancient Egypt Transformed: The Middle Kingdom)Sculpture depicting pharaohs and their families, but also objects created by people from the nonelite sectors of society and examples reveal Egypt’s relations with foreigners during the Middle Kingdom (c. 2030-1650 B.C.). Oct. 12-Jan. 24, the Metropolitan Museum of Art.这场展览不仅展示法老及家人的雕塑,还有非精英阶层创作的物品,同时通过例展示中王国时期(约为公元前2030年至1650年)的埃及与外国的关系。大都会艺术物馆,至明年1月24日。ZHANG HONGTU 张宏图作品展Best known for making objects that satirize Mao Zedong and his Cultural Revolution, this is the first ed States survey of the Queens-based artist Zhang Hongtu. Oct. 18-Feb. 28, Queens Museum, queensmuseum.org.张宏图定居于纽约皇后区,以创作讽刺毛泽东和文化大革命的作品闻名。这是美国的第一场研究这位艺术家的展览。皇后区物馆(Queens Museum,queensmuseum.org),至明年2月28日。JAPANESE KOGEI | FUTURE FORWARD 日本手工艺品:展望未来(Japanese Kogei | Future Forward)Twelve artists reveal changing approaches to Japanese kogei, or “handcrafts” — particularly in the realm of ceramics. Oct. 20-Feb. 7, Museum of Arts and Design.12位艺术家展示日本手工艺品不断变化的新方法,尤其是陶瓷领域。艺术与设计物馆(Museum of Arts and Design),至明年2月7日。MARVELOUS OBJECTS: SURREALIST SCULPTURE FROM PARIS TO NEW YORK 非凡的作品:从巴黎到纽约的超现实主义雕塑(Marvelous Objects: Surrealist Sculpture from Paris to New York)More than 100 sculptures by Man Ray, Salvador Dalí, Joan Miró and others make up this comprehensive survey of Surrealist sculpture. Oct. 29-Feb. 15, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, hirshhorn.si.edu.这是一场对超现实主义雕塑的全面审视,包括多位艺术家的100多件雕塑作品,比如曼·雷(Man Ray)、萨尔瓦多·达利(Salvador Dalí)和胡安·米罗(Joan Miró)等。华盛顿赫什霍恩物馆与雕塑公园(Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden,hirshhorn.si.edu),至明年2月15日。LOOKING EAST: HOW JAPAN INSPIRED MONET, VAN GOGH, AND OTHER WESTERN ARTISTS 看东方:日本如何给莫奈和梵高等西方艺术家带来灵感(Looking East: How Japan Inspired Monet, Van Gogh, and Other Western Artists)Organized by the MFA, Boston, this exhibition explores japonisme, the late-19th-century craze for all things Japanese, seen in the work of artists from Mary Cassatt to Edvard Munch and Frank Lloyd Wright. Oct. 30-Feb. 7, Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, asianart.org.这场展览由波士顿美术馆(MFA, Boston)主办,通过玛丽·卡萨特(Mary Cassatt)、爱德华·蒙克(Edvard Munch)和弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特(Frank Lloyd Wright)等艺术家的作品来探讨日本风(japonisme)——19世纪末对日本所有事物的狂热。旧金山亚洲艺术物馆(Asian Art Museum of San Francisco,asianart.org),至明年2月7日。MARTIN WONG: HUMAN INSTAMATIC 黄马鼎:人形相机(Martin Wong: Human Instamatic)This presentation of Martin Wong’s paintings will explore his role in the ’80s and ’90s Lower East Side art scene, but also his relationship to painters like Marsden Hartley and Alice Neel, who also painted local community portraits. Nov. 5-Feb. 14, Bronx Museum of the Arts, bronxmuseum.org.这场黄马鼎绘画展不仅探索20世纪八九十年代他在下东区艺术界的角色,而且探索他与马斯登·哈特利(Marsden Hartley)和爱丽丝·尼尔(Alice Neel)等艺术家的关系。他们都曾在当地社区画肖像画。布朗克斯艺术物馆(Bronx Museum of the Arts,bronxmuseum.org),至明年2月14日。JACQUELINE DE RIBES: THE ART OF STYLE 杰奎琳·德里布:时尚的艺术(Jacqueline De Ribes: The Art of Style)A Parisian aristocrat who served as a muse to Yves Saint Laurent and Valentino, but also ran her own design business, gets a retrospective. Nov. 19-Feb. 21, the Metropolitan Museum of Art.杰奎琳是巴黎贵族,曾是伊夫·圣罗兰(Yves Saint Laurent)和瓦伦蒂诺(Valentino)的灵感缪斯,而且经营自己的设计生意。这是一个关于她的回顾展。大都会艺术物馆,至明年2月21日。ART BASEL MIAMI BEACH 迈阿密海滩巴塞尔艺术展(Art Basel Miami Beach)The 14th edition of this popular, glitzy fair, which attracted more than 70,000 visitors last year, returns to South Beach. Dec. 3-6; artbasel.com.盛大的迈阿密海滩巴塞尔艺术展一向很受欢迎,去年吸引了七万多名观众。今年的第14届在南海滩举行。12月3日至6日。WOVEN GOLD: TAPESTRIES OF LOUIS XIV 黄金织物:路易十四的挂毯(Woven Gold: Tapestries of Louis XIV)With loans from the French government, this is a rare chance to see on American soil handwoven tapestries that hung in the palaces and courtyards of the Sun King. Dec. 15-May 1, the J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Center, Los Angeles.这些曾悬挂在太阳王宫廷里的手工挂毯由法国政府借出,能在美国本土看到这些挂毯,机会难得。洛杉矶盖蒂中心(Getty Center)的J·保罗·盖蒂物馆(J. Paul Getty Museum),12月15日至明年5月1日。POP ART DESIGN 波普艺术与设计(Pop Art Design)The relationship between Pop Art and design is explored in works by Andy Warhol, Charles Eames and George Nelson, among others. Dec. 19-March 27, Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago, mcachicago.org.这场展览通过安迪·沃霍尔(Andy Warhol)、查尔斯·埃姆斯(Charles Eames)和乔治·内尔松(George Nelson)等艺术家的作品探索波普艺术与设计的关系。芝加哥当代艺术物馆(Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago,mcachicago.org),12月19日至明年3月27日。VAN GOGH’S BEDROOM 梵高的卧室(Van Gogh’s Bedroom)The most famous bedroom in modern art history, Van Gogh’s sleeping chamber in Arles, will be on view in its three extant versions: the paintings owned by the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam, the Musée d’Orsay in Paris, and Chicago’s canvas. Feb. 14-May 8, Art Institute of Chicago.现代艺术史上最著名的卧室当属梵高在阿尔勒所住的卧室。现存的三个版本将被放在一起展出:阿姆斯特丹梵高物馆(Van Gogh Museum)和巴黎奥赛物馆(Musée d’Orsay)的油画以及芝加哥的帆布画。芝加哥艺术学院,2016年2月14日至5月8日。 /201510/402725

  After taking pride of place on British dinner tables for centuries, the popularity of sausages and bacon has plunged following a cancer warning.作为英国人喜爱的美食,香肠和培根已经在该国食谱中盘踞了几个世纪之久,然而在世界卫生组织发出致癌警告后,这两种食物的受欢迎度暴跌。Sales of bacon and sausages at major supermarkets fell by 3 million euros in the two weeks after a World Health Organisation report said processed meat had the same cancer-causing risk as cigarettes.世界卫生组织在报告中指出,加工肉类的致癌风险与香烟一样高,之后,英国大型超市香肠和培根的销售额两周内暴跌300万英镑。Commercial analysts IRI Retail Advantage said sales for pre-packed bacon dropped by 17 per cent in the week after the WHO published a report last month concluding that processed meat was a carcinogen. The sales continued to fall sharply the following week and were down by 16.5 per cent.IRI(市场研究公司)的商业零售分析师表示,世界卫生组织上月发布报告称加工肉类致癌,当周,预包装培根的销售额下降了17%,接下来一周的销量继续暴跌,幅度达16.5%。Pre-packed sausage sales slumped 15.6 per cent in the last week in October and 13.9 per cent in the first week of November. IRI told The Grocer magazine that this drop #39;due to the scare#39; was equivalent to 3 million euros.10月最后一周,预包装香肠的销量下跌了15.6%,在11月首周,则下跌了13.9%。IRI告诉英国《杂货》杂志,此次恐癌风潮导致相关食品销售额暴跌300万英镑。Sausage producers reacted furiously, pointing out that fresh British sausages would not be classified as processed meat according to the WHO#39;s own classifications.香肠生产商很愤怒。他们指出,新鲜的英国香肠不属于世界卫生组织所说的加工肉类。Northern Irish sausage producer Finnebrogue threatened to take legal action against the WHO over the report#39;s claims.北爱尔兰香肠生产商“芬恩”威胁要采取法律行动向世界卫生组织索赔。But the Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board said bacon and sausage manufacturers were #39;aly seeing a recovery in sales#39;, adding: #39;It is reassuring to know sales are back to normal in most areas.#39;不过,农业部和园艺发展局称培根和香肠销售额已在“回暖”,并补充道:“大部分地区的销售额已经趋于正常,这是令人感到宽慰的。” /201511/412616The welfare lottery center in east China#39;s Dongguan city has decided to donate more than 20 million yuan or 3 million US dollars in lottery prizes.近日,中国东莞福中心已经决定将超过2000万元(折合300万美元)的巨奖奖金捐出。The decision was made after a lottery winner failed to claim a jackpot by the expiration date.这已决定是由于福大奖的得主未能在兑奖截止日期前现身而做出的。A ticket vendor in the city sold two tickets worth more than 25-million yuan combined.这2注合计超过2500万元的头奖均在东莞市同一站的。Yang Xianjun is the manager of the lottery center. He said, ;In 2015, lottery tickets sold in our city included 18 winners worth a million-yuan each, and 5 winners worth ten-million-yuan each. The biggest jackpot last year was worth nearly 31 million yuan and the unclaimed 25-million-yuan prize was the second biggest. ;杨献军是这家福中心的负责人。他表示;“2015年,在我们城市售出的票中,共有18名者获得价值一百万元的大奖,有5名者获得价值一千万元的大奖。而去年最大的大奖的将近接近3100万元,无人认领的这2500万元奖金是第二大奖。”China#39;s lottery rules speculate the prize winner should redeem the prize within 60 days after it is announced. The expired prize money will be put into the welfare fund if no one claims it.据中国票管理条例规定,者应当自开奖之日起60个自然日内兑奖,逾期未兑奖的奖金,将被纳入票公益金。The local welfare lottery center donated the money to the welfare fund after no one showed up as of midnight on Monday to claim the winnings.在星期一午夜之后,依然没有人来领取奖金,所以当地的福利票中心已经将奖金捐赠给了福利基金会。 /201601/422388


  Zhou Dynasty周朝Social and Economy西周的社会与经济The Western Zhou made a further achievement in social economy.西周在社会经济方面取得了进一步的成就。Slaves were popularly exploited in pursuit of the production of greater surpluses, thereby creating wealth for their owners.为了获得更多的生产剩余,奴隶总是被剥削来为他们的主人创造更多的财富。Handcrafts progressed in this period and the bronze industry was especially important.手工艺在这段时期发展进步,而青铜工业是最重要的。Besides the bronze workshops controlled by the central government, the small kingdoms also had foundries of their own.除去被中央政府管理的青铜器作坊,小国家同样有他们自己的铸造厂。Bronze products greatly increased in quality, quantity and variety so that their use covered nearly all aspects of life.青铜制品的质量、数量和种类大幅上涨以至于生活的每一个方面都被其覆盖。The Western Zhou Chariot Burial Pit unearthed near Xi’an exemplifies the high technical standard of bronze production of this period.在西安被开采出的西周战车埋葬坑说明了这一时期青铜制造的高技术水平。The development of the bronze industry also promoted the prosperity of other industries.青铜产业的发展同样促进了其他工业的繁荣。In agriculture, iron tools and the coupling-plough were brought into use for the first time, this greatly enhanced productivity.在农业上,铁具和耦合犁第一次被投入使用,它们极大地提高了生产力。Bazaars appeared in some larger towns, where silk, weapons, cattle as well as slaves were traded.在大一些的城镇,市场出现了,在那里可以买卖丝绸、武器、四轮马车和奴隶。In addition, script became more widely used.除此之外,文字得到了更加广泛的使用。People not only engraved inscriptions on oracle bones, but also engraved epigraphs on thousands of bronze utensils, recording the social life of that time.人们不再仅仅将铭文刻在龟甲兽骨上,而是将铭文刻在数以千计的青铜器皿上,这些铭文记录了那时的社会生活。 /201509/395415


  Perhaps one of the best and most recent examples showing the potential of the Chinese market involves the humble Canadian lobster.不起眼的加拿大龙虾也许是展现中国市场潜力的最佳、最新范例之一。When you visit the high-end restaurants of Shanghai#39;s Pudong district, you learn that restaurants here dish up lobster, and plenty of it.当你前往上海浦东区的高档次餐厅的时候,你会发现这些餐厅都供应龙虾,而且数量不少。That being said, according people in the business, lobster more than five years ago wasn#39;t even popular in China. Somehow, things started to take off.话虽这么说,但是商界人士表示,就在五年多以前,龙虾在中国并不受热捧。不知何故,龙虾开始大热。In fact, the market has exploded far beyond the walls of splashy restaurants with their succulent dishes.实际上,龙虾市场规模呈爆发式增长,已远远不局限于提供美味菜肴的高档餐厅了。All of a sudden, Chinese consumers were ordering Canadian lobster directly through online vendors like Alibaba. In 2014, Chinese people bought 100 tonnes of Canadian lobster on Alibaba. In 2015, Chinese people bought more than 300 tons of Canadian lobster on Alibaba.一时间,中国消费者通过阿里巴巴等在线供应商直接订购加拿大龙虾。2014年,国人从阿里巴巴平台购买的加拿大龙虾达到了100吨。而在2015年,国人从阿里巴巴平台购买的加拿大龙虾甚至突破了300吨。 /201602/427120

  When work became too much for Will Meyerhofer’s client, a twenty-something associate at a big law firm, she slipped into a quiet room in the office. Then she shut the door, pulled down the blinds and started to weep. Through her tears she became dimly aware of a noise coming through the wall: it was a colleague sobbing in the next room. 威尔迈耶霍弗(Will Meyerhofer)有一名二十多岁的客户,是一家大型律师事务所的的助理,当工作让她感到难以承受的时候,她会在办公室里找一个安静的房间悄悄溜入去,关上门,放下窗帘,开始哭泣。泪眼朦胧中,她隐约听到声音从墙的另一边透过来:那是一名同事在隔壁房间里抽泣。 Mr Meyerhofer tells this story to underline the misery that lurks beneath the successful of some lawyers. “There is something unique about the law partnership structure, billable hours and the brutal competition of a law firm,” he says. 迈耶霍弗用这个故事来表明潜藏在一些律师光鲜表象下的辛酸。“律师事务所的合伙制结构、计费小时制和残酷的竞争在某种程度是独一无二的,”他说。 Based in Tribeca, New York, the former lawyer is a psychotherapist who has carved out a niche seeing clients from the legal profession; some who he counsels over Skype are in Britain, Japan and India. There is a steady stream of anxious, burnt out and depressed lawyers coming to see him, he says. While the banking sector has attracted attention for its punishing work conditions, he argues that lawyers can have it worse. In banking, there is an expectation that working life can improve as bankers scale the greasy pole, but this is not the case for lawyers. 这位曾担任律师的心理治疗师在纽约翠贝卡区(Tribeca)工作,他开拓了一个专门针对法律人士的利基市场;一些他通过Skype提供咨询的客户远在英国、日本和印度。迈耶霍弗表示,不断有焦虑不安、心力交瘁和抑郁消沉的律师前来找他。尽管业因为严苛的工作条件而受到关注,但他认为,律师们的情况可能有过之而无不及。在业,升职不容易,不过人们可以寄望于工作状态或许会随着级别攀升而改善,而律师们的情况就不是这样了。 “You’re the equivalent of a banking analyst for all your life. It’s brutal, it follows you home.” This familiarity with legal roles and culture means he is empathetic to lawyers. In therapy sessions with clients, some tyrannical bosses’ names keep coming up. “你一辈子都在做相当于分析师的工作。工作很辛苦,即使你回家了它也如影随形。”这种对律师工作和文化的熟悉意味着迈耶霍弗能和律师产生共鸣。在客户的治疗疗程中,一些专横的老板的名字被不断提起。 Chicago-based Alan Levin is a co-founder of a practice of lawyers turned therapists who cater to the legal profession. He says that while it is clearly not a pre-requisite to have been a lawyer to understand one, it certainly helps. “A client can refer to something in their experience and they don’t need to explain it,” Mr Levin says. 在芝加哥工作的艾伦莱文(Alan Levin)是这个由律师转行的心理治疗师组成、专门针对法律人士的心理治疗所的联合创始人之一。他表示,虽然曾经担任律师显然不是理解律师处境的先决条件,但这样的经历肯定是有帮助的。“客户在提及他们经历的一些事情时,不用费力对其进行解释,”莱文说。 The former employment lawyer says that there can be a divide between the corporate and caring professions. A therapist without a corporate background might suggest a client could decline to work on a Saturday. “They don’t understand how impossible it can sometimes feel to turn down work.” 这位前劳工法律师表示,在公司里工作跟在心理治疗所工作可能迥然不同。没在公司里工作过的治疗师可能会建议客户,可以拒绝在周六工作。“他们不理解拒绝工作有时候会让人感觉多么不可能。” Mr Meyerhofer, who attended Harvard and New York University School of Law before going to work at Sullivan amp; Cromwell, in its securities and capital markets divisions, says he did not fit in. 上过哈佛大学(Harvard University)和纽约大学法学院(New York University School of Law)之后,迈耶霍弗进入了苏利文与克伦威尔律师事务所(Sullivan amp; Cromwell),在那里的券和资本市场部门工作。他说,自己那时感觉格格不入。 “I hated it. I wasn’t cut out to be a corporate lawyer. It was very competitive, long hours, doing detailed work.” In the end, he was “delicately shown the door”. “我讨厌这份工作。我不适合当公司法律师——竞争非常激烈、加班时间很长、做一些非常具体的工作。”最后,他被“委婉地请走了”。 Today, he looks back and realises he was depressed and anxious. As well as becoming an insomniac, he gained 45lbs as a result of his legal stint. After retraining as a psychotherapist and writing blogs on the emotional fallout of working in the legal profession, he discovered former colleagues who had always seemed happy confessing to anxiety and self-doubt. “I didn’t realise so many colleagues were so miserable.” 今天,他回顾过去,意识到他当时既焦虑又抑郁。在律所工作的那段时间,他经常失眠,还增重了45磅。在重新接受培训成为一名心理治疗师,并撰写客讲述法律职业对情绪造成的影响后,他发现了一些看起来总是非常快乐的前同事坦陈自己感到焦虑和自我怀疑。“我之前没有意识到有这么多同事如此痛苦。” As a therapist, Mr Meyerhofer encounters many clients who, he believes, are subconsciously sabotaging their careers: for example, by talking back to their boss in the hope that they might be paid off. He asks clients: if you were fired tomorrow how would you feel? Relief is a common response. 作为一名治疗师,迈耶霍弗遇到了很多在他看来在潜意识地破坏自己职业前途的客户:比如,顶撞老板,暗地里希望老板或许会给他们一笔遣散费让他们走人。他问客户:如果你明天就被解雇了,你会有什么感觉?许多人的回答都是:解脱。 Some of his female clients express frustration about being sidelined, sexually harassed and given the office “housework”, such as looking after junior colleagues. 一些女性客户说自己被边缘化、受到性骚扰或者被交付照看级别较低的同事等琐事,因而感到沮丧。 Therapists’ clients are a self-selecting group. They are in therapy because they want help. In any case, not all of Mr Meyerhofer’s lawyer clients feel miserable about work. “Some love law,” he says. Nor would he always advise those feeling trapped by their job to hand in their notice. Tweaks to their role, or a sideways move, might be better. 治疗师的客户是一个自我选择的群体。他们之所以接受治疗是因为他们需要帮助。无论如何,迈耶霍弗的律师客户并非都感觉工作令他们痛苦。“有些人热爱法律,”他说。他也不会总是劝告那些感觉被工作困住的客户递交辞呈。调整岗位角色,或者平级调动,可能会更好。 A common problem Mr Levin, 68, sees among his lawyer clients is what he labels the “curse of unlimited potential”. These are people who have been told they are bright and feel they must live up to their potential. “The curse is it’s unlimited and it can never be fulfilled.” 现年68岁的莱文认为,他的律师客户存在一个共同问题,他将其称之为“无限潜力的诅咒”。这些人一直被告知他们很聪明,他们感到必须实现自己的潜力。“这之所以是个诅咒,是因为潜力是无限的,永远不可能完全实现。” A former partner at a “magic circle” firm in the City, who is retraining as a psychoanalyst at the Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust, says lawyers can become divorced from their emotions. “On the one hand you have everything and feel nothing.” In the end, she felt the job was inessential yet “vastly overpaid”. 一位伦敦金融城(City of London)“魔法圈”律所(Magic Circle,指英国五大律所——译注)的前合伙人经过重新培训成为了塔维斯托克和波特曼NHS基金会信托(Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust)的心理分析师。她表示,律师可能会自我麻痹,把自己的感觉搁到一边。“你应有尽有,却没有任何感觉。”最后,她感觉这份工作并不重要,却“挣得太多”。 Anxiety can run high on the topic of compensation, particularly when it comes to bonuses, says Mr Levin. “It’s not about the money,” he insists. “Most would feel better if they were earning half a million dollars and everyone around them earned the same or less, than if they had m and everyone else was on .6m.” 在薪酬的话题上,尤其是奖金方面,律师的焦虑情绪可能会非常严重,莱文说。“这不是钱的问题,”他坚称,“如果他们挣50万美元,周围所有人也或多或少是这个数字,他们会比自己挣100万美元,而其他所有人都挣160万美元感觉更好。” The money, he says, is about validation, particularly important in a workplace where few people receive thanks from clients, colleagues or their superiors. 他说,收入是一种明,在一个少有人从客户、同事或者上级那里获得感谢的工作场所尤为重要。 Money and prestige become a trap, observes Mr Meyerhofer. A well-paid senior lawyer frequently expresses anxiety that if she left her job she would be out on the street. Such catastrophising, he says, is far from atypical. 迈耶霍弗指出,金钱和身份地位成为了陷阱。一位收入丰厚的高级律师常常表达她的焦虑情绪,担忧她如果不再当律师了就会露宿街头。他表示,这种杞人忧天的情绪远非个案。 Sarah Weinstein is based in California and has been a psychotherapist for more than a year, after working as a lawyer for 12 years. The 44-year-old says her clients appreciate the chance to let their guard down. “Lawyers pretend they are fine all the time.” Putting on a confident exterior can be exhausting. 住在加利福利亚的萨拉温斯坦(Sarah Weinstein)担任心理治疗师已经1年多了,此前她当了12年的律师。现年44岁的温斯坦表示,能够放下防备让她的客户感觉很好。“律师们要时刻假装自己状态良好。”以自信的姿态示人可能会让人精疲力竭。 Today, Mr Meyerhofer has mixed feelings about going to law school. “I spent a huge amount of money on law school and got depressed. But I have developed a practice out of it.” While having lawyers as clients is more lucrative than janitors, he says he earns the same now as he did when he was a junior lawyer. 现在,对于上法学院,迈耶霍弗感觉复杂。“我当年上法学院花了一笔巨资,结果还抑郁了。但这段经历又让我开办了一家心理治疗所。”虽然为律师做心理治疗师挣的钱比下有余,但迈耶霍弗说自己现在挣得也就和他当初任初级律师时一样多。 He is critical of law schools, which he sees as “big cash cows”, believing too many students are admitted who are ill-equipped to become lawyers. 他批评法学院,认为它们只顾赚钱,太多被法学院录取的学生其实并不具备当律师的条件。 He advises many law student clients to quit. “A lot of kids are so unhappy.” 他建议很多法学院学生退学。“很多学生非常不开心。” On occasion, a client will tell Mr Meyerhofer that he is a fraud, whiner or loser: that he is only a therapist because he could not make it in law. He freely admits he was not a great lawyer: “I’m not a complete blithering idiot … I didn’t want to do it.” Moreover, he says, his job allows him weekends off and evenings to himself. 有时也会有客户说迈耶霍弗是个骗子、抱怨者或者失败者:他成为治疗师的唯一原因是因为他在律师界混不下去。迈耶霍弗坦率地承认他不是一个好律师:“我不是一个彻头彻尾的傻瓜……我不想当律师。”另外,他表示,治疗师的工作让他周末能够正常休息,晚上也不用加班。 /201603/429554

  Despite the political division of China in this period, four important advances occurred. First, the trade became important In the south, trade became increasingly important, especially the tea trade.尽管此时中国政权处于分裂状态,这一时期也有四大进步:在南方,贸易变得很重要,尤其是茶叶贸易。Efforts at state monopozation occurred in an attempt to control the revenue of the tea trade.为了增加收入,茶的买卖由政府垄断。Salt monopolies were developed and the salt taxes were the top budget item during this period.盐的买卖也出现了垄断,盐成为当时最紧俏的商品。The second development was translucent porcelain. This also happened in the south and was used both within China and as an export item.第二,就是陶瓷的发展,透明的陶产于南方,是当时对外出口的主要商品。The next important development was in the field of printing. In about 940, the first printing of the Classics occurred. Attempts at movable type began in about 1045.第三,就是印刷,大约公元940年出现了第一批印刷版的经典作品,并在1045年发明了活字印刷术。Printing had far reaching effects on the Chinese people. As would occur later in Europe, printing allowed more people to become educated because books became more ily available.印刷术的发明对中国和世界都产生了深远的影响,它使更多的人接受教育成为可能。Finally, in northern China, paper money was introduced. This introduction was due in part to the fact that metal was scarce in China. Besides, the existing copper money was very heavy and difficult to transport. The beginning of paper money was deposit certificates that merchants used in provinces where copper coins were the currency.第四,由于金属缺乏,铜钱较重不方便携带,中国的北方发明了纸币。纸币的出现是存储的凭,它可以在铜钱流行的省份通行。Eventually, the government would accept copper and then issue certificates, thus creating the prototype of a banking system.最后政府接受铜钱而后发行这种纸的凭,这就形成了早期的。This money system greatly prospered the trade.新的货币制度大大推动了贸易的发展。The practice of binding womens feet also began during this time. The first evidence of this practice showed up in about 950.五代十国时期妇女开始裹小脚,首次出现在公元950年。Scholars were not sure how this practice began, however, it was widely practiced among both the rich and poor of China.学者们不清楚为什么妇女要裹小脚,然而,这种现象在中国富人和穷人中十分盛行。Only a few groups did not participate in this custom. They were the boat women of Kuang-tung and the aboriginal people of the southwest.只有少数群体像广东的船家女儿和南方边远地方的女子才不裹脚。None of the non-Chinese groups surrounding China followed this custom.除此之外,在中国其它广大地区的非少数民族女子都有裹脚的这一传统。Buddhism experienced a sharp decline during this period.这一时期佛教经历了一次大的劫难。In northern China, Buddhists were heavily persecuted in 955.在北方,公元955年,佛教徒遭受到严重迫害。This persecution seemed to be aimed at stopping men from becoming monks to avoid joining the armies.这次迫害意在阻止男人们为逃避兵役而加人僧侣队伍。Many regulations were put into practice. 30 336 temples and monasteries were secularized, and many monks were forced to leave the monasteries and take up secular lives.许多限制措施开始施行,30336个寺院被拆除,大量的僧侣被强迫还俗。The construction and the number of temples and monasteries were limited, in addition, private people could no longer build them.寺院修建和数量被严格限制,作为私人不能再建造寺院。Monks were also required to carry six i-dentification cards.僧侣们还被要求带六种身份。Culturally, the Liao Dynasty achieved mainly in astronomy, the calendar, medicine and architecture.辽国的文化发展及其成就,主要体现在天文历法、医学和建筑方面。Not only did the Liao calendar kept the best parts of the Central Plain Han calendar, but also retained some of the special traits of the Khitan people.辽国历法不仅吸收了中原汉族历法的优点,而且在许多方面体现了契丹民族特色。Important achievements were made in acupuncture, pulse-feeling diagnosis, gynecology, obstetrics and preservation of corpses.辽国的医学成就也很显著,其针炙、切脉诊法、妇产医科、尸体防腐等技术都具有较高水 平。The Book of Acupuncture and Pulse-Feeling , written by a celebrated doctor named Zhi Lugu, enjoyed wide popularity at the time.辽国名医直鲁古所著《针炙脉决书》,在当时很有影响。The Liao architecture influenced by the Tang style, accommodating the Khitan customs, achieved its own unique style.辽代的建筑受唐代建筑的影响,并糅合契丹尚东之俗而形成自己的风格。The Khitan dialect and the Han language were the main languages used in the Liao Dynasty.辽代主要通行的文字是契丹文和汉文。 /201602/421853

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