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鄂州市中心医院割包皮手术价格普及典范

2019年09月17日 09:14:18 | 作者:飞新闻 | 来源:新华社
Science and Technology Combating addiction科技 打击吸毒Can a vaccine stop drug abuse?是否有种疫苗能对付毒品滥用?It may be possible to vaccinate people against addictive drugs向吸毒者接种疫苗防止毒瘾将成为可能THE idea of vaccinating drug addicts against their affliction is an intriguing one.如何消除吸毒者的毒瘾折磨,是个有挑战性的命题。In principle, it should not be too hard.从理论上来讲,这并不难。The immune system works, in part, by making antibodies that are specific to particular sorts of hostile molecule.只要让免疫系统,产生某种针对这种恶性分子的抗体便可。Such antibodies recognise and attach themselves to these molecules, rendering them harmless.这种抗体能识别并紧紧附在毒品分子上,尽可能消灭它们。Vaccines work by presenting the immune system with novel targets, so that it can learn to react to them if it comes across them again.疫苗让免疫系统有了明确的对付目标,系统便能在下次遇到该种病毒时有所反应,将其及时消灭The problem is that the molecules antibodies recognise and react to are the big ones, such as proteins, that are characteristic of bacteria, viruses and other infectious agents.问题是,抗体能够识别出较大的分子,比如以蛋白质形式表现出来的,像细菌,病毒,或者别的感染物质。Small molecules, such as drugs, go unnoticed.较小的分子,比如毒品,却不能识别出来。But not for much longer, if Kim Janda of the Scripps Research Institute in San Diego has his way.不久后这一情况会有所改变,圣地亚哥克里斯普研究所的Kim Janda谈到。In a paper just published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, Dr Janda and his colleagues suggest how a vaccine against methamphetamine, a popular street drug, might be made.近期出版的美国化学学会杂志中,一篇文章提到,Janda士及他的同事们发现,一种对抗常见毒品甲基苯丙胺的疫苗有望实现。If their method works, it would open the possibility of vaccinating people against other drugs, too.以此类推,对抗其他毒品的疫苗也将可能到来。The idea of a methamphetamine vaccine is not new.研制对抗甲基苯丙胺的疫苗设想已不是新话题了。The problem is getting the immune system to pay attention to a molecule that is such a small target.关键在于免疫系统能“发现”这样小的目标。The way that has been tried in the past is to build the vaccine from several components.过去的日子里很多方法都已试验,并从不同角度研发疫苗。First, there is a large carrier protein that forms a platform for the target.首先,需要一个蛋白质载体作为平台,让免疫系统能发现毒品分子。Then there is the target itself, a set of smaller molecules called haptens that are attached to the carrier. These may either be the drug in question or some analogue of it that, for one reason or another, is to have a better chance of training the immune system.有了目标后,将会有一系列被称作半抗原的分子将会聚集在这些病毒载体上,这些病毒或者类似的分子,无论怎样,有助于提高免疫系统的识别能力。Finally, there is a chemical cocktail called an adjuvant that helps get the immune system to pay attention to the carrier protein and the haptens.最后,一种叫佐剂的化学物质,推动免疫系统识别蛋白质载体和半抗原Dr Janda noticed that past experiments on methamphetamine vaccines had all revolved around tweaking either the carrier protein or the adjuvant, rather than tinkering with the haptens.Janda士根据过去针对甲基苯丙胺疫苗的实验发现,该疫苗更多时候是反复出现于蛋白质载体或者佐剂附近,却并非是半抗原的补充作用。He thought he might be able to change that, on the basis of work he had carried out previously, trying to design a vaccine against nicotine. In particular, nicotine is a highly flexible molecule.他认为他可以设法改变这一现状。就目前的研发成果的基础上,他正在研发某种对抗尼古丁的疫苗。That makes it hard for the immune system to recognise.尤其是,尼古丁是一种较灵活的分子,使免疫系统更加难以识别。To overcome this, his team on the nicotine project had to work out how to fix their haptens to the carrier protein in a way that rendered them less capable of twisting and turning, and thus made them easier for the immune system to identify.为克这一困难, Janda士的团队已经研究出如何令半抗原附在蛋白质载体上,并让其活动稳定一些。如此,免疫系统便能更好的识别出病毒。In the new study, Dr Janda and his colleagues report that they have performed a similar trick with methamphetamine haptens.Janda士和他的同事们最新研究表示,他们已成功应对甲基苯丙胺半抗原,They used computer models to visualise the haptens in three dimensions and thus work out how the molecules could be rearranged such that they could not spring, twist or turn when being examined by the immune system.他们利用电脑模拟视图显示三种形式的半抗原,并明免疫系统检查人体时,分子可被重新排列并不在复发。In light of this information they designed six new methamphetamine-like haptens.据此,他们设计了六种全新的似甲基苯丙胺半抗原。Once built, they attached the new hapten molecules to carrier proteins, mixed them with adjuvant, injected the results into mice and waited.之后,他们把这些新的半抗原分子和着佐剂附在蛋白质载体上,并试验于白鼠。After several weeks they tested the mice to see if the animals blood contained antibodies to methamphetamine.几周后,他们测试了这些白鼠,看它们血液内是否含有对抗甲基苯丙胺的抗体。Of the six new haptens, three successfully provoked the mice to make such antibodies.在这六种半抗原中,有三种成功:小白鼠体内有了抗体。As a bonus, one of those three also stimulated the production of antibodies against another widely used drug, amphetamine.在三只中白鼠的一只,其抗体将会被广泛运用,生产对抗另一种药物安非他明的抗体。That is still a long way from providing a working vaccine, but it is an important step forward.尽管前路漫漫,但此举终是重要一步。And if human immune systems react in the same way to the new vaccines as murine ones do, the day when a drug addict might be offered vaccination rather than opprobrium will have come a little closer.若是人体免疫系统能像小老鼠那样接受疫苗的话,用疫苗解决毒瘾将指日可待。 /201212/213874

Whether you have a full head of curly blond hair or a nearly bald head with dark hair, the growth of your hair begins in the skin on your scalp. On the surface of your head, the outer layer of cells—called the epidermis—is between ten and twenty layers thick. Some of these epidermal cells actually become hair cells by a complex process.不论你是长着满头金发,还是几乎谢顶的黑发,头发的生长始于头皮上的皮肤。在头的表面,有大约10至20层厚的外层细胞——即表皮。实际上其中一些表皮细胞通过复杂的过程最后变成了毛发细胞。To visualize this process, think about taking some plastic kitchen wrap and covering a tub of cream cheese with it. If you poked your finger into the wrap, and down into the cream cheese without breaking the wrap, you would be simulating the beginning of hair development. In order for a strand of hair to grow, skin cells must dive down to just below the epidermis. This creates a tube-like structure, much like the one left over if you pulled your finger out of the cream cheese.为了观察这个过程,设想一下:拿些厨房保鲜膜,把它们盖在一桶奶油奶酪上。如果你用手指戳保鲜膜,在不穿透保鲜膜的条件下碰到奶油奶酪,这就是在模拟头发生长初期的情形。为了长出一缕头发,细胞必须潜入表皮下面一点。这样就形成了一种冠状结构,这种结构与手指抽离奶油奶酪后留下的痕迹一样。The cells that line this tubular structure are collectively referred to as the hair follicle. Hair production is the result of the cells of the hair follicle depositing layer after layer of protein into this tubular space. These layers of protein grow out of the tubular space as a strand of hair.那些组成这个管状结构的细胞统称为毛囊。头发的形成就是毛囊细胞向管状空间注入一层又一层的蛋白质的结果。当这些蛋白质层从管状空间长出后就形成了一缕缕头发。As the hair strand develops, hundreds of pigment-producing cells called melanocytes inject it with pigment, giving a strand of hair its color. Melanocytes are only able to produce pigment for a genetically-determined number of years.随着发丝的生长,成百的黑色素细胞向发丝注入色素,为头发上色。但黑色素细胞只能在遗传决定的年限内生产色素。Once the melanocytes lose their ability to produce pigment, hair follicles continue to produce hair, but instead of brown or red hair, they produce gray hair, which, technically speaking, is hair with no color at all.一旦黑色素细胞失去生产色素的能力,虽然毛囊继续生产头发,但不是棕发或者红发,而是白发。从学术含义上来讲,就是没有颜色的头发。原文译文属!201302/226560

If youre too busy to remember to eat, your stomach will remind you its time to refuel by growling. Well look at what happens in your gastrointestinal tract, or GI tract, when youre hungry and when youre full.如果你太忙了而忘记了吃饭,你的胃会咕咕叫着提醒你去吃饭。让我们来看看当你饥肠辘辘或者饱餐一顿时,在你的消化道里发生了什么?Your GI tract is an involuntary muscle which is constantly contracting and expanding. After youve eaten, your gastrointestinal muscle contracts and relaxes in order to move food from your stomach into the intestines. When the GI tract has finished digesting a meal, it continues to process the liquids and gasses remaining in the intestines. This process often causes your stomach to rumble when youre hungry.你的消化道是一组非随意肌,它会不停的收缩扩张。吃饭后,你的胃肠肌会收缩与放松,这样就能将食物从胃部移入肠道。当消化道消化完食物后,会继续处理残留在肠道的液体和气体。这个过程经常使你在饥饿时胃部咕咕作响。Stomach growling is caused by intestinal contractions squeezing and popping intestinal gasses. Actually, stomach rumbles are simply flatulence that stays inside the body. The same contractions that cause your stomach to growl also clean out the GI tract. To see how this cleaning movement works, picture a long hose made of a pliable material. If there were an object, say an egg, at the end of the hose, you could push it from that end to the other by squeezing all along the length of the hose. This is how the GI tract keeps itself clean.肠道挤压在它里面的气体使得胃里产生咕咕的低鸣声。实际上,肚子咕咕叫就是体内的肠胃气胀。这种收缩虽然会让肚子咕咕叫,但也会帮助清理消化道。想要了解这个清理运动是如何进行的,就试着幻想一条柔韧型材料做成的长软管。如果软管的末端有一个物体,比如说一个鸡蛋,你可以通过不断挤压软管把鸡蛋推向另一端。这就是消化道如何自我清理的过程。In order to push out bits of food particles left over from a meal, your gastrointestinal tract creates waves of contractions all along the length of the intestines at a rate of two or three per minute. All of this activity in your GI tract when youre hungry can be very noisy, as anyone who has been in the middle of a pre-lunch meeting when stomachs started rumbling can tell you.为了排出餐后少数的食物残渣,你的消化道每2至3分钟就会产生一个沿着肠道传播的收缩运动。当你感到饥饿的时候,消化道里所有的活动都会显得聒噪。在午餐前开会时肚子突然咕咕作响的员工会告诉你这有多么尴尬。原文译文属!201301/219781

She chews its tail first, to make sure the fish cant get away.首先她咬住它的尾巴,确保鱼不能逃脱。While the pups are still demanding milk, the mother otter will often keep the whole fish for herself.这时幼崽仍要求喂奶,而母水獭往往会为自己留住整条鱼。Her pups are happy enough with caviar.有了鱼子酱她的幼崽感到非常快乐。As the flow becomes slow enough for the trout to lay eggs, there is a brief window of opportunity to spawn before the river gets too shallow to swim upstream.随着水流变得缓慢足以让鲑鱼产卵,在河流变浅以致于不能游到上游前,这是一个短暂的产卵机会。The female digs a trough with sinuous flicks of her body.母鲑鱼挖了一个槽, 她的蜿蜒身体可以进入。And the attending male fertilizes the eggs as they are laid.而到来的男性们滋养了她们产下的卵。Millions of new lives.这是数以百万计的新生命。注:听力文本来源于普特 201210/204447

Business商业Horrible Bosses 恶老板Truth is nicer than fiction现实要比电影好一点A horrible film is generating a lame debate一部恐怖电影引发的一场蹩脚争论HORRIBLE bosses come in many flavours.恶老板们总是各有各的恶。There are psychopaths, bullies and prats.他们可能是神经病,是恶霸,是2B。Incompetent bosses are irksome,too.但不称职的老板也一样的招人烦。The bosses at New Line Cinema are not incompetent, in that their films make money, but they are still villains.新线电影公司的老板不能说是不称职,因为该公司的电影能大卖,但是他们仍然算得上恶棍。For “Horrible Bosses”, their latest offering, is a crime against art and common sense.因为他们最新出品的电影《恶老板》简直就是对艺术的亵渎和常识的颠覆。The viewer is expected to believe that being propositioned by Jennifer Aniston is so traumatic that it would drive a man to plot her murder.他们要观众相信,被詹妮弗安妮斯顿调戏是件多么痛不欲生的事儿,逼得被调戏的家伙只能策划一场对她的谋杀。Kevin Spacey plays a more convincing psychoboss. But his talents are wasted on a lame script.而凯文史派西所扮演的神经病老板还让人信一些,不过他的天赋也白白浪费在这个蹩脚的剧本上了。To make matters worse, the film has inspired a torrent of management drivel.更糟糕的是,这部电影引发了一场口水仗,矛头直指管理层。OfficeTeam, a recruiter, warns of “Horrible Boss Syndrome”, which “can have serious implications” for morale.猎头公司OfficeTeam会警告你小心“恶老板综合征”,那样将对士气“有严重的影响”。An American survey finds that 46% of employees have worked for an unreasonable boss at some point.美国的一项调查表明,46%的员工在职业生涯中曾为不可理喻的老板工作过。Nell Minow, a critic, says the film reflects “the bitterness of the post-meltdown era”.而影评人内尔米诺说这部电影所反映的是“后危机时代的痛苦”All this fuss suggests, not that bosses are growing more horrible, but that employees expect them to be more agreeable.这些所有的不满说明,不是老板变得越来越可怕,而是雇员对老板和善可亲的期望越来越高。Laws ban discrimination, the internet allows people to air their complaints and the prevailing management culture emphasises sensitivity.因为法律禁止歧视,互联网的出现让又人们能随时广播他们对老板的抱怨不满,主流管理文化也都在强调管理要人性。The monsters of the past knew no such checks.过去的恶老板们可不吃这一套。John Henry Patterson, who founded the National Cash Register Company in 1884, would set the desks of inept employees on fire.于1884年创建国家收银机公司的约翰亨利帕特森会把那些笨手笨脚的员工的办公桌付之一炬。To find similarly forceful bosses today, one must look East.而如今要找到一个和帕特森一样强势的老板只能去东方国家了。When Zhang Ruimin took over Haier, a Chinese white-goods company, in 1984, he smashed one of the company’s products to pieces with a sledgehammer to show what he thought of its quality.1984年张瑞敏接管海尔—一家中国白色家电公司。当时他用一把大锤把该公司出产的一件电器敲得粉碎,为了表示他认为质量很差。Hollywood could use a few bosses like Mr Zhang.不过好莱坞倒是可以雇几个像张瑞敏这样的老板。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201303/228302

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