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盐城人流医院那好盐城治疗性病哪家医院好Simply flipping through a book may not seem like the best way to scan it, but a Japanese research team at Tokyo University has created a software that scans hundreds of pages within minutes.只是翻翻书并不能扫描书中的内容,但日本东京大学一只研究组正在发明一种能在几分钟内扫描上百页书籍的软件。Until now, scanning paper has been a tedious process in which pages one by one must be inserted into a flatbed scanner. But this new invention uses a high speed camera that takes 500 pictures per second to scan pages as theyre flipped. The invention is able to scan a 200 to 250 page book in about 60 seconds using basic computer hardware available off shelf.直到现在,扫描书籍都是一项沉闷冗长的工作,因为这项工作需要手动将书籍一页一页附在扫描仪的平台上。但这项新发明运用了一种高速相机,每秒能拍摄500张图片,能在翻书过程中完成扫面工作。这项发明应用最基本的电脑硬件就能完成,能够在1分钟左右扫描完一本200到250的书籍。It takes a shot of the shape then it calculates the shape and uses those calculations to film the scanning. As it can film while understanding the underlying shape, its very easy to then take the pages that are being scanned and save them as a normal flat copy.这种扫描方式首先需要拍摄下图书页面上的图案形状,接着在映出这些图案的同时这些图形,最后只要轻松保存这些图形就可以了。While right now, it requires extra time to process the scanned images, the hope is to eventually make the technology faster and much smaller.目前,这项技术还需要额外的时间来扫描到的图像,研究人员的最终目标是让这项技术更快,设备装置越来越小巧。In the more distant future, once it becomes possible to put all of this processing on one chip, and then put that in an ipad or ipod, one could scan just using that chip. At that point, it becomes possible to scan something quickly to save for later ing.将来,一旦技术允许将所有程序放进一枚芯片,那么将这枚芯片放入ipad或ipod,或者其他能扫描的设备中。这样,快速扫描稍后阅读将成为可能。Being able to scan books with an iphone maybe further off, but a commercial version of the large scale computer-based scanning system could be available in 2 or 3 years, while the flip scanner has the potential to take paper books into the digital age, it remains to be seen how publishers will feel about the new technology.虽然用iphone扫描书籍还是很遥远,但使用电脑大规模扫描系统将在2到3年内实现。翻翻书就能扫描也许会将纸质书带入到电子书的时代,因此出版商们对这项新技术的看法还是个未知数。Natalie Armstrong, Reuters.Natalie Armstrong报道,路透社消息。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201207/190695盐城治疗不孕不育怎么样 Wolf Spider Mating Choices狼蛛的择偶观Well, you know what they say. A woman will marry the man who reminds her of her father, and a man will marry a woman who reminds him of his mother.人们常说,女人会嫁给让她想起自己父亲的男人,男人会娶让他想起自己母亲的女人。Well were hardly the only animals to choose mates based on our early social interactions. In fact, though worlds away from us as a species, some female wolf spiders also make their mating choices on the basis of familiarity.当然,人类并不是唯一以早期的社会交往为基础选择配偶的物种。实际上,同看整个世界,除了人类这一物种外,雌性狼蛛也是以熟悉程度来选择配偶的。Male wolf spiders run the gamut in physical appearance. They can vary in color and in hairiness. Whats interesting is that there isnt a general preferred look among females, but instead, females prefer males who look like males they encountered when they were young and sexually immature.从外形上看,雄性狼蛛形形色色。他们的颜色及绒毛都各不相同。有趣的是,雌性狼蛛在选择配偶时根本没有什么偏爱的外形特征。相比而言,雌性狼蛛更喜欢选择那些看起来像是她们在年轻的时候或尚未性成熟时所遇到过的雄性狼蛛作为配偶。In fact, some female wolf spiders prefer familiarity to the extent that they will often eat a male suitor that doesnt fit that profile. The wider her range of familiarity with different looking males, the more discriminating a female is, and thus more likely to devour a male who looks unfamiliar.事实上,雌性狼蛛偏爱“熟人”已经到了这样的地步——她们通常会将那些陌生的“追求者”吃掉。雌性狼蛛所碰到的外形不同的雄性狼蛛越多,她的辨识能力越强,她吃掉外形陌生的雄性狼蛛的几率就越高。The influence social experience has on the female wolf spiders mating choice is almost unheard of among invertebrates. This spider challenges what we thought we knew about arachnids and invertebrates.在无脊椎动物这一群体中,社会经验对雌性狼蛛择偶的影响可说是闻所未闻的。狼蛛的这一特性也挑战了人类对蛛形纲动物及无脊椎动物的认知。 /201211/210509Science and technology.科技。Bionics.仿生学。I think Id like some coffee.我想来点咖啡。A paralysed woman gets herself a drink.四肢瘫痪的女人也能自己喝咖啡。HELPING yourself to a cup of coffee may seem like a small, everyday thing. But not if you are quadriplegic. Unlike paraplegics, for whom the robotic legs described in the previous article are being developed, quadriplegics have lost the use of all four limbs. Yet thanks to a project organised by John Donoghue of Brown University, in Rhode Island, and his colleagues, they too have hope. One of the participants in his experiments, a 58-year-old woman who is unable to use any of her limbs, can now pick up a bottle containing coffee and bring it close enough to her mouth to drink from it using a straw. She does so using a thought-controlled robotic arm fixed to a nearby stand. It is the first time she has managed something like that since she suffered a stroke, nearly 15 years ago.给自己倒杯咖啡对普通人来说是一件再平常不过的小事,但对于一个四肢瘫痪的人来说就不是这样了,不像下身麻痹患者,前文中提到的机械腿已经发展得很成熟,但全身瘫痪的人四肢都不能使用,现在多亏了罗德岛州布朗大学的John Donoghue和他同事发起的一项计划,四肢瘫痪者也有了希望。在他的实验中有一位58岁的女患者,她四肢瘫痪,但她现在能够拿起一瓶咖啡并送到嘴边,再用吸管喝下,她完成这个动作是靠思想控制固定在旁边的机械臂,这也是她15年前中风以来,第一次像这样掌控一些东西。Arms are more complicated pieces of machinery than legs, so controlling them via electrodes attached to the skin of someones scalp is not yet possible. Instead, brain activity has to be recorded directly. And that is what Dr Donoghue is doing. Both his female participant and a second individual, a man of 66 also paralysed by a stroke, have worked with him before, as a result of which they have had small, multichannel electrodes implanted in the parts of the motor cortexes of their brains associated with hand movements. The womans implant was put there in 2005; the mans five months before the latest trial, described in a paper just published in Nature.由于手臂上的机械零件比腿更复杂,所以通过依附在头皮上的电极来控制它们不大现实,而大脑活动是可以被检测到的——这就是Donoghue士所做的事情。不仅那个女患者,还有一个66岁的男中风患者也参与了他的实验,Donoghue士先找到参与者大脑中控制手活动的区域,再把一些小型多波段电极植入该运动皮质。根据刚刚发表在《自然》杂志上的论文,女患者在2005年就植入了,而男患者的最新植入才5个月。Dr Donoghue and his team decoded signals from their participants brains as they were asked to imagine controlling a robotic arm making preset movements. The volunteers were then encouraged to operate one of two robot arms by thinking about the movements they wanted to happen. When the software controlling the arms detected the relevant signals, the arms moved appropriately.Donoghue士和他的团队先设定一个动作,让参与者想象通过机械臂去完成它,这个过程中大脑的信号就会被记录和破译出来。然后Donoghue士再鼓励他们去控制其中一只机械臂去完成自己想要的动作,机械臂上的控制软件在检测到相关信号之后,机械臂就会进行相应的移动。The arm that the woman used to help herself to a drink is a lightweight device developed by DLR, Germanys Aerospace Centre, as part of its robotics programme. The other, known as a DEKA arm, is being developed in America specifically as a prosthetic for those who have lost an arm. Normally, it is operated by the wearer moving his chest or moving his toes over buttons in a shoe. The participants used it to reach and grasp a ball made of foam rubber.能让女患者自己喝水的这个轻量级机械臂来自于DLR(德国航空航天中心),这也是机器人计划的一部分,其他的还有DEKA的机械臂,该厂专为残疾人士提供假肢,并且在美国已经相当成熟。一般情况下,穿戴者会通过移动他们的胸部或者用脚趾按鞋子上的按钮来操作,这样他们还可以抓起泡沫橡胶球。Dr Donoghue and his colleagues have thus shown that a mechanical arm can be controlled remotely by the brain of a person with paralysis. Controlling a true prosthetic-an arm that is attached to the individuals body-will be trickier, but in time even that may be possible. In the meantime, a robotic arm attached to (say) a wheelchair will be a real boon. For people who have little or no ability to move their arms Dr Donoghues work promises liberation in the form of idian action that the able-bodied take for granted.Donoghue士和他的同事明了瘫痪者可以通过大脑来控制较远的机械臂。要直接控制安装在身体上的假肢还是比较麻烦,即使理论上是可行的,但是现在把机械臂安装在轮椅上(打个比方)是一个更加实用的好事。对于那些没有能力或者只有有限能力配他们手臂的患者来说,Donoghue士的成果解放了他们,让他们也能够完成那些我们认为理所当然的琐事。 /201209/198648盐城市人民医院治疗痛经多少钱

盐城康安骨科医院痛经多少钱亭湖区子宫肌瘤哪家医院最好的 盐城市协和医院预约

盐城协和医院地址Science and Technolgy.科技。The settlement of Madagascar.定居马达加斯加。Thirty lost souls.三十个迷失的灵魂。How Africas largest island was colonised by Asians.解读非洲第一大岛成为亚洲人殖民地的历史。MADASCAR is renowned for its unusual animals, particularly its lemurs, a group of primates extinct elsewhere on the planet. Its human population, though, is equally unusual. The island was one of the last places on Earth to be settled, receiving its earliest migrants in the middle of the first millennium AD. Moreover, despite Madagascars proximity to Africa (400km, or 250 miles, at the closest point) those settlers have long been suspected of having arrived from the Malay Archipelago-modern Indonesia-more than 6,000km away.马达加斯加岛因岛上的稀有动物而闻名,尤其是世界其他地方已绝迹的灵长类动物——狐猴。人类在该岛定居的历史,也同样不寻常。该岛是最后几个人类选择的定居地之一,于公元后头一个千年的中叶迎来了最早一批到此定居的移民。此外,尽管马达加斯加岛毗邻非洲大陆(最近距离400公里,合250英里),长久以来外界猜测岛上的居民是从马来群岛,即现在的印度尼西亚,这个6000多公里外的地方迁移来的。There are three reasons for this suspicion. First, it has been recognised for centuries that the Malagasy language, though distinct, borrows a lot of words from Javanese, Malay and the tongues of Borneo and Sulawesi. Second, the islanders culture includes artefacts ranging from boats with outriggers to xylophones, and crops such as bananas and rice, that are (or, rather, were then) characteristically Asian, not African. And third, genetic evidence has linked the modern Malagasy with people living in eastern Indonesia as well as farther off in Melanesia and Oceania.作此猜测原因有三。首先,存在了几个世纪的一种看法认为,该岛使用的马尔加什语,虽然独特,但很多的词汇是来自爪哇语、马来语和一部分口语来自婆罗洲及苏拉威西岛当地方言。其次,该岛居民的文化——包括从装有舷外浮木的小船到木琴等一系列手工制品,还有一些农作物,如香蕉和大米——都是(也可以说或多或少是、那时候是)具有亚洲特点的,而不是非洲。再次,基因学据已明现代的马达加斯加人与东印尼人以及相距更遥远的美拉尼西亚人和生活在大洋洲的人都是有联系的。Now, Murray Cox of Massey University in New Zealand and his colleagues have put the matter beyond doubt by showing not only where the first settlers came from, but also how many of them there were. And the answer is surprisingly few. Though Dr Cox is unable, with the method he used, to work out how many men were in the original party, the number of women was 30.现在,新西兰梅西大学的Murray Cox和他的同事们不仅科学地展示了首批定居者源自哪里,而且还弄清了定居者的人数,据确凿。让人感到吃惊的是已确定的定居者人数极少。虽然Cox士使用的方法没能弄清首批定居者中的男性数量,但可以确定女性有30人。He drew this conclusion, just published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, by sampling the DNA of 266 Malagasy people and comparing it with existing samples from 2,745 Indonesians. He concentrated on DNA from mitochondria. These are cellular components involved in energy production that are descended from bacteria which became symbiotic with humanitys ancestors almost 2 billion years ago, and thus have their own genes. People inherit mitochondria only from their mothers, which is why only the female line of descent can be tracked using them.Cox士最近在学术期刊《皇家学会进展》(Proceedings of the Royal Society )发表的文章中对266名马达加斯加人进行DNA抽样,同现有的2745名印尼人的DNA样品进行了比对,得出了以上结论。他把重点放在对线粒体DNA的研究上。线粒体DNA是一种参与生物体能量制造过程的细胞器,起源于20亿年前与人类祖先共生的细菌,因而线粒体有自己的基因。人类仅能从母亲身上遗传线粒体DNA(线粒体DNA是严格的母系遗传),所以只有母系血统能使用追踪线粒体DNA的方法。The advantage of studying mitochondrial DNA is that it is not shuffled around by sex. Dr Cox and his colleagues were therefore able to make a statistical comparison of Indonesian and Malagasy mitochondrial genomes knowing that any changes which had occurred since they separated would be the result of rare mutations. These can be spotted and accounted for. Indeed, because they can be tracked they add to the information which can be extracted from a sample.研究线粒体DNA的优点在于它不会被性别打乱。Cox士和他的同事们因此能进行印尼人和马达加斯加人线粒体基因组的数据比对,从而推断出原本相同的线粒体DNA天各一方后发生的任何遗传变化都是源于一些罕见的基因突变。这些都是可以辨认及作出解释的,因为科学家可以追踪线粒体DNA上附加的信息,而这些信息可以从线粒体DNA样品中提取。Having confirmed that Malagasy and Indonesian DNA separated about 1,200 years ago, which is statistically close to the date archaeologists suggest Madagascar was colonised, the team then asked their data how many women, drawn at random from the Malay Archipelago of that period, would have been needed to explain the variation in mitochondrial DNA in Madagascar. The answer was about 30.由于已确定马达加斯加人和印尼人的DNA是在约1200年前分开的——这与考古学家们统计得出的马达加斯加成为殖民地的时间相近,接着Cox士带领的小组就开始对随机抽取的那一时期的数据进行女性人数的,看需要达到多少人才可以解释线粒体DNA在马达加斯加岛产生的变异情况。最后得出的女性人数为30人。That answer bears on a second question: was the colonisation of Madagascar a deliberate act or an accident? The first is possible. At the time, much of the Malay Archipelago was in the hands of the Srivijayan empire, an entity that could certainly have sent expeditions across the Indian Ocean, had it so willed. But there is no historical evidence that it did. In any case if it had, it is likely that a successful colonisation by one group would have been followed by others, as happened when Europeans discovered the Americas.由此又产生了第二个疑问:在马达加斯加进行的殖民活动是蓄意而为还是偶然而为?前者是有可能的。那一时期,马来群岛中的大多数岛屿都被一个名为Srivijayan的帝国所掌控。该帝国只要愿意,就完全有可能派出远征队穿越印度洋。但还没有史学依据明他们派出了远征队。不管怎样,如果他们真的这么做了,那么第一批人殖民成功,就会有其他人紧随其后,正如欧洲人发现了美洲大陆后的情况一样。Most likely, then, the first Malagasy were accidental castaways, news of whose adventure never made it back home. But there is still a puzzle. Most ships crews are male. Though the number of men in the original party will remain obscure until an analysis like Dr Coxs is done on the Y-chromosome of Malagasy men (Y-chromosomes include DNA passed exclusively down the male line in the way that mitochondrial DNA is passed down the female line), the presence of women on board a trading vessel would have been unusual. Unless, of course, the women themselves were the objects being traded. Possibly, then, Madagascar was colonised by an errant slave ship. Which would make its history even stranger than anyone had previously thought.那么,首批马达加斯加人也很可能是因船只失事而意外漂流到该岛的,而这批人后来也没办法回到家乡。可是这种说法仍然让人困惑,因为大多数的船员由男性担任,虽然在对马达加斯加人男性的Y染色体进行数据分析之前(包含DNA的Y染色体单传男系,同样的,线粒体DNA单传女系),例如Cox士的小组所作的工作,该岛首批居民的男性人数尚未明晰,那一时期在一艘贸易货船上出现女性是很罕见的事情。当然,例外情况是,女性本身就是贸易品。那马达加斯加岛就可能是一艘迷途的奴隶商船的殖民地了。这样一来,这段历史就会比先前任何人所想的更加奇特。 /201209/201215 盐城割包皮的好医院盐城割包皮到哪家医院

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