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惠州博罗县泌尿系统在线咨询广东惠州治疗包皮包茎多少钱惠东县医院网上预约 Science and technology科学技术Animal behaviour动物行为Cold-blooded cunning狡猾的冷血动物Reptiles are more intelligent than previously thought爬行动物的智商比人们之前想象的要高IT IS no compliment to call someone lizard-brained.如果某人被称为蜥蜴脑,那可不是什么恭维的说话。The reptilian mind is usually equated in the human one with traits like aggression, dominance and sexual appetite.爬行动物的头脑通常情况下与人脑相同,也具有侵略、配和性欲的特性。That analysis was given currency in the 1960s when Paul MacLean theorised that the human brain has three levels,这种分析在20世纪60年代得到流行,当时保罗?麦克莱恩从理论上推断人脑具有三个层次,the most basic—both functionally and literally—being the “reptilian” part, composed of structures called basal ganglia.人脑最基本的层次—从功能和字面上理解与;爬行;动物相同,它由基底神经节结构组成。MacLeans analysis is not much believed now by neuroscientists,麦克莱恩的分析并不为现在的神经学家所认同,but it has stuck in the popular imagination.但它始终存在于大众的意识中,And it has also, subliminally, affected research.并一直对科学研究有着潜在的影响。For, until recently, no one had actually thought to ask by experimentation just how intelligent reptiles really are.直到最近,人们都没有真正想过要通过实验测得爬行动物的智商到底如何。That omission has just been corrected by Manuel Leal and Brian Powell of Duke University, in North Carolina—and the result is intriguing.北卡罗莱纳州杜克大学的Manuel Leal和Brian Powell对这一疏忽进行了纠正—其研究结果激发了人们浓厚的兴趣。In a paper published in Biology Letters Dr Leal and Dr Powell suggest that lizards are at least as intelligent as tits, a group of birds that has been well examined in this respect.Leal士和Powell士发表在生物学快报上的论文表明蜥蜴的智商绝对不比山雀低,研究人员在此方面曾对这组鸟类有过很好的研究。In their study, the two researchers put a species called Anolis evermanni through a triathlon of cognitive tests of the sort used on tits.在他们的实验中,两名研究人员让一个叫热带树蜥的动物成功通过一个三项全能的认知测试,这种实验曾用于山雀。First, the reptiles had to learn how to extract a tasty grub from a container.首先,爬行动物必须学会如何从容器中获取甜美的食物。Then, they were taught to associate the grub with a particular colour.然后教它们如何将食物与一种特定颜色相关联。Finally, they were taught to dissociate it from that colour and learn that a different colour was the giveaway.最后教它们将食物与那种颜色脱离联系并学会一种不同颜色代表的是免费美食。The lizards were able to manage all three tasks with ease—matching the performance of tits in similar tests.蜥蜴能轻松地完成三项任务—在相同测试中与山雀的表现不分伯仲。Indeed, in getting at the grubs several of them worked out a form of behaviour never seen in nature,实际上,在获取食物之时,有几只蜥蜴表现出的行为方式是在自然界中没出现过的,employing their snouts as levers to lift an obstacle.它们用鼻子作为手段将障碍物移走。Having established that lizards are at least as clever as birds at such simple tasks, Dr Leal hopes to go on and explore the evolutionary forces behind lizard intelligence.在确定了蜥蜴完成简单任务时至少和鸟类同等聪明之后,Leal士希望将实验进行下去并探索蜥蜴智力背后的进化力量。He does, however, have a problem—and it is one that might help to explain why, besides phylogenetic prejudice, the lizard mind has not been properly investigated before.而他的确有一个疑问,这个疑问也许对解释以下问题有所裨益,那就是除去对物种的偏见之外,还有什么原因使得人们之前未展开适当的研究来测定爬行动物的智商。Tits, being warm-blooded, have to eat a lot and thus have a strong incentive to collaborate with researchers in such experiments.山雀属于温血动物,它必须吃大量的食物以维持身体的能量,这就使它们具有强烈的动机与研究人员配合进行这种实验。The average lizard, by contrast, is happy to consume a single grub a day.相比之下,平均每只蜥蜴一天中只乐意享受一次美食。It may therefore be some time before the next paper appears on the subject.因此,下一篇与此主题相关的论文可能需要很长时间才能发表。 /201305/238284惠城区医院在周日有上班吗

惠州友好医院治疗生殖疱疹Domestics in Britain英国佣人Life below stairs阁楼下的生活Servants—in their own words仆人的自述WINSTON CHURCHILLS valet always said the great man could not dress himself: “He sat there like a dummy and you dressed him.” Whether anyone ironed the wartime prime ministers shoe laces, washed his loose change or made sure the yolks in his boiled eggs were centred, Lucy Lethbridge does not say. But as she shows in this absorbing history, much of it in the words of servants, such things were the rule in some houses.WINSTON CHURCHILL的男仆总是说,该伟大的男人无法自己更衣:“他笨拙地坐在那里,让你给他穿衣。” Lucy Lethbridge并没说战时是否有仆人为首相熨鞋带、洗零钱、确保餐桌上有水煮蛋蛋黄。但她在书里展现的这段历史引人入胜,用仆人的话来说,这些都是作为仆人的义务。This is the extreme end of Ms Lethbridges survey—a vivid sweep from ducal palace to suburban villa, from lordly butler to Barnardos orphan, from decaying gentry and aspiring middles to the foreign nannies and cleaners of today. Her subject is many-branched and full of pressing issues, not least, the status of housework itself. All the same, there is a peculiar fascination about the old order, with its skivvies and tweenies and gentlemens gentlemen. This is where the class system most resembled a theatre of the absurd, where maids became invisible by turning their faces to the wall as their master walked by. Virginia Woolf captures the ethos brilliantly in “Mrs Dalloway”, where a society lunch is apparently magicked into existence. Tables self-sp with glass and silver, food self-cooks and is served, not by working women, but by handmaidens, “adepts in a mystery”.Ms Lethbridge向我们展现了截然不同的生活场景—从公爵官邸里忙碌的大扫除到僻静的郊区住宅,从贵族男管家到Barnardo的孤儿,从衰落的贵族、兴起的中产阶级到外国保姆,如今的清洁工。所列议题广而紧迫,尤其是家务劳动本身的情形。但过去关于下等佣人、女仆、贴身男仆的约定俗成也同样令人好奇。 这就是阶级体系与荒诞派戏剧最为相似的部分,一看到主人,女仆们就要扭头脸贴墙变成隐形人。Virginia Woolf在《达洛维夫人》一书中绝妙地捕捉了这种社会现象。社交午餐何其充满了魔力,餐桌自己摆上了杯具和刀叉,食物自己煮好端上桌。其实这些并非职业女性所为,而是出自“善于隐形”的女仆之手。Ms Lethbridge is good on the mystifications that enveloped both employers and employed. Most servants were drudges or “slaveys”. It was estimated that a maid carried three tonnes of hot water up and down stairs each week. And they were expected to be grateful for a place in a home rather than a factory (often they were). A home, so the myth went, was a haven of moral purity and order. Even its furniture was sanctified. According to one advice book, a maid should keep a place in her heart for it, next only to family. No amount of digging with chapped fingers into greasy saucepans could shake the employers sense of conferring a privilege.Ms Lethbridge擅长刻画雇主与佣工身上的神秘莫测。大多数仆人过去做过苦力,当过“奴隶”。据估计,一个女仆每周要拎三公吨的热水楼上楼下地忙碌。对此他们心存感激,因为他们可以住在称作家的地方,而不是住在工厂。家如同神话般被视为纯洁的道德和秩序的庇护所。就连家具都充满了神圣感。一本指南里写道,女仆应当忠于它们仅次于忠于这个家庭。女仆用皲裂的双手清洗油锅洗得再多也不会动摇雇主享受特权的信念。Nor could anything modernise them. American innovations, such as rubber gloves, detergents and vacuum cleaners, took decades to arrive in Britain. True cachet lay in the old and customary. There is a wonderful story of footmen having to remove for cleaning all the electric lamps each morning, as if they were oil lamps. As for Lloyd Georges 1911 bill to bring in compulsory insurance and unemployment benefits for servants, there was uproar; the delicate balance between employer and servant would be destroyed, it was said.没有事物能让英国佣人与时俱进。美国的发明创造,像是橡胶手套、洗涤剂、吸尘器,过了几十年才在英国流行起来。老派的作风习惯体现了真正的贵族威望。有个有趣的故事是说一名男仆每早起来都要卸下灯泡并清洁,搞得它们跟煤油灯似的。就在1911年,Lloyd George专门为仆人开设法定保险与失业津贴一事引起骚动;舆论说这将打破雇主与佣人间微妙的平衡。Victorian and early-20th-century domestics were the largest single group of workers in Britain after agricultural labourers. Yet histories of the working class have neglected them. Scorned by their peers as flunkeys, they felt constrained by their position from doing much more than sing rudely over the washing-up. In telling their story so fully and humanely, Ms Lethbridge manages to suggest what the words to that song might have been.维多利亚及二十世纪初期的英国,佣人是继劳农群体后最大的工人群体。而工人阶级的史料中却遗漏了这一群体。同阶层的工人蔑视他们,认为他们是奴仆,社会地位让他们无路可寻,只能边洗餐盘边唱悲歌。Ms Lethbridge通过完整人道的故事叙述,成功说明了那些歌声到底意味着什么。 /201405/295939惠阳区医院怎么样 惠州友好医院男科在线

惠阳治疗睾丸炎多少钱Finance and economics财经商业High-yield bonds高利债券An appetite for junk来点垃圾Companies have taken advantage of investorsgrowing willingness to buy speculative bonds公司很好的利用了投资者日益高涨的购买投机性债券的意愿WHEN cash deposits pay virtually zero, investors have an incentive to take risks in search of higher returns.当存款利率近乎于零,投资者便会冒险寻求更高收益。That has been good news for the high-yield, or junk, bond market, where companies with poor credit ratings turn for finance.而这对于高利债券、或垃圾债券市场来说,无疑是个好消息,那些信用评级差的公司通常通过这种方式融资。Many companies can now borrow at rates that governments would have been pleased to achieve two decades ago.现在,许多公司可以以各国政府二十年前喜闻乐见的利率获得投资。Indeed, so low have borrowing costs fallen that some wags have dubbed the market the asset class formerly known as high-yield.诚然,借贷成本降至如此之低,甚至有人将其戏称为前高利债券。Until the hiatus related to the budget crisis inAmerica, companies were rushing to take advantage of this financing opportunity.直到此次美债违约,各家公司纷纷借助这股东风融资。In the first nine months of the year global high-yield-bond issuance reached 378.2 billion, up by 27% on the same period in 2012, according to Dealogic, a financial-data firm. Sprint,据金融数据公司迪罗基称,今年前九个月发现的高利债券达到了3782亿美元,同比增长27%。an American telecoms company, raised 6.5 billion in two simultaneous bond issues, the largest-ever junk financing.美国电信公司Sprint通过同步发行债券筹集到了65亿美元,这也是迄今为止最大的垃圾融资。Low rates will not last forever, so companies are keen to take advantage of what might be an historic opportunity.低利率不会持续太久,公司自然不会错过这次千载难逢的机会。And investors have been happy to take the extra yields on offer, given the positive returns achieved since .鉴于年后获得正收益,投资者也乐意出资获取额外收益。In America, the modern high-yield-bond market dates back to the 1980s. Until then, high-yield bonds were usually fallen angels—companies which previously had an investment-grade credit rating but had seen their finances suffer.美国现代高利债券起源于上世纪八十年代。在那之前,高利率债券通常都是落难天使—此前已获得投资信用评级的公司都遭遇过财务危机。But Michael Milken and his team at Drexel Burnham Lambert, an investment bank, discovered there was a market for high-yield debt from new issuers, often in connection with companies making takeover bids.但是,德瑞债券的迈克尔米尔肯为高利债券发行者发现了新的市场,而这通常和公司收购行动密不可分。The market is now huge.现在,这一市场前景广阔,A study by Russell, a consultancy, estimated its total size at 1.7 trillion.咨询公司Russell预计其总需求为1.7万亿。Almost half of all the corporate bonds rated by Standard amp; Poors are classed as speculative, a polite term for junk.标普公司发布的信用评级中超过半数公司债券均为投机性债券—垃圾债券的委婉说法。Part of this is down to fashion; companies have been urged to return spare cash to shareholders and to make their balance-sheets more efficient by taking advantage of the tax deductibility of interest payments.其中,部分债券已经流于形式,股东撤回公司闲钱,如此便可利用付息债券避税,从而使得资产负债表更加均衡。Another big boost to the market has been the broadening of its base beyondAmerica.高利债券膨胀的另一大原因是除美国市场之外,世界其他地区需求增加。According to Fraser Lundie, a high-yield-bond manager at Hermes,America comprised 89% of the market in 1998; now it forms just 57%.Europehas gone from 3% of the market to 27%.爱马仕高利债券经理弗雷泽伦迪表示,1998年美国国内发行的高利债券占全世界的89%,现在降至57%,而欧洲则由当初的3%增至27%。The rise of high-yield bonds has been handy for European companies in the wake of the financial crisis, as many banks have been seeking to shrink their balance-sheets, and have been less willing to offer loans.随着金融危机的爆发,高利债券发行量的增长对欧洲公司来说也极为便利,因为都减少贷款,平衡资产负债表。Historically, European companies have been much more dependent on bank finance than their American counterparts.从历史观点上说,相对于美国公司,欧洲公司对的依赖更强。They also used to be warier of seeing their bonds classed as junk.过去,欧洲公司甚至害怕其债券被评为垃圾级。Low rates have been good for the market in another way.从另一个层面来说,低利率对市场有利。They have enabled companies to refinance their debt cheaply, and so pushed back the nettlesome day when their finances will be squeezed by higher borrowing costs.因为这样公司可以以低成本获得再融资,当初借贷成本高不说,还很难获得通过,简直苦不堪言。A few years ago there was a worry that a lot of debt would need to be refinanced in 2012 and 2013; now the refinancing hump will not come until 2017 and 2018.几年前,人们担心过多债务会导致2012年、2013年时需要再融资;现在,在2017年、2018年之前再融资峰值是不会出现的。A long period of cheap finance makes it less likely that issuers will be forced to default in the short term, and the reduced likelihood of default makes it more attractive for investors to hold bonds.长期的低成本融资让债券发行方短期内违约的可能性大大降低,违约可能性的降低又会吸引更多投资者持有债券。In the wake of Lehmans collapse, the sp on junk bonds rose so far that it implied default on a scale not seen since the Great Depression.随着雷曼兄弟的破产,垃圾债券的差额大幅增长,这也就导致了大萧条后前所危机的违约浪潮。But after a brief spike to 13.7% in , the default rate on global high-yield bonds dropped steadily and was just 2.8% in September, according to Moodys, another ratings agency.但是,据评级公司穆迪称,年13.7%的违约高峰很快便平息;今年九月,全球高利率债券违约率仅为2.8%。But not all is sunny in the high-yield world.但是,高利债券市场并非总是风平浪静。Although the market has doubled or tripled in size since 2008, liquidity has diminished.尽管自2008年后高利债券市场规模已经增至原来的两至三倍,债券的流动性却降低了。Regulatory restrictions mean that banks no longer hold as much inventory in the form of bonds; since 2002, there has been a decline of almost three-quarters.监管限制让无法继续像以前那样持有太多债券形式的存货。自2002年来,所持债券已经减少了75%。PIMCO, a huge bond-fund manager, said in a recent report, We see reduced liquidity as an important secular trend. It is an unintended consequence of the deleveraging and re-regulation of banks globally. It will result in higher volatility in times of stress.近期,太平洋投资管理公司发布的一篇报道称,我们认为流动性的降低将会是一个重要的长期趋势,这是全球重新平衡、管理的副作用。In other words, if investors ever lose their current enthusiasm for high-yield bonds, they will find it much harder, and probably costlier, to offload them.换句话说,如果投资者对高利债券的热情降低,他们便会发现想要抛售这些债券将会更加困难、或许还会付出更高代价。Meanwhile, the growing enthusiasm for high-yield bonds is likely to diminish the returns they offer.与此同时,随着人们对高利债券愈发热衷,其回报率也会相应降低。In the past investors typically bought junk bonds at a discount to their face value; they hoped that the profits on bonds that were repaid at maturity would offset the losses on the few issuers that defaulted.过去,投资者都是以折扣价买入垃圾债券,他们希望债券到期的收益能够抵消部分违约发行者带来的损失。Yet in May this year the average price of a high-yield bond reached 6% above face value, according to Mr Lundie.然而,据伦迪数据显示今年五月高利债券的平均价格超过了其面值的6%。Holding a bond until maturity will thus result in a capital loss, although investors may still profit from interest.尽管投资者仍可从利息中获利,但持有高利债券直至到期将会造成一定资本损失。Worse, many bonds—perhaps two-thirds or three-quarters of the market—have a call option attached to them that allows the issuer to repay the debt if it reaches a certain price.更糟糕的是许多债券—可能2/3或3/4的现行债券—都有看涨期权,如果债券达到一定价格,发行方可以偿还债务。That allows issuers to take advantage of growing optimism about their prospects to reissue bonds at lower interest.这也就使得发行方可以利用投资者不断高涨的乐观情绪,以更低的利率发行债券。Such call options skew the risk-reward trade-off.看涨期权让风险报酬交易失去了平衡。If a bond gets close to the callable price, it is unlikely to rise much further: who would bid 110 cents for a bond that can be redeemed at 104?如果某个债券接近可赎回价格,其价格也就不大可能会继续涨了:谁会愿意花110美分购买104美分就可以赎回的债券呢?On the other hand, if the company hits hard times, the bond could fall quite sharply in price. So investors face a limited upside and a big downside.另一方面,如果市场萧条,债券价格便会一落千丈。因此,对投资者来说此事弊大于利。That has tended to push investors towards ever riskier assets, such as CCC-rated bonds—the lowest category excluding those issuers that have aly defaulted.这回让投资者转向风险更大的债券,比如除违约债券以外的最低评级债券,CCC级债券。David Newman of Rogge Global Partners, a fund-management firm, reckons that such bonds are now probably overpriced, given the risks involved.来自资金管理公司Rogge Global Partners的大卫纽曼认为考虑到风险因素,这类债券目前可能定价过高。It is in the nature of the bond markets that, when conditions are good, investors get more relaxed about credit quality.债券市场的特性是当市场环境良好,投资者便会对信用质量更加放心。Some observers think that the risks of high-yield bonds are being systematically underestimated.部分观察人士认为,高利债券的风险被普遍低估。The sps paid by high-yield issuers are low relative to the historical average, although they are more than sufficient to compensate investors given the low level of defaults.尽管,考虑到低违约率,债券发行方更加确信可以让投资者收到回报;但是,同历史平均水平相比,现在高利债券发行方所付的利率更低。If central banks start raising interest rates to deal with a resurgence of inflation, or if the global economy slips back into recession, junk-bond investors may suffer a nasty shock. But for the moment they are enjoying the ride.如果央行为了规避通胀而开始提高利率,或者全球经济再度陷入萧条,垃圾债券投资者或许会损失惨重。但是,现在他们正享。 /201310/261375 惠州前列腺炎多少钱惠阳区人民男科医院泌尿系统在线咨询

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