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2019年10月20日 23:27:04来源:当当问答

Two months after Amazon released the Fire phone, it’s fair to call the device a disappointment.在亚马逊公司(Amazon)正式推出Fire手机两个月后,我们有理由把它称为一款让人失望的产品。Amazon’s customers gave the smartphone a lackluster rating of 2.6 out of 5 stars. Reviewers called the device “forgettable” and “mediocre.” And Amazon AMZN -0.43% all but admitted to underwhelming sales by drastically cutting the Fire’s price from 0 to 99 cents just one month after unveiling the device at a splashy press conference in Seattle.在满分为五星的评价表上,亚马逊的客户只给这款智能手机打出了2.6颗星的黯淡评价。评测者则称其“过目即忘”、“平庸无奇”。当时为隆重推出这款手机,亚马逊在西雅图举办了盛大的新闻发布会。但仅过了一个月,该公司就将Fire手机的定价从200美元大幅削减至99美分,足以表明亚马逊默认了惨淡的销售现状。Amazon’s stumble with the Fire is a major setback for the online retailing giant. By sinking money and resources into a smartphone, the company had hoped to gain a significant piece of the huge smartphone market long dominated by rivals like Apple AAPL -0.64% , Google GOOG -0.13% and Samsung. Moreover, the Fire was supposed to funnel mobile shoppers to Amazon’s online store by making it easier to find and buy products. But Amazon is now left scrambling, and it’s unclear whether it can recover from its flop.对这家电商巨头来说,在Fire手机上栽的这个跟头是一个重大挫折。该公司起初的如意算盘是,通过投入巨资和丰富资源打造一款智能手机,以期在这个长期被苹果(Apple)、谷歌(Google)和三星(Samsung)等对手统治的巨大市场上分一杯羹。此外,亚马逊还希望Fire帮助用户更便捷地寻找和购买商品,从而将手机购物人群引入该公司自家的购物平台上。但现在亚马逊显然阵脚大乱,它是否能从这次失败中东山再起也不得而知。“The odds of Amazon succeeding were always very small,” says Mark Mahaney, Managing Director and analyst for R Capital Markets, who argues the price cut is a veritable Hail Mary pass. “My guess is it’s too late.”加拿大皇家资本市场公司(R Capital Markets)总经理兼分析师马克o马哈尼认为,这种大幅降价纯属孤注一掷。他说:“亚马逊成功的机会十分渺茫。这种做法为时已晚。”The Fire phone’s shortcomings are plenty. On first blush, it’s an adequate device with features comparable to others in the market in terms of screen, camera and memory. What sets it apart is a three-dimensional effect for graphics on certain apps and an application called Firefly that lets shoppers in bricks and mortar stores easily identify over 100 million different products and then buy them online (preferably at Amazon).Fire手机的缺点多多。乍一看,它似乎是款功能足够多的手机,在屏幕、摄像头和内存等方面与市面上的同类产品相差无几。与众不同之处在于,某些应用的图像具有三维显示效果,还有一款名为Firefly的应用可以让实体店的购物者在网上轻松找到超过一亿种商品并下单(当然最好是在亚马逊官网上购买)。But in a crowded space dominated by Apple and Android devices, simply releasing something “adequate” isn’t enough. To stand out, a smartphone like the Fire, which arrived seven years after the first iPhone and six years after the first Android device, requires breaththrough hardware and software.可是,在这个早已被苹果和安卓手机挤得满满当当的市场里,仅仅推出一款“功能足够”的手机是远远不够的。要想脱颖而出,对Fire这样一款比首款iPhone晚了7年、比首款安卓手机晚了6年才推出的智能手机来说,必须要有突破性的硬件和软件才行。“If they had shown up with this phone a long time ago, they could have gotten a lot more attention,” says Frank Gillett, a Forrester analyst. “But it’s a very noisy crowd in an established market. Once you show up at the party now, nobody pays attention.”弗雷斯特研究公司(Forrester)分析师弗兰克o吉列特表示:“如果这款产品是很早以前推出的,那肯定能吸引很多人的眼球。但现在这个市场早已人满为患、众声喧哗了。这时候你再出现,根本没人会在意你。”An Amazon spokesperson declined to comment. But at the Fire phone’s unveiling, Jeff Bezos trumpeted the device as a superior smartphone.亚马逊的一位发言人拒绝发表。但在Fire手机的发布会上,杰夫o贝索斯却把自家这款产品吹捧为超级智能手机。“Can we make a better phone for Amazon Prime customers?” he said onstage. “Yes. Yes, we can.”当时他在舞台上是这么说的:“我们能为亚马逊的尊享客户打造一款更好的手机吗?没错的,我们可以。”Robert Brunner, who served as Apple’s director of industrial design from 1989 to 1997 and later collaborated on the design of Amazon’s first Kindle e-er, gave a much more pessimistic assessment.罗伯特o布伦纳曾在1989年到1997年间担任苹果公司工业设计总监,后来也为亚马逊首款电子阅读器Kindle的设计出过一份力。他对Fire手机的前景却要悲观得多。“To be totally frank, the Amazon phone has zero cache,” he says. “The design itself is very, overtly neutral.”他说:“说实话,亚马逊这款手机实在乏善可陈,它的设计本身就太平庸了。”A phone is a personal object and conscious design choice on the part of its owner, Brunner argues. Alongside the iPhone and Android devices like the Moto X, customizable down to the color of its side trim, the Fire phone is nondescript. He went so far as to toss out the ultimate techie insult.布伦纳认为,手机是一种私人物品,人们在挑选手机时会对设计格外在意。与iPhone和Moto X这种连边框侧颜色都可以定制的安卓手机相比,Fire手机毫无特色可言。他最后抛出了一句从技术角度来说堪称登峰造极的鄙薄之语。“I actually put the Fire down below BlackBerry right now as an object of desire,” Brunner says.他说:“就激发购买欲而言,我现在把Fire摆在黑莓(BlackBerry)之后。”It also didn’t help that Amazon’s phone was the most brazen attempt yet by any major smartphone maker to lock its users into its own ecosystem of products. Certainly, the iPhone has long since steered users towards Apple services — and likewise Android users to Google offerings — but Amazon went one step further by adding what amounts to a “Buy” button on the side of the Fire phone. Click it, and you’re several steps away from two-day delivery.另一个帮不上忙的情况是,不少主流智能手机制造商都希望把用户锁在自家产品生态圈之内,但这款手机堪称有史以来最肆无忌惮的尝试。的确,iPhone一直引导用户使用苹果的各种务——安卓也会让用户使用谷歌的各种产品——但亚马逊却更进一步,干脆在Fire手机上装了个相当于“购买”的按键。按下这个键,只需几步就能享用两日送达的快递务了。“I personally felt the ‘Buy’ button was a bit forced,” says Yves Behar, the award-winning Swiss industrial designer whose past and present clients include Samsung, Jawbone and Herman Miller. “There were more elegant ways to go about introducing that.”伊夫o比哈尔是一位曾获得大奖的瑞士工业设计师,他的客户包括三星公司、Jawbone公司和赫曼米勒公司(Herman Miller)。他说:“我觉得‘购买’按键有点强迫性。要加入这个功能,其实还有许多更加优雅的好办法。”Amazon also misfired on how it sells the phone. Android devices and iPhones are on the shelves at thousands of physical retailers and all four top U.S. cell carriers. But people can buy the Fire phone at far fewer channels. If you want the phone, your only options are Amazon.com, a few brick and mortar retailers like Best Buy BBY 2.16% , and ATamp;T T -0.14% , the phone’s exclusive cell carrier.而在这款手机的销售方式上,亚马逊同样晕招频出。你在美国的上千家实体零售店和四大移动运营商处都能看到安卓手机和iPhone。但要买Fire手机却只有少得可怜的几个渠道。如果你想买它,就只能去亚马逊官网、百思买(Best Buy)等少数几家实体零售店,以及它的独家移动运营商美国电话电报公司(ATamp;T)。Additionally, Amazon stumbled on pricing. Selling the Fire for 0, the industry standard, ran contrary to Amazon’s long-held, company-wide strategy of undercutting the competition.此外,亚马逊的定价也颇为失败。Fire的定价是200美元,这算是业内标准售价,却跟亚马逊公司长期坚持的低价战略背道而驰。As it stands, Mahaney, the R analyst, doesn’t expect the Fire phone’s U.S. smartphone market share to crack 10%, even after the price drop. Indeed, price drops on phones rarely lift sales. For example, ATamp;T’s price cut last year on the HTC First, a phone with Facebook-centric software, didn’t save it from eventually being killed off.就现状而言,马哈尼认为,Fire手机就算降价甩卖,在美国智能手机市场的份额也很难突破10%。实际上,手机降价很难提升销量。比如,美国电话电报公司去年对HTC First(配有以Facebook为中心的软件系统)的降价促销就没能挽救它最终没落的命运。But Amazon may have a shot next year if it comes up with a newer model with a more competitive design and wider availability. Its first Kindle Fire tablet in 2011 was by no means a home run, but the versions that followed proved substantially better, even if Amazon’s share of the worldwide tablet market remains a miniscule .4%, according to IDC.但是,如果亚马逊明年能推出设计更具竞争力、销售渠道也更广的新机型,它可能还有反戈一击的机会。它在2011年推出的首款Kindle Fire平板电脑根本不怎么样,但后续升级版则有了显著提升,尽管国际数据公司(IDC)表示,亚马逊在全球平板电脑市场的份额仅有微不足道的0.4%。“This probably isn’t the last Fire phone we’ll see,” says Gillett, from Forrester. “But if Amazon has learned anything, the announcement of the next one will be more low-key.”吉列特表示:“这可能并不是我们能看到的最后一款Fire手机。但如果亚马逊已经汲取了教训,那么推出下一款手机时,该公司想必会变得更加低调一些。” /201410/334023。

  • HONG KONG — For Apple in China, trouble seems to be the new normal.香港——在中国,遭遇麻烦似乎成了苹果公司(Apple)的新常态。Cybersecurity monitoring groups and security experts said on Monday that people trying to use Apple’s online data storage service, known as iCloud, were the target of a new attack that sought to steal users’ passwords and then spy on their activities.网络安全监控团体和安全专家周一表示,尝试使用苹果在线数据存储务iCloud的人,成为了一轮新攻击的目标。攻击者试图窃取用户的密码,然后监控他们的活动。Starting over the weekend, when many users across China tried to sign into their iCloud accounts, they may have been giving away login information to a third party, in what is called a man-in-the-middle attack.从上周末开始,中国各地的许多用户在尝试登录iCloud账户时,可能正在把登录信息泄露给第三方。这被称作中间人攻击。“You think you are getting information directly from Apple, but in fact the authorities are passing information between you and Apple, and snooping on it the whole way,” said a spokesman for an independent censorship-monitoring website, GreatFire, who declined to be named because of fear of reprisal.“你以为是直接从苹果获取信息,但实际上,当局正在你和苹果之间传递信息,并一直在窥探,”监测网络审查情况的独立网站GreatFire的发言人说。因为害怕遭到报复,这名发言人拒绝公开姓名。News of the vulnerability came just as the new iPhone 6 arrived in Chinese stores after a monthlong regulatory delay tied, in part, to concerns about the phone’s security.有关这一问题的消息传出之际,正值苹果新推出的iPhone 6登陆中国市场。此前,因为监管方面的原因,iPhone 6在中国的发售被推迟了一个月,其中的部分原因是对iPhone安全性的担忧。Activists and security experts say they believe the attacks are backed by the Chinese government because they are hosted from servers to which only the government and state-run telecommunications companies have access, according to GreatFire. They are also similar to recent attacks on Google, Yahoo and Microsoft aimed at monitoring what information users were retrieving on the sites.GreatFire称,活动人士和安全专家表示,他们认为这次的袭击得到了中国政府的持,因为它们是由政府和国有电信公司才有权限的务器上发起的。此外,它们和谷歌(Google)、雅虎(Yahoo)以及微软(Microsoft)最近遭遇的攻击类似,而那些攻击意在监控用户从这些网站上读取了什么信息。“All signs point to the Chinese government’s involvement,” said Michael Sutton, vice president for threat research at Zscaler, a San Jose, Calif., security company. “Evidence suggests this attack originated in the core backbone of the Chinese Internet and would be hard to pull off if it was not done by a central authority like the Chinese government.”“所有迹象都指向中国政府与此事有关,”在加利福尼亚州圣何塞的安全公司Zscaler负责威胁研究的副总裁迈克尔·苏顿(Michael Sutton)说。“据表明,这轮攻击发端于中国互联网的核心中枢,而且假如不是像中国政府这样的中央当局干的,这种攻击将很难实现。”The targeting of Yahoo, Google and Apple also potentially reveals a new Chinese government effort to adapt to initiatives by Internet companies — most notably new encryption techniques — to protect user data from government spying.把雅虎、谷歌和苹果作为目标也潜在地揭示出,为了适应互联网公司为保护用户数据免受政府监控而采取的措施,尤其是新的加密技术,中国政府做出了新的努力。“The Chinese government could no longer sniff traffic, so they intercepted that traffic between the browser and the iCloud server,” Mr. Sutton said.“中国政府无法再窥探流量,所以他们就截取了浏览器和iCloud务器之间的流量,”苏顿说。Many web browsers, like Apple’s Safari, Google’s Chrome and Mozilla’s Firefox, flashed a warning to users that a so-called encryption certificate that is supposed to identify who is on the other end of a web session should not be trusted. That indicated that users were inadvertently communicating with the attackers, rather than iCloud. In effect, the hackers stepped into the middle of the online conversation.许多网页浏览器,如苹果的Safari、谷歌的Chrome和Mozilla的Firefox,会弹出一条警告,提醒用户不应信任本应识别出网络会话的另一端是谁的“加密书”。这种警告表明,用户正在疏忽大意地与攻击者而非iCloud交流。实际上,黑客是插入到了网络对话的中间。Mr. Sutton noted that Qihoo, a browser offered by the Qihoo 360 Technology Company that is popular with Chinese Internet users, did not flash a warning to users.苏顿指出,奇虎360科技有限公司推出的奇虎浏览器在中国网民中颇受欢迎,它就不会向用户弹出这类警告。“As more sites move to encryption by default — which prevents the censorship authorities from selectively blocking access to content — the Chinese authorities will grow increasingly frustrated with their ability to censor that content,” said the GreatFire spokesman.“随着更多网站转为默认加密——可以防止审查机构有选择地屏蔽内容——中国当局对自己审查内容的能力会越来越失望,”前述GreatFire发言人说。“In some ways their hands are being forced. They can attempt these man-in-the-middle attacks or choose to outright block access to these sites. The more sites they block, the more they cut off the Chinese populace from the global Internet,” he added.他还说,“他们其实别无选择。他们可以尝试这种中间人攻击,或选择直接屏蔽这些网站。他们屏蔽的网站越多,中国人孤立于国际网络的程度就越严重。”The timing of the attack, aligned with the release of the new iPhone in China, is a potential indicator that the government is trying to harvest sign-in data from a large number of users who are switching over to the iPhone 6. The new phone comes with better encryption to protect against government snooping.攻击的时机恰好是新款iPhone在中国市场发售之时。这或许意味着,政府正试图从更换到iPhone 6的大量用户手中获取登录数据。为了防止政府的窥探,新款iPhone使用了更好的加密技术。In September, Apple, based in Cupertino, Calif., said its latest operating system, iOS 8, included protections that made it impossible for the company to comply with government warrants asking for customer information like photos, emails and call history.今年9月,总部位于加利福尼亚州库比提诺的苹果表示,公司最新的操作系统iOS 8配有的保护措施,将使其无法遵照政府命令,泄露图片、电子邮件和通话记录等客户信息。The change prompted the Federal Bureau of Investigation director, James B. Comey, to say in a recent speech that new encryption by Apple and others “will have very serious consequences for law enforcement and national security agencies at all levels.”基于这个变化,联邦调查局(FBI)局长詹姆斯·B·科米(James B. Comey)在近期的一次演讲中称,苹果等公司的新型加密技术“将给各个层级的执法和国家安全机构造成严重影响”。“Sophisticated criminals will come to count on these means of evading detection,” Mr. Comey said.科米说,“经验丰富的罪犯将依赖这些途径来逃避侦查。”In August, Apple began storing data for iCloud on servers in China in a move it said was intended to enhance performance of the service there. The company said the state-owned service provider China Telecom, which owns the servers where the data is stored, did not have access to the content.今年8月,苹果开始在中国境内的务器上储存iCloud数据。苹果表示,这样做是为了提高iCloud在当地的务质量。公司称,储存数据的务器归属于中国的国有务提供商中国电信,但其无法获取储存内容。But security experts say it appears that Beijing has found a workaround, by coordinating man-in-the-middle attacks on a mass scale.不过安全专家表示,中国政府似乎找到了一种变通方案,即组织大规模的中间人攻击。Apple on Tuesday acknowledged a network attack, but clarified that its iCloud servers were not breached. On a security webpage, it implied that man-in-the-middle attacks were being used to direct people to fake connections of iCloud.com, making their user names and passwords vulnerable to theft.周二,苹果承认受到网络攻击,但明确表示其iCloud务器未被攻破。在公司的一个有关安全问题的网页上,苹果暗示,有人正通过中间人攻击把用户引向iCloud.com的虚假链接,从而使他们的用户名和密码易于泄露。On the webpage, Apple explained how people could distinguish an authentic iCloud.com website from a fake one. Basically, users will receive warnings when the web browser detects a fake certificate or an untrusted connection. Apple advised people to heed those warnings when they appear and avoid signing in.苹果在该网页上对如何分辨真假iCloud.com网站进行了解释。一般来说,当浏览器发现伪造的书或不值得信赖的链接时,用户就会收到警告。苹果建议人们注意这类警告,不要登录。“Apple is deeply committed to protecting our customers’ privacy and security,” said Trudy Muller, an Apple spokeswoman. “We’re aware of intermittent organized network attacks using insecure certificates to obtain user information, and we take this very seriously.”“苹果坚定地致力于保护用户的隐私与安全,”苹果的女发言人特鲁迪·穆勒(Trudy Muller)说。“我们知道,有人为了获取用户信息,在通过不安全的书不时发动有组织的网络攻击,我们对此非常重视。”Ms. Muller declined to comment on whether Apple had identified the Chinese government as the source of the attacks.对于苹果是否已经确认中国政府为攻击来源,穆勒拒绝置评。Security experts said users should not visit websites if they receive a browser warning. Mr. Sutton also advised users to turn on two-factor authentication whenever possible, a procedure in which a user is prompted to enter a second one-time password that has been texted to the user’s phone. That way, he said, even if an attacker intercepts a password, they cannot use it to log into a site without the second password.安全专家称,如果收到浏览器发出的警告,用户应该停止访问相应网站。苏顿还建议用户尽可能地开启双因素认。在进行双因素认时,用户需要输入另一个一次性密码,而该密码会通过短信发送到用户的手机上。他说,通过这种方式,即便攻击者截获了某个密码,他们也无法在没有第二个密码的情况下用其登录网站。“Users should treat this seriously,” Mr. Sutton said.苏顿说,“用户应该严肃对待这个问题。” /201410/337311。
  • Snapchat has some new competition in the market for selfie photos that disappear after a few seconds.在“阅后即焚”式的自拍照片分享应用市场,Snapchat又迎来了新的竞争对手。On Tuesday, Facebook introduced Slingshot, an app for sharing messages and images with friends that vanish soon after they view them. With the new service, Facebook is challenging Snapchat, a startup that popularized the idea of disappearing messages and has quickly become one of the technology industry’s darlings.本周二,Facebook推出了一款名为Slingshot的新应用,用户可利用它与好友分享信息和图片,而这些信息和图片在对方看过之后很快就会消失。Facebook旨在通过这项新务来挑战新创公司Snapchat。后者普及了“阅后即焚”式的信息分享理念,而且已经很快发展成为业界争相追逐的新宠。Slingshot puts its own spin on socalled ephemeral messsaging by requiring anyone who receives a photo to respond to the sender. If they don’t, they are unable to open the original image and instead can only see a pixelated screen and nothing more. The reasoning is to ensure people engage with one another and don’t simply receive photos without contributing. Of course, this is also serves Facebook’s interest by increasing use of the service.Slingshot的独特亮点在于所谓的短暂信息传送机制,即要求接受图片的其他用户必须先回应发送者。如果不回应,接收者就无法打开原始图片,只能看到像素化的图片仅此而已。这个功能可确保用户双方交流互动,而不只是简单地接收别人的图片。当然,随着Slingshot用户数量的不断增加,这项功能也符合Facebook自身的利益需求。“With Slingshot, we wanted to build something where everybody is a creator and nobody is just a spectator,” Facebook said in a blog post introducing the new product. “When everyone participates, there’s less pressure, more creativity and even the little things in life can turn into awesome shared experiences. This is what Slingshot is all about.”“每个人都是创作者,没有人是旁观者,我们希望借助Slingshot来构筑这样的氛围,”Facebook在一篇介绍这一新产品的客文章中这样写道。“当每个人都参与其中时,压力就会减轻,创意就会越来越多,甚至生活中微不足道的小事也能转化为令人惊叹的分享体验。这就是Slingshot的全部意义所在。”The Slingshot crew even took the time to mention (: take a swipe at) Snapchat in its introductory message: “We’ve enjoyed using Snapchat to send each other ephemeral messages and expect there to be a variety of apps that explore this new way of sharing.” But Facebook feels it can take the game up a notch. “With Slingshot, we saw an opportunity to create something new and different: a space where you can share everyday moments with lots of people at once,” the post said.Slingshot的开发人员甚至煞费苦心地在介绍信息中提到(实质上是抨击)了Snapchat:“我们欣赏利用Snapchat来彼此发送短暂信息的做法,我们期望未来能出现各种各样探索这种全新分享方式的类似应用。”但Facebook认为Slingshot可 以将这场竞争游戏提升一个档次。“有了Slingshot,我们等于看到了创造出与众不同全新交际空间的机遇。在这个空间中,大家可以与很多人即时分享每一天的精瞬间,”Facebook在文中这样写到。Users can also send s from a smartphone camera, add a message commenting on a photo, or draw an image in response.Slingshot用户也可以发送智能手机拍摄的视频,还可以在照片上添加信息或者以绘图的形式进行回复。Facebook FB 1.86% had offered to buy Snapchat for billion last year, but the company’s young founders rejected an acquisition. It seemed like an astounding decision at the time considering Snapchat had no revenue. But Facebook didn’t get angry it decided to try to get even. Some may even consider Slingshot to be a kind of Snapchat 2.0 or Snapchat clone.去年,Facebook 曾出价30亿美元,希望收购Snapchat,但这家公司年轻的创始人们拒绝了这个收购提议。鉴于Snapchat并无任何收益来源,因此当时的决定非常出人意料。但Facebook并没有动怒它决意尝试以实际行动来报复,于是Slingshot便应运而生。有些人甚至认为Slingshot就是Snapchat的2.0版或复制版。The new app joins a cast of others aly owned by Facebook including the chatting app Messenger and Instagram, a popular photo and service. Facebook also recently acquired the messaging service WhatsApp for billion.除了Slingshot之外,Facebook旗下的应用阵营还包括聊天应用Messenger以及大受欢迎的照片和视频务应用Instagram。最近,Facebook又以190亿美元的价格收购了通讯务应用WhatsApp。Facebook’s success with Slingshot is hardly assured considering it has failed in the past to make much headway in the messaging space. Last month, it shut down a Snapchatlike app called Poke a year after its release.考虑到Facebook在信息传递领域的大力开拓上曾有过失败的经历,因此现在我们还很难说Facebook推出的Slingshot一定能取得成功。就在上个月,Facebook才刚下架了去年才发布的类Snapchat应用Poke。 /201406/307065。
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