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2019年09月19日 04:42:20来源:爱问卫生

The White House announced Monday that it will propose spending nearly 1 billion dollars over the next two years on research to fight cancer. 白宫星期一宣布,将在未来两年内花费近10亿美元来进行与癌症有关的研究。Barack Obama said he will request 755 million dollars from Congress for fiscal year 2017. 奥巴马表示,2017财政年度他将向国会要求7亿5500万美元。According to senior administration officials, most of the money will go towards the National Institute Of Health and will be used to better coordinate research to help fight cancer. 根据高级官员,大部分的钱将流向国家卫生研究所,用于更好地协调研究以帮助对抗癌症。The goal is to conduct decades worth of research in approximately five years. 我们的目标是在大约五年的时间里进行数十项有价值的研究。Research will focus on creating enhanced early detection and technology; prevention and cancer vaccine development; and pediatric cancer among other things. 研究的重点将放在加强早期检测和技术,预防和癌症疫苗的发展,以及儿科癌症。Vice-President Joe Biden will also be at the forefront of this initiative.副总统拜登同样处于这一倡议的前沿。译文属。201602/425240。

  • Scottish engineering苏格兰的工程From ships to satellites从轮船到卫星的发展How high-end engineering escaped industrial meltdown高端工程如何在崩溃的产业中逃过一劫Box me up Scotty把我组装成箱,苏格兰人SCOTLAND may not have broken off from Britain last year, but at least it got into space. Overshadowed by the ballyhoo over the referendum, the first satellite built in Scotland, UKube-1 (pictured below), was launched. The same dimensions as a boxed bottle of whisky, it was assembled on the banks of the river Clyde in central Glasgow by the countrys first satellite manufacturer, Clyde Space. It is but one example of Scotlands surprisingly healthy engineering industry.苏格兰去年未脱离英国,但至少进了太空。它大肆宣扬全民公决独立与否一事,声势之大,盖过其制造的第一颗卫星UKuble一号发射太空。该卫星大小与威士忌装盒相同,由英国首位卫星制造商克莱德航天公司在格拉斯哥中部的克莱德河河岸上组装而成,是苏格兰唯一健康发展的工程。The clean room where Clyde Space makes its satellites affords an excellent view of Govan, once a centre of world shipbuilding and now a reminder of how quickly huge industries can collapse. Rather than trying to build everything, therefore, as the Clyde shipyards used to, Craig Clark, the founder of Clyde Space, is trying to master one small, but growing, niche of his industry. He builds only the smallest satellites, often costing as little as ,000 (33,000) each, and also makes parts for bigger ones. The company was the first such to sell its products online. Mr Clarks firm, which employs 45 people, turned over 3m this year, and expects to double that next year.克莱德航天公司制造卫星的地方宽敞明亮,可以欣赏到高湾的美景。高湾曾是世界轮船制造中心,而如今只是庞大工业迅速崩溃的受害者。因此,克莱德航天公司创始人克雷格·克拉克努力掌握航天业中不断发展的小众业务。他仅制造微小型卫星,每颗的花费通常只有5万美元(3.3万英镑),同时还制作稍大卫星的零部件。该公司是同行中首个在网上销售产品的公司。克拉克的公司共有45名职工人员,今年的营业额为300万英镑,预计明年营业额翻一番。A few big engineering firms remain in Scotland, such as Babcock Marine and Thales, both of which supply defence equipment. But most of the countrys 7,500 engineering companies belong to a long, thin tail. Often family-owned and generations old, the best of them combine technological savvy with a strong entrepreneurial spirit. Often, they are niche manufacturers to the world.苏格兰仍有柏布考克海事集团(Babcock Marine)、泰利斯(Thales)等一些大型工程企业,这两家企业皆销售国防设备。然而,在英的7500家工程企业中,大部分都不成气候。而其中的精英往往是世代相传的家族企业,它们将技术方面的悟性与强烈的企业精神进行结合,往往是世界上精准定位的制造商。One such is Castle Precision Engineering, in south-west Glasgow. It started out in 1951 making machines for the giant local Singer sewing-machine factory, then moved into car parts, medical equipment and aerospace—now its biggest market. On March 9th it created the fastest wheels ever made, for the “Bloodhound” car that will try to set a new land speed record next year. The wheels are strong enough to take a driver to 1,000mph in 55 seconds, rotating 177 times a second.格拉斯哥西南部的城堡精密工程公司即为其一。该公司始创于1951年,为当地胜家牌大型缝纫机厂生产设备,之后转向汽车零部件、医疗设备以及现在最大的市场——航空航天产品的生产。3月9日,该公司为“寻血猎犬”汽车制造出史上最快车轮,该车明年将倾力创造陆地行驶速度的新纪录。车轮功能强大,汽车完全可以在55秒内达到1000英里的时速,且车轮每秒旋转177次。In one respect, these firms are exceptions to the British rule. In a kingdom with a balance-of-trade deficit in goods amounting to fully 10 billion a month, they are fierce exporters. Castle sends about one-third of its wares abroad. Another niche firm, Clark Tracks, which makes caterpillar tracks for forestry vehicles, sells 90% of its products to Europe. Overall, engineering and technology companies account for over one-quarter of Scotlands exports.一方面,这些企业不符合英国的规则。英国的商品贸易逆差每月高达100亿英镑,而这些企业的出口量极大。城堡公司三分之一的商品出口国外,另一家小型公司Clark Tracks(克拉克履带公司)生产林用车履带,其中90%的产品销往欧洲。总体而言,工程技术公司占有苏格兰出口量的四分之一。But in another way they illustrate a familiar weakness in British industry. The countrys firms tend to remain small or medium-sized—smaller than the German Mittelstand of export-orientated businesses. Even before the financial crisis Scotlands small engineering companies found it hard to raise money locally to expand. Some looked overseas instead. Clark Tracks was bought in 2007 by a Swedish company. The defence giant Thales acquired the illustrious old Glaswegian firm of Barr and Stroud in 2000. Its factory, now employing about 700 people, still specialises in submarine periscopes and optronics for the military.但另一方面,这些企业自身具有英国工业的普遍缺陷。英国企业往往保持中小型规模,但小于德国中小型出口企业。金融危机爆发之前,苏格兰的小型工程企业发现难以在当地筹集用于扩大规模的资金。有些企业将目光转向海外。2000年,国防设备生产大户泰利斯买下格拉斯哥著名老牌公司斯特劳德,其工厂现有700名工人,继续从事军用潜艇潜望镜和光电产品的专项生产。2007年,瑞典一家企业收购Clark Tracks。Now change is coming to Scottish engineering, via the North Sea. The oil and gas industry is both a blessing and a curse for engineers. It is a big market for their products, but it also competes fiercely for labour. Glasgow-based companies complain about the shortage of skilled workers even more than do firms elsewhere in Britain. Yan Tiefenbrun, the boss of Castle, got involved in the Bloodhound project to create publicity, hoping talent would be drawn to his apprenticeship scheme. The current woes of Aberdeens offshore industry, facing tumbling oil prices and squeezed margins, could be a boon for the countrys other engineers.但是,苏格兰工程即将借助北海迎来转机。油气工业对工程商来说是福亦是祸。这一巨大市场可用来销售其产品,但对于劳动力的竞争也很激烈。在格拉斯哥,投诉技术工人无法胜任工作的企业数量居全国之首。城堡公司老板Yan Tiefenbrun为了提高企业知名度,参与了“寻血猎犬”工程,同时希望为其学徒计划招揽人才。亚伯丁海上石油开采业当前面临油价下跌、收益缩水,它们的祸可能是英国其他工程商的福。翻译:石海霞 校对:周雨晴 译文属译生译世 /201503/366029。
  • Finance and economics: Property taxes: Home bias财经:房产税:本土偏好A taxing problem for foreign buyers.外籍买家的房产税难题。Even in hot markets like Vancouver, property sales normally slow in the summer.即使温哥华的房地产市场是如此炙手可热,夏季往往也是其销售淡季。But for Sonia Prasad and other estate agents, the last days of July were a blur of hurried sales and paperwork as buyers and sellers rushed to complete transactions before an August 2nd deadline.但对索尼娅·普拉萨德和其他房地产代理人来说,7月的最后几天充斥着大量仓促交易和各类购房文件,因为买家跟卖家都急于在8月2日(最后的期限日)前完成交易。On July 25th the provincial government of British Columbia decreed that, after that date, foreign buyers must pay a new 15% tax on any residential purchase.7月25日,加拿大卑诗省政府颁布法令规定,8月2日之后,外籍买家在温哥华购买任何住宅都必须多缴15%的房屋购置税。The tax is aimed at stopping these buyers from pushing up prices in Canada’s most expensive residential-property market.这一税收政策旨在阻止外籍买家推高加拿大最贵的房地产市场的价格。Ms Prasad’s last-minute buyers included a couple from China who were purchasing a C0,000 (5,000) condominium in the suburb of New Westminster for their son, a student starting college in September.赶在最后期限前买房的人中有一对来自中国的夫妇,他们正想在新威斯敏斯特郊区给九月份即将上大学的儿子购买一套价值40万加元(30.5万美元)的公寓。The extra ,000 they would have had to pay might have killed the deal, MS Prasad says.普拉萨德说,必须上缴的额外的6万美元可能会致使他们放弃交易。Indeed, the tax seems likely to have prompted some foreign buyers to walk away from deals agreed, but not completed, before the deadline.的确,新政策似乎可能会促使一些外籍买家在截止日期前放弃已经谈好但还没完成的交易。Governments at all levels, from municipal to federal, have been under pressure over the past two years to curtail foreign ownership in Vancouver.过去两年来,加拿大从市政府到联邦政府的各级政府在缩减温哥华房地产外资问题上面临压力。Michael de Jong, the finance minister of British Columbia, says foreign nationals invested more than C billion in the province’s properties in the five weeks between June 10th and July 14th.卑诗省财政厅长麦德庄称,在6月10日至7月14日这五个星期里,外籍公民在卑诗省房地产行业的投资就超过了10亿加元。More than C0 million of that was spent in metropolitan Vancouver.其中有超过8.6亿加元的投资是注入到大都市温哥华中。Back in 2011 the median price of a detached home in Vancouver was C3,000; now it is C.56m.2011年,温哥华独栋房屋的中位数价格为93.3万加元,而现在是156万加元。Household median incomes in the city have been rising only gently, from C,000 in 2011 to C,000 by 2014.这几年加拿大城市居民家庭收入中值却上升平缓,从2011年的6.9万加元升到2014年的7.6万加元。Sherry Cooper, chief economist at Dominion Lending in Toronto, says Vancouver’s inflated prices are higher than anywhere else in the country.多伦多主要放贷机构多美连放贷中心的首席经济师雪利·库伯称,温哥华的物价比加拿大其他任何地方都要高。“When everyone is screaming about affordability, the government has to look like it’s doing something,” she says.她说:“当所有人都在叫喊负担过重时,政府必须看起来要有所作为。”Other jurisdictions have also implemented policies and surcharges to reduce foreign ownership in their residential markets.其他地方也已实施一些政策和附加要求来减少房地产市场中外籍买家的数量。In December Australia’s Foreign Investment Review Board started to charge application fees for foreign buyers.去年12月,澳大利亚外国投资审查委员会开始向外籍买家征收申请费。Hong Kong, the most expensive real-estate marketing in the world, has added a 15% surcharge on home purchases from non-permanent residents.香港的不动产市场交易价格是世界上最昂贵的,非香港永久居民购买房产需上缴15%的附加费。Britain has raised the stamp duty on homes worth more than £1.5m, the kind of properties bought by rich foreigners.英国对价值超过150万英镑的房屋交易增加了印花税,这类房产通常是国外的富人购买的。To some, however, British Columbia’s move was poorly thought out.从某种意义上来说,卑诗省的这一举措欠缺考虑。Under the Canada China Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement which took force in October 2014, foreign investors must be treated as favorably as locals, says Barry Appleton, a trade lawyer.贸易律师巴里·阿普尔顿说,2014年10月生效的加拿大-中国外资促进与保护协议规定,必须像对待本国人一样,优惠对待外籍投资者。The new tax, which targets all foreigners and not just Chinese buyers, will also violate the terms of the North American Free Trade Agreement, he alleges.他认为,这项针对所有外籍买家、而非只是中国买家的新税政策也违反了北美自由贸易协议的条款。This policy could end up being settled in the courts.这项政策有可能要在法庭上解决。译文属译生译世 /201610/473536。
  • Londons insurance market伦敦保险市场Risky business为风险投资Londons position as world-leader in insurance is under threat伦敦在保险市场的老大地位受到威胁FROM the doomed Titanic, an ocean liner (1m), to the legs of Cristiano Ronaldo, a footballer (144m), some of the biggest and most unusual risks have been taken on by the London insurance market, the oldest and largest in the world. Started more than 300 years ago in a coffee shop in Tower Street run by Edward Lloyd, the market was first thought up to share the hazards of mercantile trading adventures. It grew with the empire.难逃劫数的远洋客轮泰坦尼克号(保险额1百万美元)和克里斯蒂亚诺·罗纳尔多的一条腿(保险额1亿4千4百万美元),分别是历史最悠久,规模最大的伦敦保险市场上投保最大和最特别的例子。发迹于300年前塔街爱德华·劳埃德(Edward Lloyd)的咖啡馆,保险最初是为了分担商业贸易的风险。保险随着大英帝国的崛起而红火起来。Cyber-risk wasnt a problem for Mr Lloyd网络风险对于劳埃德来说并不成问题Today, the sector employs 48,000 people, makes up 21% of the Citys economy and underpins global industries like aviation (57% of whose insurance is underwritten in London) and shipping (33%). One tenth of global commercial insurance and 13% of reinsurance is underwritten in London, making the market roughly the same size as its three closest rivals—Bermuda, Singapore and Zurich—combined.现在,有4800人在保险行业工作,保险行业占伦敦经济的21%,撑着像航空(57%的保险都在伦敦承保)和航运(33%)等全球产业。全球商业保险的十分之一以及再保险的13%都在伦敦承保,使得伦敦的保险业务规模达到了其最接近的三个对手—百慕大、新加坡和苏黎世—保险业务之和。However, a study published on November 10th by the London Market Group, which represents the industry, and Boston Consulting Group, a consultancy, says Londons dominant position is under threat. While the rest of the City was forced to reform in recent decades, the insurance industry has remained largely unchanged. The report reckons as much as 40% of Londons current insurance business is now at risk of going elsewhere.但是,11月10日,作为保险业顾问的波士顿咨询集团和伦敦市场研究小组联合发布的调查结果声称伦敦保险业的主导地位正受到威胁。当伦敦的其他行业在近几十年来被迫改变的时候,保险业却基本一成不变。这份报告估计多达40%的伦敦现有保险业务将会流向别处。Emerging markets accounted for 43% of world growth in the commercial insurance industry over the past three years—the Chinese market alone grew by 18% annually over that period. Yet London only managed to capture 0.5% of that growth. Its share of emerging markets fell to 2.5% in 2013 from 3.2% in 2010. The London market is also losing out to competitors in reinsurance (the insurance of insurers), where its share has fallen from 15% to 13% and is expected to drop further. The big threats here come from new market entrants (such as hedge funds) and expanding competitors such as Bermuda (whose reinsurance grew by 5%) and Singapore (10%).在过去三年里,新兴市场在全球商业保险增长率中占有43%——仅中国市场就以每年18%的速度增长。但是伦敦却仅仅只占全球增长的0.5%。伦敦市场在新兴市场中的份额由2010的3.2%下降到2013年的2.5%。伦敦市场在再保险业务(保险人的保险)方面也输给了竞争对手,其再保险业务从市场中的15%下降到13%,据预计这个还会进一步下降。最大的威胁来自于市场的新进入者(比如对冲基金)和不断扩张的竞争对手比如百慕大(再保险业务增长了5%)和新加坡(10%)。Perhaps the biggest challenge lies in finding solutions for new types of corporate risks. These include reputation- and cyber-risk. The insurance industry has failed to keep up with changing business needs and some chief executives say that as much as 90% of their corporate risks are currently not insurable, because nobody has come up with the right products.或许最大的挑战来自为新型企业风险寻找不一样的解决方案。这些风险包括企业声誉和来自网络的风险。保险业未能跟上不断变化的商业需求,一些首席执行官说因为保险业的滞后,没有人提出合适的方案,90%的企业风险目前都不能投保。The industry remains strangely old-fashioned. Only 35% of its workforce have a university degree, compared with 60% for the workforce in central London. It has also failed to compete on cost, with burdensome regulations and higher transaction costs adding up. Investors are pouring new capital into the wider insurance market. Customers have plenty of choice.保险业依旧是奇怪的老样子。从事保险业的员工仅有35%拥有大学学位,而在伦敦中心工作的人拥有大学学位的比例达到了60%。繁重的规章制度加上越来越高的交易成本使得保险业在成本方面也落后于其他行业。投资者把资本投向更广阔的保险市场。客户也有更多的选择。There is plenty London could do to improve, says the report. It needs to shift its focus to emerging markets and to high growth sectors. It also needs to lead the way in adopting the latest technological innovations to measure and predict risk. There have been great advances in telematics, for example. One device is a box increasingly used in cars to assess individual drivers behaviour, which makes it easier to assess the risk of insuring them. Mr Lloyd might have approved of such radical innovation.报告还称伦敦保险业还可以做很多改变。它需要将重心转移到新兴市场和高增长领域。它还需要引领科技潮流,采用最新科技创新来计算和预测风险。例如已经在远程信息处理上取得的重大进步,一个盒子外形的装置被逐渐应用到汽车上,使得评估投保人风险变得更加容易。劳埃德已经批准了这一突破性的创新。译者:胡雅琳 校对:崔梦雪 译文属译生译世 /201411/343667。
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