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2019年09月23日 16:18:21 | 作者:百姓在线 | 来源:新华社
Amid all the talk of closer business ties between Asia#39;s two great emerging economies, Monday#39;s inaugural meeting of the India-China chief #173;executives#39; forum in New Delhi could scarcely have asked for two more appropriate chairmen.目前各方对于在亚洲两大新兴经济体之间打造更紧密的商业联系谈论颇多,在此背景下,本周一在新德里召开的中印企业首席执行官论坛首次会议,确实很难找到比安尼尔#8226;安巴尼和胡怀邦两人更合适的共同主席。Billionaire Anil Ambani of India#39;s Reliance group and Hu Huaibang of China Development Bank presided over an event designed to coincide with Chinese premier Li Keqiang#39;s debut visit to India this week, and both talked up the odds that their countries could meet a 0bn trade target by 2015.印度信实集团(Reliance)的亿万富翁安尼尔#8226;安巴尼(Anil Ambani)和中国国家开发(CDB)董事长胡怀邦共同主持了这次会议。这次会议在时机上配合了中国总理李克强本周对印度的首次访问。两人都谈到,两国有望实现到2015年双边贸易额增至1000亿美元的目标。It was an act the two men had #173;practised before, however, not least as Mr Ambani#39;s conglomerate has moved to raise more than bn in loans from China over the past few years, much of it co-ordinated by Mr Hu#39;s bank, as part of a pattern of cash-strapped Indian companies seeking cheap #173;Chinese financing.然而,这两人并非初次搭档,尤其是因为阿姆巴尼旗下的企业集团过去几年从中国争取到逾50亿美元贷款,其中许多是由胡怀邦的协调的。这是资金紧张的印度企业寻求廉价中国资金这一模式的一个例子。Another such deal was inked during Mr Li#39;s trip, as the Essar Group unveiled a three-way oil-for-loans pact with CDB and oil group PetroChina, in which the Indian company will look to raise bn in exchange for supplying China with products from its oil #173;refining business.李克强访印期间达成了又一笔这样的交易。印度Essar集团宣布了一份与中国国开行和中石油(PetroChina)达成的“石油换贷款”三方协议,根据协议,这家印度公司将通过向中国供应其炼油部门的产品,筹得10亿美元的融资。Yet while these agreements are proving a boon for overstretched Indian industrial houses and expanding Chinese state-backed banks alike, in other ways the story of the corporate links spanning these two Asian economies is rather less happy.然而,尽管这些协议为印度亟需资金的工业企业和中国扩张中的国有控股都是一件好事,但在其他方面,这两个亚洲经济体之间企业纽带的故事并不都那么皆大欢喜。Trade between India and China fell to bn in the year to March, a decline of 11 per cent caused mostly by a fall in Indian exports. This was led by sectors such as iron ore, where domestic regulatory snarl-ups have stopped shipments to China entirely.在截止今年3月份的这一年里,中印贸易额下跌至680亿美元,跌幅为11%。这一下跌主要是由于印度出口的下降造成的,其中铁矿石等行业的出口下滑最为严重,原因是印度国内在监管上的阻塞,已叫停所有对华发货。Even without such problems many Indian exporters have struggled to gain much of a foothold in China#39;s expanding market, including large IT outsourcers such as Tata Consultancy Services, whose offices in Mumbai Mr Li visited yesterday.即便没有这类问题,印度许多出口企业也很难在中国日益扩张的市场争得一席之地,这其中包括塔塔咨询务公司(Tata Consultancy Services)这类大型信息技术外包公司。近日李克强曾访问塔塔位于孟买的办公室。Indian companies and consumers, by contrast, have proved only too receptive to Chinese products, sucking in an ever-rising tide of imports, from giant industrial boilers and power plant turbines to the many colourful plastic Hindu deities sold on stalls in the country#39;s heaving street markets.与此相反,印度企业和消费者对中国产品十分欢迎,引发了不断上涨的进口热潮。印度从中国进口的产品既有巨型工业锅炉和电厂发电机组,也有印度繁忙街市的小摊上出售的色鲜艳的塑料印度神像。“India has been much more #173;receptive to China#39;s money and goods than it has been to Chinese firms #173;setting up shop,” says Eswar Prasad, an #173;economist at the Brookings #173;Institution. “It seems there is still a little layer of suspicion about some of these companies.”美国布鲁金斯学会(Brookings Institution)经济学家埃斯瓦#8226;普拉萨德(Eswar Prasad)表示:“相比起前来印度开展经营的中国企业,中国的资金和商品在印度更受欢迎。印度对某些中国企业似乎还有点怀疑。”Such suspicions relate mostly to Chinese telecoms equipment makers, notably Huawei and ZTE, both with sizeable operations in the country, but whose business activities are often the object of national security worries from nervy Indian politicians.这种怀疑主要涉及中国电信设备制造商,特别是华为(Huawei)和中兴(ZTE)。这两家企业在印度都拥有规模较大的业务,然而他们的商业活动经常成为紧张的印度政界人士在国家安全方面的担忧对象。Elsewhere, many of China#39;s most prominent players in sectors such as construction and infrastructure equipment are only now beginning to #173;consider establishing domestic plants to serve India#39;s market, instead of relying on exports alone.而在建筑和工程机械等其他行业,中国许多最知名的公司如今刚刚开始考虑通过在印度国内开办工厂(而不是仅仅依靠向印度出口)来务印度市场。“When we go to China now we find all of the top players have an India investment strategy, which is a big change. It#39;s just that not many want to begin making things here yet,” says Kamal Rungta, managing #173;director at EJ McKay, a consultancy that advises Chinese companies #173;considering entry into India#39;s market.咨询机构马凯公司(E.J. McKay)向考虑进入印度市场的中国企业提供建议,该公司董事总经理卡迈勒#8226;罗塔(Kamal Rungta)表示:“如今我们去中国的时候发现,所有顶尖公司都拥有在印度投资的战略,这是一个巨大的变化。只是现在想在这里从事生产的公司还不多。”But a trickle of players are moving in, including Sany Heavy Machinery, one of China#39;s largest construction equipment makers, which began operations in the western city of Pune last year. TBEA, a power equipment manufacturer, is also setting up a plant in the business-friendly state of Gujarat.不过,少数中国企业正移师印度,包括中国最大的工程机械制造商之一三一重工(Sany Heavy Machinery),该公司去年在印度西部城市普纳投入运营。另外,电力设备制造商特变电工(TBEA)也在营商环境较好的古吉拉特邦设立工厂。Yet even companies set on establishing facilities face numerous obstacles, as with Feida, a Chinese group making complex air quality control equipment for use in power plants and factories. The business earned around 0m in exports to India last year, managing director Andy Wang explains, but is still only examining options for domestic production.然而,即使是有意在印度建厂的中国企业,也会面临许多障碍。菲达集团(Feida)的遭遇就是一例,这是中国一家为发电厂和工厂制造复杂的空气质量控制设备的集团。集团副总经理王剑波表示,去年该集团从对印出口赚取了约1亿美元的利润,但仍然只是在研究在印度国内生产的各项选择。“It is difficult and, especially if you are searching for land or going through policy procedures, it can be troublesome,” he says. “India is doing better, and we want to grow here, but in China it is simpler. Land is easy, industrial parks are available. All you need is to select the place and go.”他表示:“这样做很困难,特别是需要选址,还要走政策程序,这些都很麻烦。印度的情况正在改善,我们也希望在这里扩大业务,但是在中国这要简单些。选址很容易,工业园区是现成的。你只需要选好地方开工就行。”Such concerns might feel oddly familiar to the many western #173;companies that have struggled with India#39;s slow-moving, fickle bureaucracy. In manufacturing, Chinese #173;companies that otherwise might be attracted into a country that plans to spend tn on infrastructure over the next five years also face the same mix of onerous labour regulations and weak infrastructure that has hobbled India#39;s own growth in this area.曾与印度运转缓慢、反复无常的官僚体制艰难打过交道的西方企业,对这种担忧可能有怪异的同感。在制造业,那些可能被今后5年计划在基础设施上投入1万亿美元的印度吸引的中国企业,也得面临阻碍了印度本土制造业增长的繁琐劳动法规和薄弱基础设施的掣肘。“As India gets more into domestic manufacturing, perhaps China will set up more facilities here to win over some portion of this activity,” says Chetan Ahya, Asia-Pacific managing director at Morgan Stanley.根士丹利(Morgan Stanley)亚太区董事总经理舍唐#8226;阿赫亚(Chetan Ahya)表示:“随着印度加大在国内制造业上的投入,也许中国将在印度设立更多工厂,在这方面分得一杯羹。”“But for India to improve, it just needs to become more competitive in manufacturing. And China isn#39;t #173;stopping India from doing that.”“但是,印度要想有所改进,就必须提升制造业的竞争力。中国并没有阻止印度这么做。” /201305/241124《爱丽丝漫游奇境》中,强尼·戴普把疯疯癫癫的帽匠演绎得活灵活现,在红心女王面前,竟然莫名其妙地提出可以为大头女王做帽子,因此我们可以了解到各种不同的帽子的说法。这里,我们要先了解的是帽匠,英语里叫做hatter,其实就是做帽子的人。英语中有个说法叫as mad as a hatter,意思是极度疯狂。所以疯帽匠可是有来历的哦。beret: a cap with no brim or bill; made of soft clothBeret 就是我们说的贝雷帽。贝雷帽源自巴斯克北部的农民饰,现在很多军队和警队用贝雷帽作为制帽。cloche hat:a woman#39;s close-fitting hat that resembles a helmetCloche hat 指的是钟形女帽。这种帽子高度较深,而帽沿的宽度比较窄小,搭配合适的话,秋冬戴起来很漂亮,比如图中的安吉丽娜·朱莉。lierihattu:a brimmed hatLierihattu 指的是宽边的帽子,一般夏天带的宽檐的藤帽都属于这类。fedora hat: a hat made of felt with a creased crownFedora hat 指的是爵士帽,一般是男式的,不过也有帅气的女孩子喜欢戴这种帽子。如果你看过美剧《妙贼警探》(White Collar),里面的男主角 Neal Caffrey 的标志性装就有这么一顶fedora。boater:a stiff hat made of straw with a flat crownBoater 指的是硬草帽。就是图中的这种,生活中也还比较常见。顺便说一下,图片里的人是英国前首相托尼·布莱尔。Cap本来指的是没边或者有帽舌的帽子,我们图上的这种很常见的鸭舌帽,也叫做cricket cap。kipa:the cloth skullcap or yarmulke traditionally worn by male JewsKipa 也写成 kippah,意思是犹太小圆帽。helmet:a protective headgear made of hard material to resist blowsHelmet 就是头盔。头盔大家都见过就不多说了,顺便说一下,图上的这位名为Stig,是英国B最受欢迎真人秀《Top Gear》的明星。tin foil hat:A piece of headgear made from one or more sheets of tin foil, aluminium foil, or other similar material, the hats worn in the belief that they act to shield the brain from such influences as electromagnetic fields, or against mind control and/or mind ing。Tin foil hat 就是锡纸帽,这种帽子戴来纯粹是给自己找心理安慰的…… /201211/209437

Keeping the stress away from your life isn’t just about the big things and decisions. It is also about the small things. About what you do and do not do from day to day.让生活远离压力并不只是和大事儿及决策有关。它也和小事儿有关。和你每天做什么以及不做什么有关。Those small daily – helpful or unhelpful – habits add up very quickly over the weeks and can be the difference between being focused and feeling good about life or not being able to sleep or work properly and enjoy your life as much as you could.这些每天的小习惯——有益的或无益的——一周一周累积地非常快,正是它们有可能让你的生活有所不同。你可能享受生活并感觉良好,也可能无法入睡或无法正常工作,更不用提尽可能地享受生活了。In this article I’d like to share 10 small habits that have had a huge positive effect in my life and that protects me from both the stress out there in the world and the stress I can cause myself.在这篇文章中,我想和大家分享10个小习惯,这些习惯对我的生活起到了很大的积极影响,让我远离世界上本来就有的压力以及自己导致的压力。1. One thing at a time.一次只做一件事It is often tempting to multi-task to get things done quicker. But every time I feel that impulse I remind myself that in the past I have actually gotten better results, been able to focus more sharply and had less stress in my mind and body when I single-tasked. And so I continue to do one thing at a time.多任务处理往往很诱人,好像能让人更快地把事情做完。但是每当我有那种冲动时,我就会提醒自己,过去当我单任务处理时,结果更好,我更专注,头脑、身体的压力更少。所以我继续一次只做一件事情。2. Just write it all down.把它写下来。Trying to remember every idea, meeting and so on is not the best use of your mind.尝试记住每个想法、会议等等并不能最好地利用你的大脑。And if your memory is anything like mine then you may lose many ideas if they are not captured pretty quickly. So just write all of your good or great ideas, insights and thoughts down to keep them safe and to unload your mind.如果你的和我差不多,那要是你不很快的把想法捕捉下来,它们很快就会溜走。 所以把好的主意、看法和想法都写下来,保它们记录下来,减轻大脑的负担。3. Don’t guess. Ask.不要去猜。去问。Trying to minds usually don’t go so well at all. So instead, just communicate and ask.读心术并不是那么好用。取而代之,去和他人沟通并加以询问。By doing so you promote openness in your relationships in the long run and that will also help you to minimize unnecessary conflicts, misunderstandings, negativity and waste or time and energy.这样做,从长远的角度上来说可以提高关系间的开放性, 那也会帮你减少不必要的冲突、误解、消极情绪以及时间和能量的浪费。4. Keep everything in its place.把东西放在固定的位置上。If everything has its place then your home and workspace will have a more calming effect and it will be less stressful to find those important papers or your keys and wallet as you are heading out to catch the next bus.如果东西都有固定的位置,那么你的家和工作地点会有更好的镇定效果,当你赶车时去找重要文件或钥匙、钱包时压力就不会那么大了。5. Set clear daily time-limits for your work.每天为工作设定明确的时间限制This has been so important for me to not get lost in the very stressful grey zone and to not think about my business and this blog after my workday is done.这一点对我来说非常重要,它让我不会迷失在充满压力的灰色区域中,让我在工作做完后不去想业务和客。Three limits that I have set are:我设定的三个限制是:Breaks every hour. I usually work for about 45 minutes and then take a 15 minute break when I step away from the work and do something completely different.每个小时都要休息。我通常工作45分钟然后休息15分钟,停止工作,做一些完全不同的事情。Start and stop-times for work. I don’t work before 8 in the morning and I don’t work after 7 o clock in the evening.设定工作的开始和结束时间。早晨8点前和晚上7点后我都不会工作。I don’t work weekends. I usually check emails once per weekend just to see so there is not something truly important I have to attend to. But other than that I stay away from work over the weekend and spend time with my family, friends, a good book or movie or I do some other fun activity.周末不工作。 我经常会在周末查一下邮件看看有没有真正重要的事情需要注意一下。除此之外,我周末是不工作的。我在周末和家人、朋友一起玩,或看一本好书、一部电影或做其他有趣的事情。6. Be 10 minutes early for meetings.开会时早去10分钟。This is a very small habit but in my experience it can sure decrease the daily stress a whole lot.这是个非常小的习惯,但是以我的经验,它会减少大量的压力。For me it has transformed travel time during my day into relaxing breaks instead of passages of time and space that only up my levels of stress and other negative feelings.对我来说,它把我的出行时间转换成了休息的片刻,而不是成段的增加压力和其他负面情绪的时间和空间。7. Do email checking etc. as late in the day as possible.尽可能晚地去查看电子邮件I try to stay away from my inbox until the end of my workday. Doing my work this way helps me to have less distraction and to focus fully on creating new articles, newsletters and premium courses early in the day.我尽量在工作快结束时查看电子邮件。这样做能让我少分心,能让我在一天的早些时间里把注意力完全放在写新的文章、通讯稿和优质的课程上。This may not be possible for everyone of course. But see if you can do one or two hours of uninterrupted work on your most important tasks in the morning before checking your email.当然,这并不对每个人都适用。但是你可以试试,在查看邮件前能不能一两个小时无打扰地去做最重要的任务。8. Pack before you go to bed.在上床睡觉前把明天的东西准备好。You’ll be less stressed out in the morning and you are less likely to forget something.早晨你的压力就会减少, 你忘带东西的可能性也会降低。9. Aim to keep it very simple instead of creating drama or mountains out of molehills.目的是要简单,而不是要弄出戏剧性的事件或小题大做Drama, conflicts or creating mountains out of molehills can fill life with things that seem important and sometimes exciting. But those things will also suck up much of your time and energy and create stress and friction in your life.戏剧性的事件、冲突或小题大做能让生活充满着看似重要和让人兴奋的事情。但是那些事情会占用你大量的时间和精力,并让你的生活增加压力和擦。A few things that help me to avoid extra drama, conflicts or creating mountains are to ask myself these 3 questions when I am in a negative situation:有几件事能帮我避免额外的戏剧性的事件、冲突或小题大做。这就是当我处于不利的局面时,我会问自己这三个问题:Am I making a mountain out of a molehill right now? Will this matter in 5 years or even 5 weeks? How can keep things extremely simple in this situation?我现在是不是小题大做? 这件事5年后或甚至5周后还重要吗? 在这种情况下如何能让事情变得非常简单?10. When overcome with stress, just breathe.面对压力时,深呼吸When stressed, lost in a problem or the past or future in your mind breathe a little more deeply than usual and make sure you breathe with your belly. Do this for about 1-2 minutes.当有压力时,当迷失在脑海里的问题或沉迷于过去、未来时,比平常呼吸得深一些,确保用腹部呼吸。这样做1-2分钟。It will calm your body down and bring your mind back from future worries or past mistakes and into what is happening right here in the present moment again.它会让你的身体平静下来,让你从对未来的担忧或过去的错误中回过神来,把注意力集中在当前发生的事情上。 /201307/248769

狮子座——The Three Musketeers《三剑客》书中的三位剑客非常像狮子的!而且这本书中牵涉到了皇室的问题,就更加符合狮子们的王者之风拉!相同关键词:王者之风、尊贵、侠义精神The Three Musketeers is a novel by Alexandre Dumas, père, first serialized in March–July 1844. Set in the 17th century, it recounts the adventures of a young man named d#39;Artagnan after he leaves home to become a guard of the musketeers. D#39;Artagnan is not one of the musketeers of the title; those are his friends Athos, Porthos, and Aramis, inseparable friends who live by the motto ;all for one, one for all; .《三剑客》(又名《三个火手》)是以17世纪初期法国国王路易十三和手握重兵、权倾朝野的首相黎塞留红衣主教的矛盾为背景,穿插群臣派系的明争暗斗,围绕宫廷里的秘史轶闻,展开了极饶趣味的故事。书中的主人公少年勇士达达尼昂,怀揣其父留给他的十五个埃居,骑一匹长毛瘦马,告别及亲,远赴巴黎,希望在同乡父执的特雷维尔为队长的国王火队里当一名火手。在队长府上,他遇上阿托斯,波托斯和阿拉米斯三个火手,通过欧洲骑士风行的决斗,四人结成生死与共的知己。 /201208/196786

The most splendid achievement of all is the constant striving to surpass yourself and to be worthy of your own approval. This is how happiness blooms.人生最大的成就是不断的超越自己,并无愧于自己的内心。这是幸福的源泉。So don’t wait for someone to bring you roses; plant your own garden and decorate your own soul with ideas and passions that bring you joy. You do not exist to impress the world; you exist to live your life in a way that makes you and your loved ones smile.因此,不要等待别人的玫瑰;自己种植满园芬芳,并用能带给你快乐的思想和热情来丰富自己的灵魂。你的存在不是为了让世界铭记你,而是用自己的方式让自己和你爱的人微笑。Stay true to your path, stay positive, and someday you will catch yourself smiling about…忠于自己的内心,保持积极乐观的心态,有一天你会发现这些能让你会心微笑……1. Memories of working on a life passion.1. 拥有工作的回忆Passion is the key, and it’s worth making sacrifices for. It’s the secret ingredient that has kept me going through some of the most painful times of my life. Because at some point, especially when the going gets tough, you have to wonder what you’re doing and why.对于工作,很关键,而且它也值得我们做出牺牲。这是我度过人生最艰难的时光的秘诀。因为在某些时候,特别是遇到困难的时候,你必须得知道你在做什么,为什么要这么做。What distinguishes many of us who are actively pursuing our dreams from those of us on the couch is that some of us have learned the hard way – perhaps through a severe loss – that life is short, and that we must capitalize on the opportunities each day gives us, on the raw potential our minds and bodies are capable of, and on every ounce of willpower we can muster to make our journeys worthwhile.那些积极追求梦想的人和那些安逸的躺在沙发上的人之间的巨大区别就是是否体验过人生的艰辛——也许是重大的挫折——生命是短暂的,我们必须激发大脑和身体中潜藏的能力,鼓起每一分意志力,抓住人生的每一个机遇,让我们不虚此生。2. The little moments.2. 那些琐碎的时光True wealth is the ability to experience each moment of life to the fullest. Enjoy the little things, because one day you may look back and discover they were the big things.欣赏那些细微的事物,因为有一天当你回首往事时,会发现也许那些都很重要。能够尽情的享受人生的每一刻才是真正的财富。The subtle things are often the most powerful, but sometimes we get so busy that we don’t pay attention to them. So my challenge to you is this: Open your eyes. Wake up. Be attentive. Acknowledge each wonderful gift you have. See today as another day to enjoy the sights, sounds, smells, and sensations life has to offer.微妙的东西往往具有最强大的力量,但有时候我们会因为忙碌而忽视它们。所以我对你们的要求是:睁开你的双眼,打起精神,看看周围的一切。感谢生命中一切美好的东西。把每天都当成重要的时刻,来享受美景,声音,气味和生命中的每一分感动。3. The happiness you helped create.3. 创造幸福Attitudes are catchy. Whether they’re positive or negative, they’re rubbing off on you and those around you.态度很重要。积极或消极的态度都会影响你和你周围的人。So be positive. Let your intentions bleed with goodness – embodied in positive thoughts, cheerful words, and unselfish deeds – and the world will be to you a bright and happy place in which to work, play, and serve the greater good.所以要保持积极向上的心态。让心中充满爱——这体现在积极的状态,鼓舞人心的话语和无私的行为——这样,无论你身在何方,世界对于你来说都是一个充满希望和欢乐的地方,也能让更多的人都沐浴在爱之中。4. Relationships that weathered the storms with you.4. 那些和你共度难关的人No relationship is all sunshine, but two people can share one umbrella and survive the storm together.没有一帆风顺的友谊,但两个人可以相互帮助,共度难关。In fact, the best relationships are not always the best because they have been consistently the happiest; sometimes they are that way because they have survived and strengthened through unhappy times.事实上,再好的朋友也会有矛盾,因为他们有过最幸福的时光;有时候他们争执,是因为他们挺过了艰难的时刻,并因此变得更加坚强。5. Feeling beautiful on the inside.5. 内心的美好感觉As you get older, what you look like on the outside becomes less and less of an issue, and who you are on the inside becomes the primary point of interest. You eventually realize that beauty has almost nothing to do with looks; it’s who you are as a person, how you make others feel about themselves, and most importantly, how you feel about yourself.随着年龄的增长,你会渐渐觉得外表不再那么重要,重要的是你的内在。你最终会意识到美丽与外表无关;作为一个人,你是谁,你让别人感觉如何才是重要的,而最重要的是你自己的感觉。6. Knowing that you did your best.6. 知道自己已经尽力了Don’t be afraid of death; be afraid of a life unlived. You don’t have to live forever; you just have to live right now while you have a chance. Keep in mind that life doesn’t always give you second chances, so when an opportunity arises, take it.不要惧怕死亡,行尸走肉的一生才是最可怕的。你并不需要长生不老;你最需要的是活在当下。记住,人生没有排,所以当机遇降临时,一定要抓住它。And never give up on a dream just because of the time that’s required to accomplish it. The time will pass anyway. Do what you need to do so that, at the very least, you can look back on your life someday and say, “I gave it my best shot.”永远也不要因为梦想需要太久才能实现而放弃。时间总会消逝。做你需要做的一切,这样最起码,当你有一天回首往事时,你可以问心无愧:“我已经尽力了。”7. The peace in your heart.7. 内心的平静Life is short. So focus on what matters to YOU and let go of what does not.生命是短暂的。所以要把精力集中在那些对你来说重要的东西上面。Remember, it is the strength of your conviction that determines your level of success, not the number of people who agree with every little thing you do. In the end, you will know that you’ve made the right decisions and followed the proper path when there is peace in your heart.记住,决定你成功程度的是信念的力量,而不是有多少人赞成你做的那些微不足道的小事。你最终会明白,内心的平静会指引你做出正确的决定,并选择适当的人生之路。 /201301/218053

One day my husband arrived home from the supermarket with a product that piqued my curiosity. He couldn#39;t find our usual brand of Bell amp; Evans bed, frozen chicken tenders─I like their thick, meaty texture, which makes them seem a bit closer to the real thing─and instead got Applegate Farms Organic Chicken Strips.一天,我丈夫从超市带回的一件产品引起了我的好奇。他没找到我们常吃的Bell amp;Evans牌冷冻裹粉鸡柳──我喜欢这种鸡柳厚实质密的口感,吃起来更接近真的鸡肉──而是买了Applegate Farms牌有机鸡柳。I heated up the strips, which looked more like nuggets, and tasted them. The texture was airy and spongy, not very meaty. The chicken struck me as highly processed, but the box said that what I was eating was, in fact, #39;minimally processed.#39; The listed ingredients seemed simple enough─organic chicken, water, organic rice starch, sea salt and natural flavor.这些鸡柳看上去更像鸡块,我把它们加热后尝了尝,口感比较膨松,不那么紧实。我觉得它们像是深加工产品,但包装盒上却写着我吃到的其实是经过“最少加工”的食品。包装上列出的配料似乎也足够简单──有机鸡肉、水、有机大米淀粉、海盐和天然香料。Intrigued and confused, I added the remaining frozen nuggets to the collection of foods that I was leaving to age, as research for my book. (And, yes, I know that this was not a rigorous scientific experiment.) I prepared myself for an awful smell.带着好奇和不解,我把剩下的冷冻鸡块加入了我搜集的食物之列,我会把这些食物放上一段时间,作为我新书的研究素材。(是的,我知道这并不是严谨的科学实验。)我做好了迎接难闻气味的准备。After about two weeks, the Applegate nuggets, which I#39;d placed in a Ziploc bag left slightly open, had essentially liquefied, with the outlines of the individual chicken pieces no longer visible. The whole thing was soft and mushy to the touch, and the color had darkened.我把这些Applegate鸡块用Ziploc塑料袋封起来,留了一丝缝隙。约两周后,鸡块基本上都液化了,已经看不到单个鸡块的轮廓。这滩东西摸上去是软软的糊状,颜色也变深了。In early 2012, pink-slime beef became a poster child for distrust of industrialized food-processing, but chicken endures considerably more high-tech poking and prodding than beef. The chicken in the supermarket#39;s frozen-food aisle is seldom the same thing you#39;d prepare at home. It may sometimes start off as recognizable cuts of meat and use familiar ingredients, but then machines take over.2012年初,粉色牛肉泥成为了工业化食品加工遭受质疑的典型,但比起牛肉,鸡肉加工被认为包含更多高科技处理。超市冷冻食品区出售的鸡肉与你自己在家做的鸡肉并不相同。在加工过程中,有时候最初使用的还是可辨认的鸡肉切块,用的也是常见的配料,然而接下来就由机器接手了。More often than not, chicken is mixed under high pressure and tumbled together with flavoring, starch, sodium phosphate and soy protein. Then it is fashioned into tenders, nuggets, patties, boneless #39;wings#39; and #39;breasts.#39; Even in cases where the meat is advertised as #39;whole muscle, #39; sodium phosphate helps the meat take on water, partly for reasons of profit and partly as insurance against its becoming rubbery. The Applegate strips that dissolved after two weeks had no such additives and were billed on the box as #39;all natural.#39;多数情况下,鸡肉会在高压下被搅拌混合,过程中加入香料、淀粉、磷酸钠和大豆蛋白,接着再被制成鸡柳、鸡块、肉饼、无骨“鸡翅”和“鸡胸”。即便是那些打着“全肌肉”广告的鸡肉,磷酸钠也会被用来促使鸡肉吸入水分,这样一方面可以增加利润,另一方面也保了鸡肉不会变硬。两周后分解的Applegate鸡柳不含这些添加剂,所以包装盒上写的是“纯天然”。After this experience, I talked with Chris Ely, one of Applegate#39;s founders. He said that the company was definitely #39;not in the sponge business.#39; He added, #39;When you bite into our nuggets, you#39;ll notice that our meat is a little loose in the center.#39; More-conventional manufacturers, he said, mix their product excessively, using various additives to absorb water and bind everything together snugly, lowering the cost.事后我和Applegate的创始人之一克里斯伊利(Chris Ely)进行了交谈。他说,他的公司肯定“不采用这种海绵式做法”。他补充道,“吃我们的鸡块时,你会注意到中央部分有点松散。”他说,传统厂商会过度搅拌鸡肉,并用各类添加剂吸收其中水分,把所有的东西都紧密地挤压在一起,并压低成本。When I told Mr. Ely about my experiment, he said that though he had never tested his product this way (who would?), the chicken might be more prone to disassembly because it isn#39;t bound together with additives. Another company#39;s nuggets (this time with sodium phosphate and other additives) dissolved in the same way when I later tested them. But the Bell amp; Evans tenders did well with the two-week test: I got foul-smelling chicken, but it remained intact.当我跟他谈起我的实验时,伊利说,虽然他从未如此检验过他的产品(谁会呢?),但他认为,没有添加过起紧实作用的添加剂的鸡肉,可能会更容易分解。后来我检验了另一家公司的鸡块(他们的鸡肉中有磷酸钠及其他添加剂),结果鸡肉同样分解了。但是,Bell amp;Evans的鸡柳在两周的检验中表现很好:鸡肉散发出臭味,但形状完好无损。I told Mr. Ely that my results suggested that his chicken was more of a maximally processed product than a #39;minimally processed#39; one, as the box said.我跟伊利说,我的实验结果表明他们公司的鸡肉更像是深加工产品,而非像包装盒上所说的“微加工”。#39;I can see your point, #39; he said, and he eventually explained how the strips are made. A hand-deboned whole chicken, together with other listed ingredients, is coarse-ground and then fed into an extruder that forms it into identical pieces. After that comes a bing device, a fryer, cooking in an oven and freezing.他说:“我明白你的意思”。最后他解释了他们公司鸡块的制作过程。整鸡经过手工去骨,混合包装上列出的配料进行粗略搅拌,接着通过挤压机做成的形状一致的肉块,接着机器裹粉、油炸、烤箱烹制,最后冷冻。Making packaged frozen nuggets that resemble real chicken may not be possible without dialing back some of the industrial manipulation. Bell amp; Evans tenders, sold raw, are subjected to one quick frying to set the bing, instead of Applegate#39;s complete oven cooking. There#39;s no extruder.要制作与真正的鸡肉相似的包装冷冻鸡块,可能不得不重新检视食品工业化的一些操作。Bell amp;Evans的鸡块是生的,只经过快速油炸来完成裹粉,而不像Applegate一样用烤箱烤熟,而且也不用挤压机。Mr. Ely says, #39;In today#39;s food-safety world, uncooked really scares me, #39; though Bell amp; Evans has never had a recall of its products.伊利说:“在如今这个食品安全备受关注的社会,生的东西让我觉得害怕。”不过Bell amp;Evans从未召回过自己的产品。The benefits of a safe food supply are undeniable, but they sometimes come with trade-offs that can be hard to grasp─especially when the word #39;organic#39; appears on a package. Those nuggets from Applegate Farms certainly weren#39;t the worst thing in the world, but each one was more air and less chicken than I could have known.安全食品供应的好处毋庸置疑,但有时安全的代价又让我们难以取舍──尤其是包装上出现“有机”字眼的时候。Applegate Farms的那些鸡块肯定不是世界上最难吃的东西,但对我来说每一块都松得不像鸡肉。Such compromises are quietly embedded into much of our processed food. Even with plenty of information on the package, it#39;s rarely clear what we#39;re eating.这样的妥协被默默地植入了我们的加工食品中。即便包装上有大量的信息,也很难说明白我们到底吃的是什么。 /201304/235972

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