楼主:新华大夫 时间:2019年08月21日 03:53:12 点击:0 回复:0
Women who are stressed while trying for a baby are more likely to have girls, research suggests. 据英国《每日邮报》10月17日报道,研究表明,女性在计划怀产子时如果承受较大的压力,更有可能怀上女孩。 A study found that those who were under pressure at home, work or in their love life in the weeks or months before becoming pregnant had higher than usual odds of giving birth to a daughter rather than a son. 一项研究发现,那些在怀前处于家庭、工作或者感情生活压力下的女性,怀上女孩的几率比男孩大得多。 The finding, by Oxford University and US researchers, means the economic downturn could see more women give birth to daughters. The study follows others that have shown the number of baby boys goes down following major upheavals. 牛津大学和美国研究人员的这一发现意味着,在经济衰退时期,会有更多的女性产下女婴。在此之前,已有其他研究表明,在经历大的社会动乱之后新生男婴的总数会有所下降。 For instance, in the months after the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the number of boys born in New York plunged, while the economic chaos that followed the collapse of the Berlin Wall saw far fewer boys born than expected in the former East Germany in 1991. 比如,在9·11恐怖袭击后的数月内,纽约出生的男婴数量下降。而在柏林墙倒塌后引起的经济萧条时期,1991年东德出生的男婴比预期的少得多。 But the latest study is the first to link the phenomenon to the stresses and strains of everyday life and to rising levels of stress hormones. 但这项最新研究还是第一次将这种现象与日常生活的紧张压力以及增长的应激激素水平相联系。 Some 338 women from around the UK who were trying to get pregnant kept diaries about their lives and sex lives and filled in questionnaires about how stressed they felt. Levels of stress hormones including cortisol were measured in the months before pregnancy. 英国各地大约338名打算怀的女性以日记形式记录了她们的日常活动和性生活,然后填写了调查问卷,问卷内容是关于她们所感受到的压力大小。在她们怀前的几个月内,测试了包括皮质醇在内的应激激素水平。 Of the babies born, 58 were boys and 72 were girls. Normally, in Britain 105 boys are born for every 100 girls. 在出生的婴儿中,有58个男孩和72个女孩。通常情况下,在英国,每出生100个女孩,就会有105个男孩诞生。 The most stressed women were up to 75 per cent less likely to have boys than the least stressed, the conference in Orlando, Florida, was told. Cortisol levels rise when people suffer long-term stress such as pressure at work and bad relationships. 从佛罗里达州奥兰多市举行的会议上得知,比起压力最小的女性,压力最大的女性无法诞育男孩的可能性高达75%。当人们长期遭受压力时,比如工作压力和不良关系带来的压力,皮质醇水平就会上升。 It isn't known why high levels of cortisol appear to cut the odds of having a boy. 我们尚且无法得知为什么高皮质醇水平会降低生育男孩的几率。 The gender of a baby is determined by the chromosomes in the father's sperm and so is set at conception. 婴儿的性别是由男性精子的染色体决定的,这在受时已经确定。 But it is possible that high levels of cortisol somehow make it more difficult for male embryos to implant in the womb. 但皮质醇水平过高,可能会使男性的胚胎在植入女性子宫时变得更加困难。 In addition, male babies may be more fragile and so more likely to be miscarried when cortisol levels are high, leading to more girls being born. 此外,男性婴儿可能更加脆弱,当皮质醇水平增高时,流产的可能性更大,这也导致了更多女婴的诞生。 /201110/157626Can heterosexual men and women ever be “just friends”? Daily experience suggests that non-romantic friendships between males and females are not only possible, but common. However, a new study suggests that men, relative to women, have a particularly hard time being “just friends.”异性恋男女之间有没有纯粹的友谊?日常经验告诉我们,男女之间纯粹的友谊不仅仅是可能的,而且还很普遍。但最新研究表明,与女性对男性的态度相比,男性更不可能把女性当作普通朋友看待。In order to investigate the viability of truly platonic opposite-sex friendships, researchers brought 88 pairs of undergraduate opposite-sex friends into...a science lab. In order to ensure honest responses, the researchers not only followed standard protocols regarding anonymity and confidentiality, but also required both friends to agree to refrain from discussing the study, even after they had left the testing facility. These friendship pairs were then separated, and each member of each pair was asked a series of questions related to his or her romantic feelings toward the friend with whom they were taking the study.为了研究异性之间是否存在真正纯粹的友谊,研究人员挑选了88对大学生异性朋友参加了一项科学实验。为了确保大家给出诚实的回答,研究人员不仅遵从了匿名、保密等标准试验协议,而且要求异性朋友双方避免讨论这项研究,甚至是在试验结束后。这些异性朋友被分开,研究人员会单独询问每个人是否对参加试验的另一位朋友有好感等一系列问题。The results suggest large gender differences in how men and women experience opposite-sex friendships. Men were much more attracted to their female friends than vice versa. Men were also more likely than women to think that their opposite-sex friends were attracted to them—a clearly misguided belief.研究结果显示,男性与女性对待异性友谊的态度有很大差别。与女性对男性的态度相比,男性更容易喜欢上女性朋友。男性也更容易觉得女性朋友喜欢他们,这当然是一种错觉。In fact, men’s estimates of how attractive they were to their female friends had virtually nothing to do with how these women actually felt, and almost everything to do with how the men themselves felt—basically, males assumed that any romantic attraction they experienced was mutual, and were blind to the actual level of romantic interest felt by their female friends. Women, too, were blind to the mindset of their opposite-sex friends; because females generally were not attracted to their male friends, they assumed that this lack of attraction was mutual. As a result, men consistently overestimated the level of attraction felt by their female friends and women consistently underestimated the level of attraction felt by their male friends.事实上,男性对异性有多喜欢自己的估计几乎和异性朋友的真实感受毫无关系,而仅与男性的自身感受有关。基本上,男性会假设自己体会到的所有浪漫吸引之情都是相互的,完全不知道异性朋友对自己到底有多大好感。女性也对男性的这种心态一无所知,因为女性通常对自己的异性朋友没有好感,她们也会假定对方也不喜欢自己。结果就是,男性一直会高估异性对自己的好感,而女性则恰恰相反。Men were also more willing to act on this mistakenly perceived mutual attraction. Both men and women were equally attracted to romantically involved opposite-sex friends and those who were single; “hot” friends were hot and “not” friends were not, regardless of their relationship status.男性也更愿意为这种误判的互相吸引付诸行动。男性与女性被异性朋友吸引时,都与对方是否单身无关,在这一点上男女并无差异。帅哥靓更受欢迎,而长相平平的则无人倾心,与对方的感情状况无关。However, men and women differed in the extent to which they saw attached friends as potential romantic partners. Although men were equally as likely to desire “romantic dates” with “taken” friends as with single ones, women were sensitive to their male friends’ relationship status and uninterested in pursuing those who were aly involved with someone else.但在将“名花有主”的异性朋友视为潜在的浪漫对象的程度上,男女之间存在差别。尽管男性不管女性朋友是否单身,都期待和她的“浪漫约会”,但女性对男性朋友的感情状况非常敏感,对追求已经不再单身的男性没有兴趣。In a follow-up study, 249 adults (many of whom were married) were asked to list the positive and negative aspects of being friends with a specific member of the opposite sex. Variables related to romantic attraction (e.g., “our relationship could lead to romantic feelings”) were five times more likely to be listed as negative aspects of the friendship than as positive ones.在一次追踪研究中,研究人员要求249名成年受访者(其中很多人已婚)列出与某位异性保持友谊的优缺点。与浪漫感情有关的变数(比如,我们的友谊可能会发展为恋爱)被列为缺点的几率比列为优点大五倍。However, the differences between men and women appeared here as well. Males were significantly more likely than females to list romantic attraction as a benefit of opposite-sex friendships, and this discrepancy increased as men aged.事实上,这项调查也是男女有别。男性更可能把感情上的互相吸引列为异性友谊带来的好处,而且随着男性年龄的增大,这种差别也在增大。So, can men and women be “just friends?” If we all thought like women, almost certainly. But if we all thought like men, we’d probably be facing a serious overpopulation crisis.因此,男女之间存在纯粹的友谊吗?如果我们都像女人那样想,当然是肯定的。但如果我们都像男人那样去想,那地球上就要人口大爆炸了。 /201210/205905

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