淮安妇幼保健医院不孕不育科华助手

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年12月11日 01:17:40
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A popular tourist destination in Chongqing, a major city in southwest China, has devoted a portion of its pavement for mobile phone users too entranced by the activity on their screens to avoid other pedestrians.在重庆市的一个景区里,有一条专供手机爱好者的人行道,在这上面步行,可以供低头族们头也不抬地一直盯着手机屏幕而不用担心与其他行人相撞。Another section of the pavement bans phone users.这条被一分为二的人行道的另半边则禁止行人使用手机。In July, National Geographic commissioned a similar stretch of pavement in Washington DC, in a brief experiment testing human behaviour.今年7月,美国国家地理栏目曾因一项验人类行为的实验,在美国华盛顿的一条人行道上做过相同的划分。Chongqing#39;s new sidewalk attracted ridicule on Weibo, China#39;s version of Twitter.重庆的这条新人行道在中国的微上引发了大家的各种吐槽。;Am I supposed to jump to the other side of the path when I get an incoming phone call?; one user questioned.“如果我手机响了,我要接电话是不是得跳到另半边才能接呢?”一位网友吐槽说。;Maybe they can even build one traffic lane especially for drunk drivers in the future,; sniffed another.“也许以后还可以专门为喝酒的司机建一条专用道。”另一位网友吐槽道。Indeed, the ploy seems to have created a new problem: street congestion, as hordes of people stop in their tracks to snap photos of the special sidewalk.的确,这种做法可能会导致另一个新问题—道路拥挤。为什么呢?因为会有一大群行人停在路上对着这条特殊的人行道拍照哪。 /201410/334756My sleep schedule:我的睡眠时间表是这样的:8:30: Get y for bed8:30: 准备上床睡觉9:00: Be in bed9:00: 上床9:30: Hopefully be sleeping9:30: 希望自己入睡9:55: Definitely be sleeping9:55: 确定自己要入睡10:00: Oh god, you’re not asleep? Why aren’t you asleep? You know what happens when you can’t sleep. Well, you just keep thinking about sleep. I mean wait, don’t think about sleep! Just don’t even think about the word.10:00:我的天啊,你还没睡?你为什么不睡?你知道自己不睡觉时将发生些什么。好吧,只想着睡觉吧。我的意思是,等一下,别再想睡觉这件事啦!甚至连这个词也别去想。10:05: Now it’s ruined, it’s all ruined.10:05:一切都毁了,全毁了。12:30: Is someone vacuuming? I am pretty sure someone is vacuuming. I will find them, I will find them and I will hurt them.12:30:有人在用真空吸尘器打扫卫生吗?我确定有人在这么做。我一定要把他们找到,拽出来痛打一顿。1:00: silent rage until sleep comes1:00: 无声的愤怒,直至睡意袭来Much of my life is dictated by my fear of not falling asleep at the right time. I calculate how much sleep I need down to the exact minute. I lay in bed each night waiting for the unyielding thought-vomit to occur. I used to think that the endless stream of thoughts that plagued my nightly routine were unique to me, but I couldn’t have been more wrong.我生活中的许多时光都充斥着我对于无法适时入睡的恐惧。我计算了我所需的睡眠时间并精确到了分钟。每晚我躺在床上等待着那些执着的想法从脑袋中涌出。我曾经认为困扰我夜间休息的那无尽的思维洪流仅仅是我所独有。但是我大错特错了。If you have trouble turning your mind off at night, you aren’t alone. It is estimated that 30-to-40 million Americans have a sleep disorder and an additional 20 million have occasional difficulty sleeping. It’s so bad that the Centers for Disease Control considers it a public health epidemic. To unearth the reasons why we can’t turn off our mind at night, we should first understand the body’s mechanisms which govern sleep.如果你无法在晚上关掉你的思维阀门,你不是一个人。据估计,有3,000-4,000万美国人都患有睡眠障碍,另有2,000万人患有偶发性失眠。糟糕的是,疾病控制中心认为这是一种关乎公众健康的传染病。要明白为什么我们在夜间无法停止思考,首先我们应该弄懂我们身体中管理睡眠的机制。Until as recently as the 1950s scientists believed that falling asleep was a completely passive process. Scientists now think that the body’s wakefulness and sleep mode is dictated by a two-process model. Process S: Promotes our desire to sleep and inhibits our arousal centers at night. Process C: Maintains our wakefulness during the day. This two-process model is also influenced by the circadian rhythm.直至20世纪50年代,科学家才相信,睡眠完全是一个被动过程。现在,科学家认为身体的觉醒和睡眠模式是一种双进程模型(two-process model)。分为S进程:在夜间提升我们的睡眠渴望,抑制我们的觉醒中枢。以及C进程:在白天让我们保持清醒。这种双进程模式也被昼夜节律[1](circadian rhythm)所影响。The circadian rhythm is the body’s clock that regulates our activities and behaviors. It’s controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)#8202;—#8202;a part of the brain known as the circadian rhythm pacemaker. Morning light lets the SCN know ‘Hey, it’s time to get up and start this process over again.’ As the sun sets, the SCN signals our body to calm down and prepare for sleep.昼夜节律是身体的时钟,管理着我们的活动和行为。昼夜节律由视交叉上核(suprachiasmatic nucleus-SCN)所控制,视交叉上核是大脑的一部分,被称为昼夜节律起搏器。早晨的光线让视交叉上核知道“嘿,该起床了,重新再开始这一过程吧”。随着日落,视交叉上核给我们的身体发出信号,让身体平静下来,准备睡觉。Disruptions to the circadian rhythm can prevent us from falling asleep at night and feeling overly tired during the day. These disruptions can also adversely effect our health.昼夜节律如果被破坏,将会阻止我们在夜间入睡,让我们在白天感到极度疲惫。这种破坏也会对我们的健康产生有害影响。(Night) Shift workers have an increased risk of heart problems, digestive disturbances, and emotional and mental problems, all of which may be related to their sleeping problems. The number and severity of workplace accidents also tend to increase during the night shift.(夜班)倒班工人患心脏疾病、消化紊乱以及情绪和精神疾病的风险更高,这些都与他们的睡眠问题相关。夜班期间,车间事故的数量和严重性也会有所上升。Okay, so we understand the process that drives us to sleep, but what happens to our bodies once we are in bed?好吧,虽然我们理解了睡眠的运行过程,但是当我们上床睡觉以后,我们的身体会发生什么呢?There are two kinds of sleep, Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep and Non-REM (NREM) sleep. Both of which are necessary for the body to go through its restorative process. There are also five stages of sleep. The entire process takes about 90-120 minutes. In an ideal situation, it would look something like this:睡眠有两种形式,分别是快速眼动(REM)睡眠和非快速眼动(NREM)睡眠。这两种睡眠对于处于恢复过程中的身体来说都十分必要。睡眠也有五个阶段,整个过程需要90-120分钟。在一种理想的情况下,睡眠看起来是这样的:When we can’t turn off the mind it is because we are having trouble transitioning from the alpha waves of stage 1 to the theta-band waves of stage two. Those with severe sleep disorders often enter REM sleep immediately upon falling asleep. As we begin the transition into sleep our brains are letting go of a lot, but this is by no means a passive process. Our brains are reordering and assessing the day’s events, working to promote new memory formations, and cleaning up debris.我们无法关掉思维的阀门,是因为我们无法将第一阶段的α脑波转化成第二阶段的θ脑波。那些患有严重睡眠障碍的人通常在入睡后就立刻进入快速眼动睡眠。当我们开始入睡时,我们的大脑会非常放松,但是这并不是一个被动的过程。我们的大脑会重新排列并评估白天的事务,促进新的记忆形成,清空记忆碎片。Turning off our mind#8202;—#8202;as anyone who has tried to do will tell you#8202;—#8202;is easier said than done. There’s no magical switch you can flip to make yourself fall asleep, but there are some tricks you can do to help quiet your mind.正如任何曾经尝试过的人都会告诉我的那样,关掉思维阀门说来容易做来难。你没有魔法开关,按下去就能入睡,但是有一些有助于你让脑袋静一静的小诀窍。1.Cool yourself down1. 给自己降温Part of the body’s process for falling asleep each night involves a lowering of the body temperature. If you are in a room that is too hot it can disturb your internal sleep processes. To get slightly more technical, the metabolism of your brains frontal cortex wants to be cool when falling asleep. Insomniacs have a higher metabolism in their frontal cortex which is said to contribute to their inability to sleep. The body loses its ability to regulate its temperature at night, so finding the right balance is important.每天晚上,我们身体的入睡都包含体温降低这一过程。如果你处在一个非常热的屋子中,这会扰乱你身体内部的睡眠过程。用稍微技术化一点的语言来说,当睡眠时,你大脑中额叶皮质的新陈代谢也需要放慢速度。失眠症患者的额叶皮质代谢水平更高,这也导致了他们没有入睡的能力。身体丧失了夜间调节体温的能力,因此寻找到一种正确的平衡(模式)十分重要。2. Buy red lights2. 购买红光灯You know that sort of bluish glow given off by our TVs, computers, and phones? That seemingly serene blue light is literally robbing you of sleep. The short-wavelength of blue light stops the production of melatonin— a hormone necessary for sleep. Exposure to blue light can even throw off our circadian rhythm. If purchasing all red lights is a bit too drastic for you, aim to reduce the amount of light you use at least two hours before bed.你知道我们的电视、电脑和手机发出的光稍稍有些偏 蓝色吗?那种看似平静的蓝光其实会剥夺你的睡眠。短波蓝光会抑制睡眠所需激素——褪黑素的产生。置身在蓝光之中甚至能够让我们不再遵守昼夜节律。如果全部购买红光灯对你来说有点极端,那么就至少在你睡前两小时降低你所使用的灯光量吧。3. Breathe out of your left nostril3.用左侧鼻孔呼吸In yoga this is called nadi shodhana or alternate nostril breathing. Cover your right nostril and practice breathing in and out of your left nostril ten-times. The practice of breathing through your left nostril is said to help relax your sympathetic nervous system. Just simply focusing on the task of breathing can help you drown out other distractions.在瑜伽中,这被称为“纳地净化调息”(nadi shodhana)或者“鼻孔交换呼吸法”。堵住你的右侧鼻孔,练习用左侧鼻孔呼吸十次。据说这种用左侧鼻孔进行的呼吸练习能够放松你的交感神经系统。仅仅集中精力呼吸就能够帮助你忘记其他的杂事。4. Go outside in the morning4.早晨出门转转Being in the sun#8202;—#8202;especially upon first waking#8202;—#8202;tells our circadian rhythm to reset itself. The best time for this to happen is between 6 and 8:30 a.m. You should aim for at least 30-minutes of sun exposure a day to receive the maximum benefits. Sunlight inhibits the production of melatonin, which is responsible for making you tired. Being tired during the day will likely rob you of that feeling later at night when you need it the most.晒晒太阳——尤其是刚醒来的时候——能够让我们的昼夜节律自我重置。最好的晒太阳时机是上午6:00至8:30之间。为了获取最大的好处,你至少应该每天晒半小时太阳。日光抑制了褪黑素的合成,而褪黑素会让你感到疲倦。白天的疲倦会让你在夜晚丧失这种感受,而在夜晚,我们才最需要疲倦的感觉。5. Visualize yourself asleep5.形象化你的睡眠You are a leaf on the wind, watch how you soar off to sleep land. Visualizations draw focus away from thoughts which have emotional content. Experts say it is important to associate positivity with sleeping. This can help remove some of the anxiety we have built up around falling asleep each night. Researchers at Colorado College recently found that the simple act of believing that you received more sleep than you did is enough to give your brain some of the positive effects of sleep.你是风中的一片叶,观察一下你是如何飞舞到睡眠大陆上的。形象化能将我们的注意力从带有情绪内容的想法中转移出来。专家说,将睡眠同实在的事物联系起来是非常重要的。这可以帮助你消除一些在每晚入睡过程中产生的焦虑。科罗拉多大学的研究者近来发现,一种简单的行为,即相信自己的睡眠时间比实际睡眠时间多,足够给予你的大脑一些积极的睡眠效果。There are a lot of really useful sleeping tips out there, but they are all variations on the same theme. Preparing the mind and body for sleep is all about reducing the emotional content in our thoughts and eliminating as much external stimuli as possible. You should absolutely explore a variety of sleep routines and practices. Doing so can help you understand the barriers that prevent you from achieving a quiet mind.除此之外,还有许多非常实用的睡眠小妙招,但是它们都是基于同一个原理变化而来。让思维和身体为睡眠做准备,就要减少我们思维中的情绪内容,尽可能多地消除外部刺激。你绝对有必要发掘各种各样的睡眠方法,进行各种各样的睡眠练习。这么做能帮助你理解那些妨碍你拥有一个平静思维的桎梏。Sleep is a process. It doesn’t just happen the moment you get into bed. The body is preparing itself for sleep all day. It actually helped me to think of sleep something ongoing as opposed to something that was just supposed to happen. It took some of the pressure off of me. My body was actually made to do this. Trusting and listening to my body’s natural process really helped me find a better way to fall asleep.睡眠是一个过程。它不仅仅发生于你躺在床上的时刻。我们的身体一天到晚都在为睡眠做准备。它实际上有助于我将睡眠想象成为一个不间断发生的过程,而不是一件应该会发生的事情。这让我减轻了一些压力。我的身体其实就是这样构造的。相信并倾听我们身体的自然过程,的确有助于我找到一种更好的入睡方法。 /201410/335272

  The Nobel Prize for Literature yet again eluded the popular Japanese writer Haruki Murakami (Norwegian Wood). But this year’s winner, dark horse that he is, deserves the honor.今年诺贝尔文学奖结果已揭晓,人气颇高的日本作家村上春树再次落选,而这位半路杀出的“黑马”却当之无愧。French writer Patrick Modiano, 69, has won the 2014 Nobel Prize for Literature for works that made him “a Marcel Proust (a well-known French author in the 19th century) of our time” with tales often set during the Nazi occupation of Paris during World War II, the Swedish Academy announced on Oct 9.10月9日,瑞典皇家科学院宣布,现年69岁的法国作家帕特里克#8226;莫迪亚诺获得2014年诺贝尔文学奖。因其作品多以二战期间纳粹统治下的巴黎为背景,莫迪亚诺被喻为“当代的马塞尔#8226;普鲁斯特(19世纪著名法国作家)”。Relatively unknown outside of France and a renowned media recluse, Modiano’s works have centered on memory, loss and the puzzle of identity. He has written novels, children’s books and film scripts.在法国之外,莫迪亚诺鲜为人知,也很少接受媒体采访。他的作品集中探讨记忆、遗忘以及身份之谜。他不仅写过小说,还写过儿童读物和电影剧本。The academy said the award of 8 million Swedish crowns (about 6.8 million yuan) was “for the art of memory with which he has evoked the most ungraspable human destinies”.瑞典皇家科学院称,之所以将800万瑞典克朗(约680万元人民币)的诺奖奖金颁给他,是因为他“以记忆的艺术,唤起了人类最难以捉摸的命运。”Peter Englund, permanent secretary of the Swedish Academy, noted that Modiano’s works are “always variations of the same thing, about memory, about loss, about identity, about seeking.”瑞典皇家科学院常任秘书彼得#8226;英格伦这样评价莫迪亚诺的作品:“(他的作品)是同一事物的各个方面,关于记忆、遗失、身份以及寻觅。”In France, Modiano is a respected writer, The New York Times reported. His books, often coming in shorter than 200 pages, are widely . Many of his fictional works are set in Paris during World War II, and some play with the detective genre.据《纽约时报》报道,在法国,莫迪亚诺是一位受人尊敬的作家。他的书通常不到200页,却被广为阅读。他的小说多以二战时的巴黎为背景,一些则涉猎侦探题材。Refined repetition优雅的“重复”His first novel La Place de l’Etoile, published in 1968, remains probably his best known book and touched on many themes that he would return to throughout his career, including the fate of the Jews under the Nazis.莫迪亚诺的处女作《星形广场》出版于1968年,至今仍是他最著名的作品。该书包含的诸多主题,都贯穿了他整个的创作生涯,包括,纳粹统治下犹太人的命运等。Modiano, reacting to the award, said he felt like he had been writing versions of the same book for many years.对于获奖一事,莫迪亚诺说,他觉得自己多年来不过是在写同一本书的各种版本。“What I am keen to see are the reasons why they chose me... One can never really be one’s own er,” he told a news conference in Paris. “Even more so because I have the impression of writing the same book for 45 years.”他在巴黎的新闻发布会上表示,“我很想知道他们为何选中我……因为没有一个人能真正成为自己的读者。而且我觉得自己45年来一直在写同一本书。”“Of the unique things about him, one is of course his style, which is very precise, very economical. He writes small, short, very elegant sentences,” Englund said. “And he returns to generally the same topics again and again, simply because these topics cannot be exhausted.”英格伦则说,“他有许多与众不同之处,言简意赅的写作风格就是其中之一,他笔下的句子短小、文雅。他一次次回到相同的主题,只因为这些都是永恒的主题。”“After each novel, I have the impression that I have cleared it all away,” Modiano told France Today in a 2011 interview. “But I know I’ll come back over and over again to tiny details, little things that are part of what I am.”在2011年接受《今日法国》采访时,莫迪亚诺说,“每写完一本小说,我觉得自己已将其完全抛于脑后,但我知道自己还是会一次次在细节中回归,因为那些微小之处正是我的一部分。”“In the end, we are all determined by the place and the time in which we were born.”“最终,我们都由自己出生时的时间和空间所决定。”Modiano is not an unfamiliar name in Chinese literary circle. Many of his works have been translated into Chinese and have been an influence on some Chinese writers. The late writer Wang Xiaobo, for example, opened his own novel Temple of Eternal Life with the opening sentences from Modiano’s Missing Person: “I am nothing. Nothing but a pale shape.”在中国文学圈中,莫迪亚诺并不是一个陌生的名字。他的很多作品都被译成中文,影响了一批中国作家。其中,已故作家王小波就曾将他《暗店街》中的句子“我的过去,一片朦胧。”作为自己小说《万寿寺》的开篇语。 /201410/336799

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  She asked me what I did for a living. When I told her I was a writer, she frowned and said a new nose could help me find a better job.她先是问我是干哪行的。当知道我是个作家后,她皱了皱眉头说整下鼻子就能帮我找份更好的工作。“Your nose is too flat. A well-shaped nose commands respect,” said the consultant. “Businessmen come in to get more prominent noses. And ladies have better chances in both career and love after their operations.”“你的鼻子太扁了。漂亮的鼻子会让人‘顿生敬意’。”整容顾问说,“老板们来这里都是为了整个好看的鼻子。整容后的女人会事业爱情双丰收。”I was in one of the biggest cosmetic surgery hospitals in China, located in the southern city of Shenzhen, where over half the population is made up of migrants from other parts of the country. Most of them are here for factory or construction work, but many long for better prospects.这是我在深圳一家全国最大的整形医院采访时的内容。来这家医院整容的人大半都是外地人。他们大部分人都在深圳的工厂或建筑公司上班,但很多人都希望生活能过得更好些。A nose job costs around ,900 at this hospital, which is a bargain compared to the average cost of rhinoplasty in the US of ,500, according to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. But when the average yearly income for urban residents in China is just ,000 and the average monthly pay for a migrant worker a measly , a nose job would take years for most people to save up for.(在这家医院)做一次隆鼻手术的价格是2900美元。对比美国整形协会的数据—均价4500美元,这个价格算是便宜的了。但当了解到中国城镇居民的年均收入只有7000美元,而外来打工者的月薪也只有可怜的40美元时,对大部分打工者来说,要想做一次隆鼻手术他们得攒上好几年的时间。Yet cosmetic surgery is an investment more and more Chinese women from all rungs of society are splashing out on, according to new research from the Chinese University of Hong Kong. And it’s not all about vanity. Those who go under the knife usually believe surgery would improve all aspects of their lives.然而,中国香港大学的最新研究显示,中国花钱整容的女性越来越多,各行各业的都有。她们并不一定是为了虚荣,且她们通常认为整容将全面改善她们的生活。“The dramatic economic, cultural and political changes in China have produced immense anxiety experienced by women, which stimulates the belief that beauty is capital,” said anthropologist Wen Hua, author of the recently published book, Buying Beauty: Cosmetic Surgery in China.最近中国出版了一本书叫《买来的美丽:在中国整容》,该书的作者兼人类学家文华(音译)谈到:“中国在经济、文化和政治上经历了巨大的变革,这令中国的女性们产生了极大的焦虑情绪,从而促使她们认为漂亮就是资本。”The idea that beauty is capital “epitomizes the idea that good looks are the key to increased opportunities for social and career success,” she said. “Cosmetic surgery has become a form of consumer choice; it reflects in microcosm the transition of China from communism to consumerism with its own Chinese characteristics.”“好的相貌对改善人际关系和职业晋升都至关重要,这也折射出‘漂亮就是资本’的思想。“她还说道,“整容已变成了消费者的一个选择,这从微观上反映出中国正在由共产主义社会过渡到中国特色的消费主义社会。”Wen’s research focused on field studies in Beijing, interviews with 58 women from age 16 to 55 and analysis of Chinese media reports. She found that cosmetic surgery is less taboo in China than in North America, and is particularly popular among women struggling to find work.文华的研究内容主要包括在北京地区进行实地调查,对58名年龄从16至55岁不等的女性进行采访,以及对媒体的报道进行分析。她发现,相对于北美地区,整容在中国的忌讳要少些,而且在那些急于找工作的女性中整容尤为盛行。Between 1993 and 2001, 43 million urban employees were laid off, amounting to a quarter of China’s total urban labor force. Women were often the first to be laid off and the last to be hired back, and when applying for jobs they encountered much more discrimination than men, said Wen.1993年至2001年间,中国约有4300万城镇居民下岗,这一数字相当于中国城镇劳动力人数总和的1/4。文华表示,最先解雇的是女员工,最后复工的也是女员工,相比男人来说,女人在找工作时遭受的歧视要多得多。A 2003 review of job advertisements found that among positions open to women, nearly 90 percent were open only to those younger than 30 years old. Youth is particularly cherished in a country where women who remain unmarried past the age of 27 are labelled “leftover women” by the government. Women who don’t meet minimum height requirements (usually set at 1.58 meters) are also often denied government jobs.对2003年的招聘广告回顾后发现,在这些面向女性的职位中,几乎90%的职位都要求应聘者在30岁以下。在中国,年轻人会受到百般照顾,而女性在27岁之后还没结婚的话,政府就会给其贴上“剩女”的标签。女性身高若不足最低身高要求(通常是1.58米),政府部门也通常不予录用。But these obstacles have not kept women from aiming high. A 2011 study by the Centre for World-Life Policy found that 76 percent of women in China aspire to top jobs, compared with 52 percent in the ed States.尽管存在各种限制,但也不能阻止她们的远大追求。2011年,世界生活政策中心曾进行过一项调查,结果显示76%的中国女人渴望高级职位,而在美国这一比例是52%。Ambitious women who turn to cosmetic surgery to gain an edge in the job market fuel a 2.5 billion a year industry in China that has grown at a pace of 20 percent per year, according to the official Xinhua News Agency. China is now the third largest market for cosmetic surgery in the world, after the US and Brazil, although when population is taken into account cosmetic surgery may be most common in South Korea.据新华社报道,事业型的女人会将整容当作是工作中的一种优势,中国的整容行业会因她们而产生每年25亿美元的收益,且年均增长达20%。目前,中国是世界第三大整容市场,仅次于美国和巴西。而就整容的人数来看,韩国则是整容最流行的国家。In China, the practice has become so socially accepted that beauty pageants have been held especially for “artificial beauties” and vocational schools for flight attendants routinely herd students into cosmetic surgery hospitals, said Wen.文华说道:“在中国,整容已经相当普遍 ,到处都有专门甄选“人造美女”的选美比赛。 有些培养空的职业学校甚至还会定期组织学生去医院整容。”Outside the hospital in Shenzhen, I met a woman surnamed Liu from a smaller city in Guangdong Province, who had also come from a consultation. She had glossy hair, a pointed nose and a slim figure. She showed off her long legs in a mini-skirt and platform heels.在这家深圳的整容医院外面,我遇见了一位广东某个小县城来的刘女士,她也是来这里整容的。头发锃亮,鼻子尖尖的她身材很好,穿的迷你裙很配她的长腿,脚上穿着一双平跟鞋。“I’m thinking of getting herbal weight loss injections,” she told me. “Injections are safer and cheaper than liposuction.”她说:“我想用药物注射来减肥,药物注射要比抽脂手术安全些。”In the past year, Liu, a 28-year-old administrative assistant at a financial company, had aly undergone double-eyelid surgery and rhinoplasty at the hospital, which offers a mind-boggling range of procedures including some adapted from traditional Chinese medicinal practices. When I asked Liu why she chose to get cosmetic surgery, she said: “It’s just like applying makeup; everybody wants to enhance their beauty. A woman especially needs to work to maintain her appearance as she gets older.”刘女士今年29岁,曾任职于一家金融公司做行政助理。她去医院隆过鼻,也拉过双眼皮,这些手术的复杂程度超乎想象,有些手术还是源自传统的中药疗法。当我问她为什么选择整容时,她回答到:“这就好比是化妆吧,每个人都想要自己变得更漂亮。女人年龄一大(皮肤)就特别需要保养。”A daughter of struggling shopkeepers, Liu said she was barely able to finish secondary school and was lucky to find decently paid work. “I wouldn’t have been hired if I had been an ugly duckling,” she said. Liu is now worried she will lose her job once she gets older. She has taken evening classes in business management, but believes an attractive appearance is just as important as education.因为得帮着母亲忙生意,刘女士说,“我初中都没上完就辍学了,幸好找到了份体面的工作。如果我是个‘丑小鸭’,我是不会被录用的。”刘女士现在担心随着年龄的增大,她会失去这份工作。虽然她晚上也去学习商业管理课程,但她仍然认为好的相貌和良好的教育背景两个都重要。Liu is aware of the horror stories of botched surgeries. Around the world, risky operations such as “leg-stretching” surgery are rarely used for cosmetic purposes but such operations are popular in China. In efforts to meet height requirements for jobs, men and women have paid tens of thousands of yuan to have their bones broken so that doctors could insert steel pins under the knees and above the ankles, but complications have left dozens of people crippled for life. China’s Ministry of Health has banned some risky cosmetic surgeries, but most private clinics for cosmetic surgery are widely unregulated.刘女士对整容失败的不幸遭遇也有所耳闻。就全世界来说,像拉腿这样存在风险的手术很少会被当作整容手术来进行,但它在中国却颇为流行。为了达到职位的身高要求,求职者们不惜花费数万元来切断腿骨,并分别在膝盖和脚踝处植入钢钉。目前已有数十名患者因并发症而导致终身残废。中国卫生部明令禁止此类有风险的整容手术,但许多私人整容诊所仍然在违规进行。Out of curiosity, I decided to visit a private clinic in Shenzhen. After an hour of walking in circles, I found the clinic on the 18th floor of a rundown residential building with drunk or drugged men sprawled in the hallways. A teenage boy greeted me at the door, and sat me down for the consultation at a flimsy table while his father watched a soap opera a few feet away in the living room. The clinic doubled as their living quarters.出于好奇,我决定去当地一家私人诊所看一看。在一栋旧居民楼里转了一个小时后,我终于在18楼找到了一家私人诊所,楼道里躺着几个人,可能是喝醉或者是嗑药的吧。诊所门口有一男孩,见我就热情地询问并招呼我在一个桌子旁坐下,桌子有些破了,而此时男孩的父亲正在几尺远的客厅里看电视剧。I inquired about liposuction treatments, but the boy mumbled something about the doctor being unavailable and to my horror, suggested that I get human placenta injections instead, vaguely explaining that placenta treatments are “good for women.” The injections cost about ,630 per pack of five syringes and must be self-administered. I declined the offer and bolted out of the clinic.我向男孩咨询了有关抽脂手术的情况,但他却吾说医生现在没空,居然还建议我进行胎盘注射,还含糊地说胎盘注射手术对女人“有益”,这可把我吓坏了。手术需花费1630美元左右,一包注射器(5个/包),须自己注射。我婉拒了男孩的建议,并迅速离开了诊所。“Cosmetic surgery is a choice and you have to make the best decisions for yourself and your family,” said Liu. “That’s what people are doing all over China today.”刘女士说:“整容手术是一个选择,而你得为自己和家人做最好的选择,这就是当下中国人都在做的事情。” /201311/264273As much as and sometimes more. At least that#39;s the belief of high-end grocers like Whole Foods Market and a spurt of small juice companies trying to move the cold-pressed-juice craze from small-batch to mass-produced. 高达10美元甚至更多。至少这是Whole Foods Market等高档食品超市和一批发展迅猛的小型果汁生产商的信条,他们正试图将狂热的冷榨果汁潮流从小批量变成大规模生产。 A 16-ounce bottle of BluePrint Red, containing beets, carrots and ginger, among other ingredients, goes for at some retailers. And Whole Foods customers are paying for a bottle of celery-based Twelve Essentials vegetable juice, one of the top-sellers from Suja, an 18-month-old juice brand based in San Diego. Suja co-founder Annie Lawless says customers understand the high cost of what goes into the bottle, including organic produce that is cold pressed and then preserved using a process that leaves most of the nutrients intact. #39;When you buy a bottle, you#39;re getting all the goodness without any of the effort,#39; says Ms. Lawless, a 26-year-old former law student and yoga instructor. The company says it generated million in revenue in its first year. BluePrint一瓶16盎司(约合454克)的Red果汁在某些零售店售价10美元(约合人民币60元),其中含有甜菜、胡萝卜和姜汁等原料。在Whole Foods超市,以芹菜为主要原料的Twelve Essentials蔬菜汁售价9美元(约合人民币54元)一瓶。这是 地亚哥果汁品牌Suja销量最好的一款产品。该品牌创立仅18个月。Suja联合创始人安妮#12539;劳雷斯(Annie Lawless)说,消费者明白成本高在哪里,包括使用的有机农产品,它们经过冷榨并使用可保留大部分营养的方法进行储藏。劳雷斯说:“买这样一瓶饮料,毫不费力就能获得所有的精华。”劳雷斯现年26岁,之前是法学专业学生,并担任过瑜伽教练。公司表示第一年营收为2,000万美元(约合人民币1.2亿元)。 Just as carrying a Starbucks coffee cup has become a celebrity fashion accessory and a slung-over-the-shoulder yoga mat can signify a certain devotion to spiritual fitness, porting a clear bottle of green vegetable juice has evolved into a status symbol. Initially, the juicing market was supported mostly by people doing liquid-only cleanses, marketed as a way to rid the body of toxins and bloat. Now, more consumers are drinking juice as a meal replacement, a quick infusion of vegetables or to convey the impression of superior health and discipline. 就像端一杯星巴克(Starbucks)咖啡已经成为明星时尚配件、肩上挎个瑜伽垫标志着某种对精神健身的忠诚一样,带一瓶清澈的绿色蔬菜汁也已经演化成一种身份象征。最初,果汁市场主要受到液体 化排毒者的持,它被宣传为一种清理身体毒素和水肿的方式。现在,越来越多的消费者将喝果汁作为餐食的替代品、快速摄取各类蔬菜的方式或者为了给人以优越健康和自律的印象。 Suja#39;s product line is a slate of fruit-and-vegetable juices meant to dose the body with a palatable concentration of nutrients from organic produce. For people doing a liquid-only cleanse, Suja sells packages on its website. A three-day supply costs 5, including shipping on ice outside of California. It has flavors such as Glow, which contains apples, cucumbers, mint, kale and other ingredients, and Green Supreme, with apples, kale and lemon. Suja的产品线是一系列各色果蔬汁,为的是给身体提供可口的来自有机农产品的浓缩营养。对于进行液体 化排毒的人,Suja在其网站销售套装。三天装价格为225美元(约合人民币1,350元),包括冷冻送货至加州以外地区。口味有Glow和Green Supreme等,前者含苹果、黄瓜、薄荷、甘蓝等成分,后者含苹果、甘蓝和柠檬。 Health experts say the vegetable drinks have many beneficial nutrients, although some ingredients, like apples and carrots, can add a lot of sugar. Consumers should be careful to get enough fiber in their diets, since the process of cold-pressed juicing extracts the juice from the fiber-rich leaves and stems. Good sources of fiber can include whole grains and nuts, which aid digestive health. 健康专家说,蔬菜饮品有很多有益的营养成分,尽管苹果和胡萝卜中的某些成分会增加大量糖分的摄入。消费者应注意摄入足够的纤维,而冷榨果汁的工艺是将汁液从富含纤维的叶子和茎中提取出来的。良好的纤维来源包括全麦和坚果,有助于增强消化健康。 A simpler route to a well-rounded diet might be to eat the vegetables themselves, rather than as juice, suggests Marion Nestle, a professor of nutrition, food studies and public health at New York University. #39;It#39;s a lot of money, why not have a salad?#39; 纽约大学(New York University)营养学、食品研究及公共卫生教授玛丽昂#12539;内斯特(Marion Nestle)说,更简单的一种达到全面饮食的方法是直接吃蔬菜。她说:“花那么多钱,为什么不直接吃沙拉?” Juice companies say the high cost of the organic produce, and the expense of processing, prevent them from selling their product for less. Consumers making their own juice at home with similar ingredients would pay about the same or more, not counting the cost of equipment, they say. #39;We wish we could bring the cost down,#39; says Zoe Sakoutis, co-founder of BluePrint. 果汁生产商表示,有机农产品的高成本和加工的开不允许他们降低售价。他们表示,消费者在家用相似原材料自己制作果汁也要花差不多的钱,还不算设备的成本。BluePrint联合创始人佐耶#12539;萨考提斯(Zoe Sakoutis)说:“我们倒希望能降低成本。” Sarah Andersen, 31, drinks about five bottles of Suja juice a week and says it leaves her feeling healthy and confident. A health-and-wellness trainer for teenage girls in Madison, N.J., Ms. Andersen says she used to make her own juice. But the time, effort and mess became onerous. Now she buys Suja, even if it means cutting back elsewhere. #39;I know it#39;s expensive but I would rather have a juice than get my nails done.#39; 31岁的莎拉#12539;安德森(Sarah Andersen)每周要喝五瓶Suja果汁,她说Suja果汁让自己觉得健康和自信。安德森来自新泽西州麦迪逊(Madison),是一名针对年轻女孩的健身教练。她说她以前是自己榨果汁,但太耗时间和精力了,而且收拾起来很麻烦。现在她买Suja果汁喝,即使这意味着要在别的地方省钱。她说:“我知道很贵,但和做指甲相比,我还是宁愿喝果汁。” Industry experts say overall sales of cold-pressed juice aren#39;t tracked separately. But the segment is a bright spot in an otherwise stagnant juice market, they say. National retailers like Whole Foods are devoting increased shelf space to the products, more companies are launching, and acquisitions and expansion in the industry have been robust, says Jonas Feliciano, a beverages analyst for Euromonitor International, a market-research company. #39;Americans are drinking less juice,#39; he says. #39;So what manufacturers are going for is attracting the health-conscious consumer who will pay higher costs for smaller volumes.#39; 业内专家说,冷榨果汁的整体销售情况并未进行单独追踪,但这个领域是原本萧条的果汁市场中的亮点。市场研究公司Euromonitor International 饮料市场分析师乔纳斯#12539;费利西亚诺(Jonas Feliciano)说,Whole Foods等全国性零售商开始增加冷榨果汁产品的货架空间,越来越多的公司开始推出冷榨果汁,并购和扩张也很活跃。他说:“美国人喝果汁越来越少,所以生产商争取的是吸引愿意花高价购买小容量的有健康意识的消费者。” Errol Schweizer, executive global grocery coordinator for Whole Foods, says the company was skeptical at first that consumers would be willing to pay such high prices for juice. But, he says, #39;I have been surprised by the cleansing products and what people are willing to spend.#39; Whole Foods全球食品执行协调员埃罗尔#12539;施魏策尔(Errol Schweizer)说,公司起初怀疑消费者是否会愿意花这么高的价格买果汁。但是,他说:“我很惊讶于那些排毒产品,以及人们愿意为它花的钱。” Still, Whole Foods is hedging its bets. Mr. Schweizer says he called on Suja to work with Whole Foods#39; product team to create a secondary line of less expensive juices and smoothies. The line, called Suja Elements, was launched in Whole Foods stores around the country this fall and retails for . The bottles are smaller -- 12 ounces versus the usual 16 ounces -- and the recipes tend to use lower-cost ingredients like apples and carrots. 尽管如此,Whole Foods还是在做两手准备。施魏策尔说,他邀请Suja与Whole Foods的产品团队合作创立了价格不那么昂贵的果汁和冰沙副线品牌Suja Elements。该品牌于今年秋季在全美上市,零售价5美元(约合人民币30元)。瓶身体积更小──12盎司(约合340克)而非普通的16盎司──配方一般使用苹果和胡萝卜等低成本的原料。 BluePrint was founded six years ago to sell a six-bottle-a-day-cleanse product that costs a day. It includes a lemon, cayenne and agave concoction meant to #39;hydrate, refresh, curb that 4 p.m. snack craving and stay focused,#39; the company website says. BluePrint now also sells individual bottles of juice at high-end grocers around the country. Another cleanse product: BluePrintBride, for women wanting to lose weight and detoxify before their wedding, starts at 0. BluePrint, which was acquired last year by Hain Celestial Group Inc., in Melville, N.Y., says it had million in sales last year. BluePrint于六年前创立,当时卖的是一种每天六瓶的 化排毒产品,每天花费75美元(约合人民币450元)。公司网站上说,产品包括一种柠檬、辣椒和龙舌兰的混合物,旨在“补水、消除疲劳和抑制下午4点钟想吃零食的欲望,让人保持精力集中”。BluePrint现在还在全美各高档零售店卖单瓶果汁。另外一款 化产品是BluePrintBride,适合在婚礼前想减肥和排毒的女性,价格350美元(约合人民币2,100元)起。BluePrint去年被纽约州梅尔维尔市(Melville)公司Hain Celestial Group Inc.收购。公司称去年销售额为2,000万美元。 Another cold-pressed juice company, Evolution Fresh, was purchased by Seattle-based Starbucks Coffee Co. two years ago for million. The company recently invested million to open a factory in Southern California to produce 140,000 gallons of juice a week, says Chris Bruzzo, general manager of Evolution Fresh. Mr. Bruzzo says the juices are now carried in 5,000 Starbucks locations and 3,000 grocery outlets. The best sellers are two varieties of green juice, he says. 另外一家冷榨果汁公司Evolution Fresh两年前被总部位于西雅图的星巴克咖啡(Starbucks Coffee Co.)以3,000万美元的价格收购。Evolution Fresh总经理克里斯#12539;布鲁佐(Chris Bruzzo)说,公司最近投入7,000万美元(约合人民币4.2亿元)在南加州开设了一家工厂,每周生产14万加仑的果汁。布鲁佐说,目前这些果汁产品在5,000家星巴克店和3,000家连锁超市销售。他说,销量最好的是两种绿色果汁。 Getting pricey cold-pressed juice on the shelves of national supermarkets and specialty stores has been a challenge. Stores like Whole Foods typically require a shelf-life of about 30 days for packaged juices. But traditional methods of preserving foods use heat, which destroys some nutrients. Cold-pressed juice companies didn#39;t want that. 把高价冷榨果汁放上全国性超市和专卖店的货架并不容易。Whole Foods等超市一般都要求盒装果汁的货架保存期为30天左右,但传统保存食品用的高温法,这样会损坏部分营养成分。冷榨果汁公司并不希望这样。 To extend shelf life, some companies, including Suja, BluePrint and Evolution Fresh, have turned to a process often called high-pressure processing (HPP), which inactivates most microorganisms while retaining natural freshness. HPP, also used to preserve guacamole and y-to-eat meats, subjects the food to intense pressure of thousands of pounds a square inch. 为了延长货架保存期,包括Suja、BluePrint和Evolution Fresh在内的公司开始采用一种被称为高压加工(HPP)的方法,这种方法可以在自然保鲜的同时抑制大部分微生物的活动。高压加工法还被用于保存牛油果沙拉酱和熟肉制品,这种方法会使食品承受每平方英寸几千镑的压力。 High-pressure processing, however, is the subject of a lawsuit filed against Hain Celestial in U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York last month. The suit says that HPP destroys some probiotics and enzymes and that BluePrint labels falsely advertise its products as #39;raw.#39; A BluePrint spokeswoman declined to comment on the suit. 不过上个月,高压加工法成为了一起在纽约南部联邦地区法院(District Court for the Southern District of New York)针对Hain Celestial公司的诉讼的主要议题。诉讼说高压加工法损坏了产品中的某些益生菌和?,而BluePrint商标将其产品虚假宣传为“未加工”食品。BluePrint发言人拒绝就该诉讼发表。 Ms. Lawless, the Suja co-founder, has long made juice at home because she has celiac disease. She and a partner, Eric Ethans, in 2011 began selling juice to her yoga students who would ask about her juicing. Suja联合创始人劳雷斯向来都在家里自制果汁,因为她患有乳麋泻。2011年,有些瑜伽学员对她榨果汁表示好奇,于是她和合伙人埃里克#12539;伊桑斯(Eric Ethans)开始把果汁卖给他们。 The small operation attracted two investors, including Jeff Church, 52, a bottled-water entrepreneur. He approached Whole Foods, which began offering Suja products in its stores in fall of 2012. Suja -- a word the company founders made up that signifies to them #39;long and beautiful life,#39; a spokeswoman says -- now produces on average 10,000 bottles a week of each of its 19 flavors at its Southern California plant. It acquired an organic-produce distributor to ease supply issues. And it plans to open a plant in the Philadelphia area next year to have quicker access to more markets. #39;It#39;s about getting the kale picked and on the shelf at Whole Foods as fast as we possibly can,#39; says Mr. Church, Suja#39;s chief executive. 这个小作坊吸引了两位投资者,包括现年52岁的瓶装水企业家杰夫#12539;丘吉(Jeff Church)。他和Whole Foods进行了接洽,Whole Foods从2012年秋季开始在各大门店销售Suja的产品。公司发言人说,Suja这个名字是创始人起的,对他们来说表示“长寿美丽的人生”。Suja在南加州的工厂目前的产量是平均每种口味每周生产1万瓶,共有19种口味。公司收购了一家有机农产品经销商,以缓解供应问题。公司计划明年在费城地区开设一家工厂,从而更快打入更多市场。Suja首席执行长丘吉说:“我们要尽可能快地采摘到甘蓝,然后把果汁放到Whole Foods的货架上。” /201312/267962

  Scientists from two landmark heart-disease studies are joining forces to wield the power of genetics in battling the leading cause of death in the U.S. 参加过两项具有里程碑意义的心脏病研究项目的科学家现在正通力合作,运用遗传学的力量来对抗这种在美国导致死亡的主要疾病。Cardiologists have struggled in recent years to score major advances against heart disease and stroke. Although death rates have been dropping steadily since the 1960s, progress combating the twin diseases has plateaued by other measures. 心脏病医生近年来付出了很大努力,争取在治疗心脏病和中风方面获得重大进展。虽然死亡率从1960年代以来就一直在稳步下降,但是从其它标准来看,与这对兄弟疾病的斗争没有再取得更多的进步。Genetics has had a profound impact on cancer treatment in recent years. Now, heart-disease specialists hope genetics will reveal fresh insight into the interaction between a person#39;s biology, living habits and medications that can better predict who is at risk of a heart attack or stroke. 遗传学近年来对癌症的治疗产生了深远的影响。如今,心脏病专家希望遗传学可以揭开新的奥秘,让人深入了解一个人的生命机理、生活习惯和药物治疗之间的相互作用,以此更好地预测谁有心脏病发作或中风的危险。#39;There#39;s a promise of new treatments with this research,#39; said Daniel Jones, chancellor of the University of Mississippi and former principal investigator of the 15-year-old Jackson Heart Study, a co-collaborator in the new genetics initiative. 美国密西西比大学(the University of Mississippi)校长丹尼尔#12539;琼斯(Daniel Jones)说:“这项研究可望找到新的治疗方法。”他是历时15年的杰克逊心脏研究项目(Jackson Heart Study)的前首席研究员,也是新的遗传学研究项目的共同合作伙伴。Prevention efforts also could improve with the help of genetics research, Dr. Jones said. For example, an estimated 75 million Americans currently have high blood pressure, or hypertension, but only about half of those are able to control it with medication. It can take months of trial-and-error for a doctor to get the right dose or combination of pills for a patient. Researchers hope genetic and other information might enable doctors to identify subgroups of hypertension that respond to specific treatments and target patients with an appropriate therapy. 琼斯说,在遗传学研究的帮助下,预防工作也可以得到提升。比如,目前估计有7,500万美国人患有高血压,但是只有大约一半人能够使用药物进行控制。医生为病人确定恰当的用药剂量或者药物组合可能需要好几个月的反复尝试。研究人员希望遗传学及其它信息可以帮助医生找到对特定治疗方法产生疗效反应的高血压亚组,对病人实行对症下药。Also collaborating on the genetics project is the 65-year-old Framingham Heart Study. Its breakthrough findings decades ago linked heart disease to such factors as smoking, high blood pressure and high cholesterol. Framingham findings have been a foundation of cardiovascular disease prevention policy for a half-century. 参与遗传学项目合作的还有历时65年的弗雷明汉心脏研究 (Framingham Heart Study)团队。该研究在几十年前取得的突破性发现将心脏病与吸烟、高血压和高胆固醇等因素联系起来。弗雷明汉的研究发现半个世纪以来一直是心血管疾病预防政策的基本根据。More than 15,000 people have participated in the Framingham study. The Jackson study, with more than 5,000 participants, was launched in 1998 to better understand risk factors in African-Americans, who were underrepresented in Framingham and who bear a higher burden of cardiovascular disease than the rest of the population. Both studies are funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, part of the National Institutes of Health. 超过15,000人参与了弗雷明汉研究。参加人数达5,000多人的杰克逊研究是1998年启动的,目的是为了更好地弄清楚非洲裔美国人面临的危险因素,这个群体在弗雷明汉研究中代表人数不足,而且他们承受的心血管疾病负担高于其它人群。上述两项研究都是由美国国家卫生研究院(the National Institutes of Health)所属的国家心脏、肺和血液研究所(the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute,简称NHLBI)提供的资金持。Exactly how the collaboration, announced last week, will proceed hasn#39;t been determined. One promising area is the #39;biobank,#39; the collection of more than one million blood and other biological samples gathered during biennial checkups of Framingham study participants going back more than a half century. 上周公布的这项合作计划如何具体地进行还没有决定。很有希望的一个领域是“生物样本库”(biobank),一个拥有超过100万个血液及其它生物样本的数据库。这些生物样本是在对过去半个多世纪中参与弗雷明汉研究的人员进行两年一度的体检时采集来的。The samples are stored in freezers in an underground earthquake-proof facility in Massachusetts, said Vasan Ramachandran, a Boston University scientist who takes over at the beginning of next year as principal investigator of the Framingham Heart Study. Another 40,000 samples from the Jackson study are kept in freezers in Vermont. By subjecting samples to DNA sequencing and other tests, researchers say they may be able to identify variations linked to progression of cardiovascular disease -- or protection from it. 波士顿大学(Boston University)科学家瓦桑#12539;拉马钱德兰(Vasan Ramachandran)说,这些样本储存在马萨诸塞州(Massachusetts)一个抗震的地下设施内的冷藏库中,拉马钱德兰即将于明年年初接任弗雷明汉心脏研究的首席研究员。杰克逊研究中的另外40,000个样本保存在佛蒙特州(Vermont)的冷库中。研究人员说,通过对样本进行DNA测序和其它测试,他们或许能够确认心血管疾病发展过程中出现的各种变体――或者预防心血管疾病的因素。Each study is likely to enroll new participants as part of the collaboration to allow tracking of risk factors and diet and exercise habits, for instance, in real time instead of only during infrequent checkups. 作为合作项目的一部分,每一项研究都很可能要招募新的参与者,对他们的危险因素、饮食习惯和锻炼习惯进行跟踪,跟踪采取实时的形式,而不是仅在并非经常进行的体检时才进行。Heart disease is linked to about 800,000 deaths a year in the U.S. In 2010, some 200,000 of those deaths could have been avoided, including more than 112,300 deaths among people younger than 65, according to a recent analysis by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. But those avoidable deaths reflected a 3.8% per year decline in mortality rates during the previous 10 years. 在美国,一年大约有80万例死亡病例与心脏病有关。根据美国疾病控制与预防中心(the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)最近的一份分析资料,2010年,那些死亡病例中大约有20万例本来是可以避免的,其中超过112,300例的死亡病人年龄低于65岁。不过那些可以避免的死亡病例在过去十年中让死亡率每年下降了3.8%。Now, widesp prevalence of obesity and diabetes threatens to undermine such gains. And a large gap remains between how white patients and minorities -- especially African-Americans -- benefit from effective strategies. 现在,普遍存在的肥胖和糖尿病对取得的这些成绩构成了威胁,而且白人患者和少数民族――尤其是非洲裔美国人――在从有效的治疗策略中获益的程度上存在很大的差异。There have been few new transformative cardiovascular treatments since the mid-1980s to early 1990s, when a stream of large-scale trials of new agents ranging from clot-busters to treat heart attacks to the mega class of statins electrified the cardiology field with evidence of significant improvements in survival from the disease. One reason: Some of those remedies have proven tough to beat with new treatments. 从1980年代中期到1990年代初期,治疗心血管疾病的方法就没有多少新的改变(自那以后,对治疗心脏病发作的溶血剂和大量降低胆固醇的他汀类药物等新药进行的一系列大规模试验明患心脏病的生存几率可以大大提高,这让心脏病学界兴奋不已)。其中一个原因是:那些疗法中有些被明很难被新的治疗手段所超越。What#39;s more, use of the current of medicines for reducing heart risk remains an imprecise art. Besides blood pressure drugs, cholesterol-lowering statins also are widely prescribed. Drug-trial statistics show that to prevent a single first heart attack in otherwise healthy patients can require prescribing a statin to scores of patients, but no one knows for sure who actually benefits and who doesn#39;t. 此外,使用现行的药物目录来降低心脏病风险还是一件没有把握的事情。除了降血压的药物之外,处方里大量出现的还有降低胆固醇的他汀类药物。药物试验统计数字表明,为了防止在其它方面十分健康的病人出现第一次心脏病发作,数十位病人可能都会被开据他汀类药物的处方,但是没人确切知道这药对谁真正有用,对谁没有作用。#39;It would be great if we could make some more paradigm-shifting discoveries,#39; said Michael Lauer, director of cardiovascular sciences at the NHLBI, which is a part of the National Institutes of Health. 美国国家卫生研究院下属 NHLBI的心血管学科主任迈克尔#12539;劳尔(Michael Lauer)说:“如果我们能够在转变思维模式方面做出更多发现的话,那就太好了。” Finding new treatments isn#39;t the only aim of the new project. #39;You could use existing therapies smarter,#39; said Joseph Loscalzo, chairman of medicine at Brigham and Women#39;s Hospital in Boston. 找到新的治疗方法并不是新研究项目的唯一目的。波士顿布里格姆妇科医院(Brigham and Women#39;s Hospital)的医务委员会主席约瑟夫#12539;洛斯卡尔佐(Joseph Loscalzo)说:“你可以更高明地使用现存的疗法。” The American Heart Association launched the initiative and has committed million to it over the next five years. The AHA sees the project as critical to its goal to achieve a 20% improvement in cardiovascular health in the U.S. while also reducing deaths from heart disease and stroke by 20% for the decade ending in 2020, said Nancy Brown, the nonprofit organization#39;s chief executive. 美国心脏病学会(The American Heart Association,简称AHA)发起了本次研究行动,并答应在今后的五年中拨付3,000万美元(约合人民币1.83亿元)的资金。AHA打算在2020年之前的十年时间里将美国的心血管健康水平提升20%,同时将心脏病和中风引起的死亡病例减少20%,它把本项目看成是实现目标的关键。The Jackson study has aly identified characteristics of cardiovascular risk among African-American patients #39;that may have promise for new insights#39; in a collaborative effort, said Adolfo Correa, professor of medicine and pediatrics at University of Mississippi Medical Center and interim director of the Jackson study. 密西西比大学医学中心(Mississippi Medical Center)的医学及儿科学教授、杰克逊研究项目的临时主管阿道夫#12539;科雷亚(Adolfo Correa)说,杰克逊研究已经找到了非洲裔美国人心血管疾病患病危险的特征,这在合作项目中“也许有望让人获得新的认识”。For instance, there is a higher prevalence of obesity among Jackson participants than seen in the Framingham cohorts. Obesity is associated with high blood pressure, diabetes and cardiovascular risk. Diabetes is also more prevalent among blacks than whites. 比如,杰克逊研究的参与者中肥胖者所占比例比弗雷明汉研究队伍中的人高。肥胖与高血压、糖尿病和心血管疾病危险有关。黑人中患糖尿病的人也比白人普遍。But African-Americans of normal weight appear to have higher rates of hypertension and diabetes than whites of normal weight. #39;The question is, should [measures] for defining diabetes be different or the same for the [different] populations and are they associated with the same risk of cardiovascular disease?#39; said Dr. Correa. The collaboration, he said, may provide better comparisons. 然而体重正常的非洲裔美国人相比体重正常的白人似乎有更高的高血压及糖尿病患病率。“问题在于,定义糖尿病(的手段)对于(不同的)人群来说应该是相同的还是不同的?他们面临的心血管疾病危险是否是相同的?”科雷亚如是说。他说这个合作项目也许会提供更好的比较。Researchers, who plan to use tools other than genetics, think more might be learned about blood pressure and heart and stroke risk by monitoring patients in real time using mobile devices rather than taking ings only in periodic office visits. For example, high blood pressure during sleep or spikes during exercise could indicate risks that don#39;t show up in a routine measurement in the doctors#39; office. 研究人员还打算利用遗传学之外的其它工具。他们认为,通过利用移动设备对病人进行实时监测而不是只在病人定期到诊室就诊时才读取数据,人们可以对血压、心脏和中风了解得更多。比如,睡眠期间血压升高或者运动期间血压陡增可能预示着危险,这在医生诊室的常规测量中是不会出现的。A big challenge is making sense of the huge amounts of data involved in sequencing DNA and linking it to medical records, diet and exercise habits and other variables that influence risk. 一个巨大的挑战是要弄清DNA测序中大量数据代表的意义并将它与病历、饮食和锻炼习惯以及影响到患病危险的其它变量关联起来。#39;The analytical methods for sorting out these complex relationships are still in evolution,#39; said Dr. Loscalzo, of Brigham and Women#39;s Hospital. #39;The cost of sequencing is getting cheaper and cheaper. The hard part is analyzing the data.#39;“整理这些复杂关系的分析方法尚在逐步完善之中,”布里格姆妇科医院的洛斯卡尔佐说,“DNA测序的成本越来越低了,难的部分是对数据进行分析。” /201312/268171

  After John F Kennedy was murdered on November 22 1963, Dallas became known as “the city of hate”. Its citizens were charged with creating a fervid rightist atmosphere in which Lee Harvey Oswald felt moved to shoot the president. Mike Rawlings, the city#39;s current mayor, told me: “There are stories of people going to places and almost being embarrassed to be from Dallas back in the 1960s, early 1970s.” 1963年11月22日,美国总统约翰#8226;肯尼迪(John F.Kennedy)遇刺身亡后,达拉斯就背上了“仇恨之城”的名声。人们指责达拉斯市民制造了一种狂热的右翼氛围,从而促使李#8226;哈维#8226;奥斯瓦尔德(Lee Harvey Oswald)杀了总统。达拉斯现任市长迈克#8226;罗林斯(Mike Rawlings)告诉我:“有报道称,在20世纪60年代和70年代初,达拉斯人去外地时,会因为自己是达拉斯人而感到尴尬。” I found Rawlings sneaking a catnap at the New Cities Summit in Sao Paulo in June. The man who came to Dallas in 1976 with 0 in his pocket and made it to president of Pizza Hut was taking the briefest break from his usual activity: plugging Dallas. But how does any city incorporate a global trauma into its image? It#39;s taken Dallas 50 years to learn to deal with the murder. 今年6月,在圣保罗的新城市峰会(New Cities Summit)上,我趁罗林斯偷偷打盹时找到了他。这位1976年揣着200美元来到达拉斯、后来当过必胜客(Pizza Hut)总裁的达拉斯市长正在小憩,暂时把他的日常活动——宣传达拉斯——放在了一边。但一个城市在经历一场闻名全球的创伤之后,如何在世人面前构建自己的形象?达拉斯花了50年的时间,才学会坦然接受那起刺杀事件。 Many Americans in 1963 couldn#39;t accept that a lone loser like Oswald had changed history. Consequently, they blamed larger entities. Conspiracy theorists accused the Central Intelligence Agency or Cuban exiles. Others blamed Dallas itself. 1963年,让许多美国人无法接受的是,历史居然被奥斯瓦尔德这么个孤独的失败者改写了。因此,他们怪罪于一些更大的组织和群体。阴谋论者指责美国中央情报局(CIA)或古巴流亡者策划了刺杀事件。其他人则谴责达拉斯这个城市。 To e Texas Monthly magazine: “The tragedy seemed to seal the perception of our state as being populated by a bunch of trigger-happy yeehaws who were beyond forgiveness.” Because few outsiders knew anything else about Dallas, the assassination branded the city. In truth, Dallas in 1963 did house some noisy rightist Kennedy-haters. Days before he arrived, “Wanted for Treason” leaflets featuring him appeared around town. And on the day, the Dallas Morning News published an ominously black-bordered full-page ad portraying him as a communist fellow-traveller. Reading it, Kennedy told his wife: “We#39;re heading into nut country today.” 《德克萨斯月刊》(Texas Monthly)写道:“那起悲剧似乎把世人对本州的印象固定了下来,即一个充斥着牛仔的州,那些牛仔动辄开、根本不值得原谅。”因为外面的人对达拉斯的其他方面知之甚少,于是刺杀事件成了这座城市的标签。事实上,1963年的达拉斯确实有一些讨厌肯尼迪、吵吵嚷嚷的右翼分子。在肯尼迪抵达达拉斯之前的几天,印着他的肖像、写有“通缉叛国者”(Wanted for Treason)的传单在城里随处可见。就在肯尼迪遇刺当天,《达拉斯晨报》(Dallas Morning News)整版刊出了一则颇不吉利的黑边广告,将他描绘为“共产主义的同路人”。看到广告,肯尼迪对妻子说:“我们今天要去一个疯子国了。” After the murder, many diagnosed city-wide hate. Bill Minutaglio, co-author of the new book Dallas 1963, says: “Nothing like this could have happened, but in Dallas.” 肯尼迪遇刺后,许多人称达拉斯充斥着仇恨。新书《达拉斯1963》(Dallas 1963)的合著者比尔#8226;米努塔利奥(Bill Minutaglio)说:“除了达拉斯,这种事不可能在其他任何地方发生。” Yet blaming Dallas is illogical. Oswald was a Marxist nut, not a rightwing nut. And as Rawlings says, “Dallas loves its presidents.” Nearly one in three Dallasites turned out to see Kennedy, with barely an unfriendly sign on display. In the motorcade, the Texan governor#39;s wife, Nellie Connally, gushed, “Mr President, you can#39;t say Dallas doesn#39;t love you.” She was mostly right. Assassinations, Americans soon learnt, can happen anywhere. Cities don#39;t kill people. People kill people. 但谴责达拉斯是没有道理的。奥斯瓦尔德是马克思主义疯子,而不是右翼疯子。正如罗林斯所说:“达拉斯人爱戴总统。”近三分之一的达拉斯人为了亲眼一睹肯尼迪尊容而走出家门,现场几乎没有不友好的迹象。在车队中,德克萨斯州州长夫人内莉#8226;康纳利(Nellie Connally)充满感情地说:“总统先生,您不能说达拉斯人不爱戴您。”她的话几乎没错儿。美国人很快明白,刺杀事件可能发生在任何地方。凶手不是城市,而是人。 After 1963, says Rawlings, many Dallasites “wanted to move on as quickly as possible”. They rarely discussed the murder. Gradually, though, the mood changed. Rawlings says: “In the 1980s, people started to think: we are the home of a very important moment in history. Not only because of the assassination, but that seemed to be the dawning of a new era. After that came the Vietnam war, civil rights came to its fruition, women#39;s liberation. There was a new world, a door that somehow people walked through. Citizens said, #39;We#39;ve got to make sure we capture the truth of this history.“” 罗林斯说,1963年以后,许多达拉斯人“希望尽快走出这件事的阴影”。他们很少谈及刺杀事件。但民众的情绪渐渐变了。罗林斯说:“20世纪80年代,人们开始认为,达拉斯见了一个非常重要的历史时刻。这不仅是因为那一刻发生了刺杀事件,更是因为那一刻似乎标志着一个新时代的到来。在那之后,越战升级、民权运动开花结果、第二波女权运动兴起。世界焕然一新,人类历史不知怎么的翻开了新的篇章。当时的达拉斯人说,‘我们必须确保准确地理解这段历史。’” Oswald had shot from the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository. Plans to tear the building down were dropped. In 1989 it became a museum. Rawlings says, “For many years it was the one site that if someone visited you and said, #39;What do you want to do in the afternoon?” you would say, #39;Want to go down to the Sixth Floor Museum?“” 奥斯瓦尔德开的地方,位于达拉斯的德克萨斯州教科书仓库大楼(Texas School Book Depository)六层。达拉斯有过种种拆除那座大楼的计划,但后来都未执行。1989年,那座大楼变成了一座物馆。罗林斯说:“多年以来,那座物馆一直是来达拉斯的人必须造访的景点。如果有人来达拉斯拜访你,问你下午想干嘛?你会回答说,想不想去六楼物馆(Sixth Floor Museum)?” He adds: “I don#39;t think we should be defensive or try to remove anything. It is what it is. That part of history will always be in Dallas.” Even Oswald, says Rawlings, belongs in the city#39;s history. He attended elementary school in Dallas, and returned in 1962 after his Soviet jaunt. 他补充道:“我觉得我们不应该戒备心太强,或抹掉过去的任何痕迹。事实就是事实。那段历史将永远留在达拉斯身上。”罗林斯说,即便是奥斯瓦尔德,也将永远在达拉斯的历史占有一席之地。他曾在达拉斯上小学,短暂游历苏联后于1962年又回到该市。 The city can face these facts today largely because the assassination#39;s stigma has faded. Rawlings says: “With time that changed, with the arrival of the Dallas Cowboys [football team] and different things that Dallas started to become known for. It became a secondary branding for the city.” 达拉斯如今能够直面这些现实,很大程度上是因为刺杀事件带来的耻辱感已经褪去。罗林斯说:“随着时间的推移,人们开始因达拉斯牛仔队(Dallas Cowboys,美式橄榄球队)等各种其他的东西知道达拉斯。刺杀事件成为了达拉斯众多标志中比较不显著的一个。” On Friday, the world will be watching Dallas. Rawlings says: “Before I became mayor, I realised that the one moment people were going to pay more attention to Dallas while I was mayor was November 22 2013. People look to 50th anniversaries. They remember where they were, and you retell the story.” Friday#39;s commemoration will be sober and “very untouristy”, he adds. “I#39;m very shy about trying to do too much on this day. If I can stand up straight, salute the president and move on, I think Dallas has done what#39;s right. Our brand won#39;t be made because of this.” 本周五(11月22日),达拉斯将汇聚世界的目光。罗林斯说:“我在当上市长之前就意识到,我任期内人们最关注达拉斯的时刻将是2013年11月22日。人们关注50周年。他们回忆过去,而你要重新讲述那段历史。”他补充道,周五的纪念活动将是庄重的,也“尽量不会带有吸引游客的色”。“我很担心这一天的纪念活动过于大张旗鼓。如果我能笔直地站起身,向肯尼迪总统致敬,然后把历史的这一页翻过去,我觉得达拉斯就做对了。我们无法凭借纪念活动树立我们的形象。” Where was Rawlings on November 22 1963? “In elementary school in Leawood, Kansas. They moved us to the gymnasium, and I remember sitting Indian-style on the floor when the principal told us, and we were sent home. My mother was a teacher, and before she passed away she gave me a stack of letters that she had had her elementary-school grade write about their reflections on that weekend. It was marvellous. Just a bunch of kids in a random school in Kansas talking about this shows the depth and bth of this moment in people#39;s lives.” 1963年11月22日那天,罗林斯在哪儿?“那天我在堪萨斯州利伍德(Leawood)的一所小学里。校方将我们转移到体育馆,我记得大家盘腿坐在地板上,校长向我们介绍了事件的经过,然后学校就宣布放学了。我母亲是小学教师,她曾让自己教的小学生写作文,叙述他们对周末那起事件的感想,后来她在去世前将那一叠作文交给了我。看到那一叠作文,我感觉很奇妙。堪萨斯州一所普通的小学里的孩子们都在作文里谈论此事,仅此就能表明,这一历史瞬间对人们的生活产生了多么广泛而深刻的影响。” /201311/265569

  1. Your Daily Activities1. 你的日常活动All of your conversations don’t have to be earth shattering. Spend time talking about your day-to-day activities. Discuss what time you woke up, what you ate for lunch, or what you discussed with a co-worker and help your partner understand what happens when you’re apart.不需要所有的谈话都轰动世界,花点时间谈一谈你的日常活动吧。谈一下你醒来的时间,你吃午饭的时间,或者讨论一下你和你同事讨论了什么,你还可以让你的另一半知道你独处的时候发生了什么。2. Money2.财富Talk about your budget. Discuss your saving and spending habits. If you combine your finances, set some financial goals and discuss strategies to help you reach those goals.谈一下你的预算。讲一下你省钱和花钱的习惯。结合你的财政状况,可以设定一些财政目标以及实现这些目标的策略。3. Places You Want to Explore3. 你想去的地方Start a conversation about the places you’d like to visit. Whether you want to travel to your grandmother’s house or you want to go on a cruise around the world, a discussion about travel can spark a lot of new conversation.开始一个谈论你想去的地方的话题。不管你是想去你祖母的老屋还是想去周游世界,一个关于旅游的话题总能迸发出更多话题的火花。4. Emotional Growth4. 情绪管理Share some information about your emotional growth. If you notice you’ve become wiser, less reactive, or more compassionate, share that with your partner. Point out the emotional growth you see in your partner as well.分享一些关于你情绪管理的信息。如果你意识到自己变得更加睿智,少了点浮躁,多了点同情心,那么和你的另一半分享吧,同时也要指出你眼中的另一半的情绪管理。5. Individual Goals5. 个人目标It’s healthy to have individual goals. Whether you want to lose weight, learn how to prepare Chinese food, or learn how to line dance, set some goals for yourself and discuss those goals with your partner.拥有个人目标是一件很值得提倡的事情。不管你是想要减肥,学习如何做中国菜或者学习如何排舞,给自己定一些目标,并且和另一半讨论你的这些目标。6. Spiritual Beliefs6. 精神信仰Start conversations about your spiritual beliefs. Be willing to listen to your partner’s beliefs and be open to talking about the similarities and differences in your beliefs.开始关于信仰的话题。要愿意去听另一半的信仰,并且可以讨论和你的信仰的相似点和不同点。7. What You’re Watching on TV7. 你看的电视节目Although watching TV isn’t an active way to grow together as a couple, discussing what you’re watching can help you learn something new about one another.尽管看电视并不是两个人共同成长的好方法,但是通过你看的电视节目可以了解对方更多。8. Politics8. 政治You don’t have to agree on politics in order to have a discussion about it. You can learn a lot about your partner if you have a conversation about politics. Any healthy relationship should allow each partner to feel respected enough to share an opinion, even if it opposes the other partner’s opinion.你不必为了讨论政治而去相信某种政治观点。如果你们讨论政治,是一个很好的了解另一半的窗口。任何一种健康的人际关系应该允许任何一个人去表达任何一种观点,尽管那个观点和其他人的相反。9. Goals to Address as a Couple9. 组建家庭的目标Discuss the goals you want to reach together as a couple. All healthy relationships should include shared goals for the future. Whether your goal is to volunteer at a homeless shelter together or save enough money for a new car, working together to reach your goal can help you stay close as a couple.讨论一下组建一个家庭需要达到的目标。所有健康的关系里面都应该包含对未来的目标。不管你的目标是在一个无家可归者的庇护所里面当一个志愿者,还是攒足够的钱去买车,一起努力去实现目标可以使你们更加亲密。10. Your Past10. 你的过去Your partner doesn’t need to know every skeleton in your closet. However, sharing information about your past can be very helpful. Talk about your childhood, past experiences, or obstacles you’ve overcome. You can also share how much you’ve learned and changed over the years.你的另一半不需要知道你过去所有的丑事。但是,分享一些你过去的事情非常有必要。可以说一下你的童年,小时候的经历,或者你克的阻碍困难。你也可以分享一下你在过去几年里学到和改变的东西。11. Your Values11. 你的价值观It’s important to share your values with one another. Talk about your priorities in life. It’s important for your partner to know how you feel about work, family, education, friends, and leisure time. Let your partner know what types of things you value the most and what changes you may want to make to ensure that you’re living according to your values.和别人分享你的价值观非常重要。谈论一下你生活中重要的事情。让你的另一半知道你对工作,家庭,教育,朋友以及闲暇时间的看法很重要。要让你的另一半知道,什么事情对你而言最重要,你想要做什么改变以确保遵循自己的价值观而活。12. Your Dreams12. 你的梦想Daydreaming together can be a great activity in any healthy relationship. Discuss dreams you had as a child, dreams you’ve let go, and dreams you still hold onto.在一段健康的关系中,一起做白日梦是很好的“活动”。讨论一下儿童时期的梦想,梦里你去过的地方,还有你现在仍然怀有的梦想。13. Your Feelings13. 你的感觉Of course, talking about your feelings is an important part of communication. Be willing to share your joys and sorrows with your partner. Also, be willing to talk about what makes you feel angry, when you’re disappointment, and when you feel embarrassed or hurt.当然,谈你的感受是交谈中很重要的一个部分。要和你的另一半分享你的喜悦和伤心。当然,还有你生气的时候,你失望的时候,你不好意思的时候,或者受伤的时候。14. Family14. 家庭Whether you’ve got a close relationship with your family or not, talking about family can be important. It can give your partner an inside look at what type of childhood you had as well as what type of relationship you have with your family members. Discuss how you want your family to be different from your family of origin, as well as which aspects you want to replicate.不管你和你的家人关系是否亲密,谈论你的家庭非常重要。它可以向你的另一半展示你的童年,以及你和你的家庭成员之间的关系。谈谈你想让你的家庭和原来有什么不同,以及你想保留的方面。15. Your Relationship15. 你的人际关系Discuss the aspects of your relationship that are working well and make sure to also discuss problematic areas. Talking openly about your relationship can ensure your relationship stays fresh and exciting.谈谈你人际关系中好的方面,对有疑问的地方进行讨论。畅谈你的人际关系可以让你们的关系保持新鲜,充满。 /201312/268212。

  

  

  

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