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2020年01月20日 18:46:55 | 作者:城市中文 | 来源:新华社
A new study suggests that parents who wash their dishes by hand, rather than in a dishwashing machine, may unwittingly lower the likelihood that their children will develop allergies.一项新研究表明,父母用手洗碗——而不是用洗碗机——可能在无意中降低孩子患过敏的可能性。The new study, published in the journal Pediatrics, looked at whether a number of behaviors that expose children to bacteria early in life might protect them from developing allergies later on. The idea, known as the hygiene hypothesis, is that children raised in particularly sanitized environments are less likely to develop an immune tolerance to trivial threats.这项新研究发表在《儿科学》(Pediatrics)杂志上,它研究的是一些让儿童接触细菌的行为能否防止日后出现过敏。这个观点被称为卫生假说,它认为在特别干净的环境中养大的孩子更加难以对无关紧要的威胁产生免疫力。The researchers followed roughly 1,000 young children and their parents living in the Gothenburg area of Sweden. They investigated behaviors like whether the parents fed their children foods purchased directly from farms, such as eggs, meat and unpasteurized milk. They looked into whether the children ate fermented foods, which have beneficial probiotic bacteria. And they looked into whether the parents washed their dishes by hand or used a dishwasher.研究者调查了瑞典哥德堡地区约1000名幼儿及其父母的生活。他们调查的行为包括:父母是否用直接从农场买来的食物喂养孩子,比如鸡蛋、肉类和未经高温消毒的牛奶;这些孩子是否食用含有益生菌的发酵食物;这些父母是用手还是用洗碗机洗碗。Then they examined whether the children had allergic conditions including asthma, eczema and hay fever. Ultimately, the researchers found that children raised in households where dishes were always washed by hand had half the rate of allergies. They also discovered that this relationship was amplified if the children also ate fermented foods or if the families bought food directly from local farms.然后他们调查这些孩子是否患有哮喘、湿疹或花粉病等过敏症。最后,研究者发现,在一直用手洗碗的家庭长大的孩子患过敏的比率是用洗碗机洗碗的家庭的一半。他们还发现,如果这些孩子也吃发酵食物或直接从当地农场购买的食物,这种联系更为明显。The findings demonstrated only an association, not cause and effect, so it was not clear whether these behaviors directly led to fewer allergies. But it may be the case that these behaviors expose children to innocuous bacteria, which can help strengthen their immune systems, said Bill Hesselmar, an assistant professor at the University of Gothenburg and lead author of the study.这些发现只是表明一种联系,而非因果关系,所以仍不明确这些行为能否直接导致更少出现过敏。但是这项研究的主要作者、哥德堡大学的助理教授比尔·海瑟玛(Bill Hesselmar)说,情况可能是,这些行为能让孩子接触无害细菌,从而提高免疫力。Dr. Hesselmar said that while the sanitizing effect of dishwashing machines can be a good thing, the “less efficient” method of washing dishes by hand might leave behind some bacteria that could have benefits. But he said more research was needed to see if the relationship they found was real and, if so, what was causing it.海瑟玛士说,洗碗机的消毒作用可能是有益的,但是用手洗碗这种“不那么高效”的方式可能会留下一些有益细菌。但是他说,需要进行更多研究来确定他们发现的这种关系是否属实,如果属实的话,原因是什么。“It’s an interesting finding and very surprising,” he said. “But we have to see if we can confirm it.”“这是个有趣的发现,非常令人意外,”他说,“但是我们必须看看能否实它。” /201503/361678How a New World bird came to be named after countries halfway around the globe.这种新世界的鸟类为什么会以半个地球外的国家的名字来命名。Within the turkey lies the tangled history of the world.在土耳其境内有着错综复杂的世界历史。OK, not quite. But not far off, either.好吧,或许并非如此,但也相差无几了。;Turkey; the bird is native to North America. But ;turkey; the word is a geographic mess—a tribute to the vagaries of colonial trade and conquest. As you might have suspected, the English term for the avian creature likely comes from Turkey the country. Or, more precisely, from Turkish merchants in the 15th and 16th centuries.;火鸡;这种鸟是原产于北美洲。但是;turkey;一词来源是一种地理上的大杂烩 — — 是对殖民地贸易和征的异想天开的献礼。你可能认为这种鸟类的英文名字可能来自于土耳其这个国家的名字。或者,更确切地说,从第十五和十六世纪的土耳其商人那里得名。How exactly the word ;turkey; made its way into the English language is in dispute. The linguist Mario Pei theorized that more than five centuries ago, Turks from the commercial hub of Constantinople (which the Ottomans conquered in the mid-15th century) sold wild fowl from Guinea in West Africa to European markets, leading the English to refer to the bird as ;turkey cock; or ;turkey coq; (coq being French for ;rooster”), and eventually ;turkey; for short. When British settlers arrived in Massachusetts, they applied the same terms to the wild fowl they spotted in the New World, even though the birds were a different species than their African counterparts. The etymology expert Mark Forsyth, meanwhile, claims that Turkish traders brought guinea fowl to England from Madagascar, off the coast of southeast Africa, and that Spanish conquistadors then introduced American fowl to Europe, where they were conflated with the ;turkeys; from Madagascar. Dan Jurafsky, another linguist, argues that Europeans imported guinea fowl from Ethiopia (which was sometimes mixed up with India) via the Mamluk Turks, and then confused the birds with North American fowl shipped across the Atlantic by the Portuguese.“土耳其”这个单词如何出现在英语语言中依然有争议。语言学家Mario 裴理推测大概在五个多世纪前,君士坦丁堡这个商业中心的土耳其人 (在15 世纪中叶被土耳其人征)将来自西非几内亚的野禽(即珍珠鸡)卖到欧洲市场 ,所以那时的英国人称这种鸟为;土耳其公鸡;,并最终以;土耳其;来简称这种动物。当英国移民抵达(美国)马萨诸塞州时,在这块新大陆上他们用同一个词来称呼他们在这片土地上看到的野禽,尽管这里的野禽不同于非洲的那种。词源学专家马克福赛思说土耳其商人把几内亚的这种野禽从马达加斯加带到英国,而西班牙征者把美洲的野禽引到欧洲,所以就和来自马达加斯加的“土耳其”混合在一起了。丹 Jurafsky,另一个语言学家,认为欧洲人通过马穆鲁克土耳其人从埃塞俄比亚 (有时候人们将埃塞俄比亚同印度混在一起了) 进口几内亚野禽,然后与葡萄牙通过大西洋从北美进口的野禽混淆在一起了。The guinea fowl (left) vs.the North American turkey (Wikipedia)珍珠鸡(左图)和北美火鸡对比(图片来源:维基百科)Here#39;s where things get even more bewildering. Turkey, which has no native turkeys, does not call turkey ;turkey.; The Turks ;knew the bird wasn#39;t theirs,; Forsyth explains, so they ;made a completely different mistake and called it a hindi, because they thought the bird was probably Indian.; They weren#39;t alone. The French originally called the American bird poulet d#39;Inde (literally ;chicken from India;), which has since been abbreviated to dinde, and similar terms exist in languages ranging from Polish to Hebrew to Catalan. Then there#39;s the oddly specific Dutch word kalkoen, which, as a contraction of Calicut-hoen, literally means ;hen from Calicut,; a major Indian commercial center at the time. These names may have arisen from the mistaken belief at the time that the New World was the Indies, or the sense that the turkey trade passed through India.事情还要更复杂。土耳其当地没有火鸡,他们也不把火鸡叫做“turkey”。他们“知道这玩意不是他们国家的“, 福赛斯是这么解释的,因此他们犯了一个完全不同的错误,把火鸡叫做hindi(印度语的意思),因为他们认为这玩意也许是印度的。有这种想法的人不止是土耳其人。法国人一开始把这种美国鸡称为poulet d#39;Inde(字面意思为来自印度的鸡),后来简称为dinde,类似的称谓也存在于波兰语、希伯来语和加泰罗尼亚语中。还有一个非常奇怪的特定荷兰语称谓kalkoen,是从Calicut-hoen这个词提炼出来的,字面意思是“来自卡利卡特的母鸡”, 卡利卡特曾是印度的主要商业中心之一。这些名称的来源也许是因为当时他们认为新世界指的是西印度群岛一带,或者是认为火鸡贸易途径印度。So what is the bird called in India? It may be hindi in Turkey, but in Hindi it#39;s arki. Some Indian dialects, however, use the word piru or peru, the latter being how the Portuguese refer to the American fowl, which is not native to Peru but may have become popular in Portugal as Spanish and Portuguese explorers conquered the New World. The expansion of Western colonialism only complicated matters: Malaysians call turkey ayam blander (“Dutch chicken”), while Cambodians opt for moan barang (“French chicken”).那么火鸡在印度被称为什么呢?在土耳其他们称之为hindi,但是在印度语里他们称之为#7789;arki。在一些印度方言里使用piru或者peru这个词,后者是葡萄牙语对美国火鸡的叫法,火鸡的原产地不是秘鲁,但是在西班牙和葡萄牙征新大陆时在葡萄牙很受欢迎。西方殖民主义的扩张使事情更加复杂:马来西亚人把火鸡叫做ayam blander(荷兰鸡的意思),缅甸人选择了moan barang这个叫法(意思是法国鸡)Then there are the turkey truthers and linguistic revisionists. In the early 1990s, for instance, a debate broke out in the ;letter to the editor; section of The New York Times over the possible Hebrew origins of the word ;turkey.; On December 13, 1992, Rabbi Harold M. Kamsler suggested (as a follow-up to a Thanksgiving-themed piece titled ;One Strange Bird;) that the New World fowl received its English name from Christopher Columbus#39;s interpreter, Luis de Torres, a Jewish convert to Catholicism. In an October 12, 1492 letter to a friend in Spain, de Torres had referred to the American bird he encountered as a tuki, the word for ;peacock; in ancient Hebrew and ;parrot; in modern Hebrew (a more dubious version of this story claims that Columbus himself was a Jew who hid his identity in the aftermath of the Spanish Inquisition but drew on his lineage to christen the fowl).然后出现了火鸡真相者和语言学上的修正主义者。比如在1990年代初期的时候,在《纽约时报》的“给编者的话”板块上就引发了一场有关“火鸡”这个词可能来自希伯来语的可能性的争论。1992年12月13号,犹太拉比Harold M. Kamsler认为这种新世界飞禽的英文名字源于航海家哥伦布的口译人员 Luis de Torres(他是一名犹太人,后来皈依天主教)。在1492年12月12号给西班牙一位朋友的信件中, Luis de Torres将他在美国遇到的这种飞禽称为tuki,在古希伯来文中指的是“孔雀”的意思以及在现代的希伯来文中指的是“鹦鹉”的意思(而在一个更加可疑的故事版本中称哥伦布本人就是个犹太人,在西班牙宗教法庭建立后他隐藏了自己的身份,但是利用自己的血统为这种飞禽命名)。Kamsler#39;s letter, however, was met with a firm rebuttal from the president of the Association for the Study of Jewish Languages, David L Gold. ;Rabbi Kamsler#39;s explanation, not original with him, is an old yarn spun in uninformed Jewish circles,; Gold wrote. ;Along with countless other pseudoscientific claims about supposed Hebrew influence on English and other languages, the myth of the Hebrew origin of #39;turkey#39; was quietly exploded in volume 2 of Jewish Linguistic Studies (1990).;Kamsler的看法遭到了犹太语言研究协会主席David L Gold的反驳。“拉比Kamsler的解释简直胡说八道。可以在《犹太语言研究》的第二卷(1990)中找到据明:“火鸡”这个词并非来自希伯来语。The turkey#39;s scientific name doesn#39;t make much more sense than its vernacular one. Its binomial nomenclature, Meleagris gallopavo, is a hodgepodge. The first name comes from a Greek myth in which the goddess Artemis turned the grieving sisters of the slain Meleager into guinea fowls. The second name is a portmanteau: Gallo is derived from the Latin word for rooster, gallus, while pavo is the Latin word for peacock. So, effectively, the official name for a turkey is guinea-fowl-rooster-peacock.火鸡的科学命名并不比它的俗称更有意义。双名命名法,Meleagris gallopavo(吐绶鸡),本来就是一个大杂烩。第一个词来自于希腊神话:月亮女神阿耳忒弥斯将被杀死的梅利埃格的悲伤变成了珍珠鸡(guinea fowl)。第二个词是一个混合词:Gallo来源拉丁词”公鸡“,pavo来源拉丁词”孔雀“。所以,最终,火鸡的正式名称就是:珍珠鸡-公鸡-孔雀(guinea-fowl-rooster-peacock)。Reflecting on his interview with Mario Pei, NPR#39;s Robert Krulwich noted that ;for 500 years now, this altogether American, very gallant if not particularly intelligent animal has never once been given an American name.; But the turkey does have many authentically American names—Americans just choose not to use them. After all, pre-Aztec and Aztec peoples domesticated the turkey more than a millennium before Columbus reached the New World (the Aztecs called the bird huehxolotl). There are numerous Native American words for the bird, including the Blackfoot term omahksipi#39;kssii, which literally means ;big bird.; It#39;s a bit vague, sure, but it certainly beats guinea-fowl-rooster-peacock.回顾语言学家利奥-佩(Mario Pei)的采访,美国国家公共电台(NPR)的罗伯特-科尔维奇(Robert Krulwich)提到过”500年来,所有美国人非常殷切期盼这种并不太聪明的动物能有一个美国化的名字。”但是火鸡却有很多真正的美国名字,只是美国人没选用而已。毕竟,在哥伦布到达新世界前,阿兹特克人驯养火鸡(阿兹特克人称火鸡为“huehxolotl”)已经超过一千年了。有很多原生美国词汇形容这种鸟,包括黑脚部族把它叫做“omahksipi#39;kssii”,意思是“大鸟”。这么叫是有点含糊,没错,但是确实好过“珍珠鸡-公鸡-孔雀(guinea-fowl-rooster-peacock)”。 /201501/353697During a news briefing at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory on Tuesday, NASA scientists revealed what they#39;ve gleaned from the latest photos of Pluto. The New Horizons spacecraft was set to make its closest approach of the dwarf planet on Tuesday, and while scientists wait for confirmation of that flyby -- and the 16 months worth of data that it will bring。周二,约翰霍普金斯应用物理实验室举行的发布会上,美国国家航空航天局(NASA)的科学家透露,他们已收集到来自冥王星的最新图像。按计划设定,新视野号飞行探测器会在周二近距离飞掠这颗矮行星,届时将向在地面等待确认飞掠的科学家传回历史16个月所收集到的数据。Remember Pluto#39;s heart?还记得冥王星的心吗?Well, it#39;s broken。好吧,它的心已碎。What you#39;re looking at is an image of Pluto with heavily exaggerated color data -- like when you amp up the saturation on an Instagram. It#39;s a bit hard to see (sorry) but one side of the ;heart; is much bluer than the other. In fact, the left-hand side seems pretty beige-y。你所看到的冥王星图像,附带有极度夸张的色数据,就像你在Instagram(一款图片分享应用)上放大图片的色饱和度那样。图片让人看起来(抱歉~)有点儿费力,但你还是能看到这颗“心”的一边要比另一边蓝的多。实际上看,左边的部分看起来更偏于米黄色。This seems to confirm something that the NASA scientists suspected based on recent photos of the ;heart; feature: It#39;s actually two features. In the latest images, it looks like the left half of the heart is smoother than the right, the team said at the briefing. It#39;s possible that some texture has been lost in the compression of the image, but it could also mean that one side of the heart is a different geological feature than the other -- they#39;re just both very bright, compared with the rest of the surface。这似乎实了NASA科学家们基于这颗“心”的近照所作出的猜测,即实际上心有两部分组成。科研团队在简报会上指出,根据最新的图像,似乎这颗“心”的左半边要比右半边平滑的多。很有可能是在图像的压缩过程中丢失了某些质地,但这也有可能意味着,这颗“心”的一边与另一边地质特征存在差异。这两部分都很明亮,相对于冥王星表面的其他部分而言。And speaking of Pluto#39;s features, NASA scientists are now giving unofficial names to some of the things they#39;ve spotted -- names they can submit to the International Astronomical Union for official approval. They#39;re sticking with the trend of underworld creatures and gods -- Pluto, after all, was the Roman god of the underworld -- and have tentatively named a previously observed dark, whale-shaped splotch (just to the left of the broken heart) after ;Cthulhu,; the dark deity invented by author H.P. Lovecraft。谈到冥王星的特征,NASA科学家们正准备给一些他们发现到的东西进行非正式命名。他们可以将这些名字递交给国际天文学联合会以获得官方认。此次命名将延续以往的传统,以阴间神灵命名。毕竟,冥王星就是以罗马神话中掌管阴间的冥王所命名的。科学家们已打算将前不久观察到的一块鲸鱼形深色暗斑区域(就在这颗破碎的“心”的左边),命名为“克苏鲁”(由作家H.P。洛夫卡拉夫特创作的一个邪神)。 /201507/386116

For my parents, who immigrated from Hong Kong in the 1970s, leaving Chinatown was how you knew you had made it in America. They worked there for 20 years in the garment industry — so that I would never have to, they insisted — but every night they made their proud exit to the New Jersey suburbs. Meanwhile, at school, I was hiding my stinky lunches from my American friends and hoping they wouldn’t hear our alien language.上个世纪70年代,我的父母从香港移民到美国。对他们来说,逃离唐人街就是在美国站稳脚跟的标志。他们在那儿的一家装厂工作了20年——他们说这样做是为了我将来不至于也干那样的活儿——但每天晚上,他们都骄傲地离开唐人街,回到新泽西的郊区。与此同时在学校里,我一边要把散发异味的午饭藏起来不让美国朋友们看见,一边暗自希望他们听不见我们说的外语。But when I finished college, I wanted to know the neighborhood where my parents worked, to be as Chinese as Chinatown could make me. Fifteen years later, I’m still trying to figure out what Chinatown means for Chinese people. Last month, I took just a short walk for lunch but saw, on the streets and in the food, so many ways you can be from somewhere you’re not really from.但大学毕业后,我开始想要了解父母工作的区域,想变得像唐人街里的中国人一样。如今15年过去了,我还在努力理解唐人街对于中国人的意义。上个月的一天,我为了吃午饭在外面走了一小段路,却发现,原来很多时候,在街上、在食物里,你都能感受到自己的家乡,虽然你根本不是从那儿来的。Near the Bowery end of Division Street, I passed a spot that used to be the New South Wind restaurant. For 30 years, it served tea from a water heater the size of a plane engine. Lunch could have been rice with canned ham and soy sauce, or dumplings — theirs were big, clunky things with thick, bland skins. I once heard a customer disparage them as “Americanized,” but a friend, born and raised nearby, told me that her grandfather ate there because it reminded him of how the food tasted in his first days in America, when the bachelors of Chinatown made whatever they could with their rudimentary kitchen skills and strange American ingredients.在蒂法信(Division Street)街靠近包厘街(Bowery)的一端,我路过新南风餐厅(New South Wind restaurant)的旧址,这家餐厅卖了30年茶水,茶都是从一个飞机发动机那么大的烧水炉里接出来的。午餐也许是米饭和火腿罐头,配上酱油,要么就是大饺子,厚厚的饺子皮一点味儿也没有。某次,我听到一位顾客批评这里的食物太“美国化”了,但一个在这儿土生土长的朋友却告诉我,她的祖父来这儿吃饭,就是因为这里的食物让他想起刚到美国时吃的东西。那时候,唐人街的光棍们只能靠自己的一丁点厨艺和手头稀奇古怪的美国调味料做东西吃。Crossing the Bowery to the living movie set of Doyers Street, I realized that you can still have a little taste of that historical fantasy (with better cooking) at Nom Wah, the oldest dim sum parlor in New York, sanguinely situated on a block constantly bloodied by gang murders when it opened in 1920. Preserved by a young new owner, it still draws crowds, many non-#173;#173;Chinese, hungry for authentic egg rolls. (My parents had never heard of egg rolls until they came here.)穿过包厘街,来到多也斯街(Doyers Street)存续至今的电影取景地,我发现,过去的美味如今依然能在南华(Nom Wah)品尝到,而且风味更佳。南华点心店开业于1920年,是纽约第一家粤式点心店,尽管当时杀人团伙经常在街区内作案,但南华点心店一直在这个街区好好地开到现在。如今,南华的老板是个年轻人,客人(很多不是中国人)依然络绎不绝地到这儿来品尝正宗蛋卷(我父母来这儿之前压根就没听说过什么蛋卷)。I’m normally tempted to drop in for one, but I was headed a block away, where a gaggle of young Chinese packed the entryway at Cha Chan Tang. In Hong Kong, eating baked food and creamy sauces was once the privilege of the wealthy, so luncheonettes called cha chaan tengs brought a little of that béchamel class to the masses. This food, called “soy-#173;sauce Western,” included things like baked pork chops on ketchup-#173;#173;sweet spaghetti with the distinct taste of the wok’s fire and oil. It would probably seem awful to you, but for me it occupies the same exact pleasure center as boxed mac and cheese — and for older generations, it tastes a little like success. It’s adaptive and aspirational. Every time someone asks me for the most “authentic” food in Chinatown, I secretly want them to eat this stuff.通常我都会被馋得去店里买一个,但这次我被吸引到了一个街区外的“茶餐厅”(Cha Chan Tang),门口还挤着一群中国年轻人。在香港,烤肉搭配奶油浇汁曾是富人的专享,所以名为茶餐厅的快餐店为百姓阶层带来了那种调味酱食物。这种食物被称为“豉油西餐”(soy-sauce Western),其中一种是烤猪排骨点缀在番茄酱甜意面上,散发着油炸过的独特味道。听上去可能有点可怕,但在我心中,它带来的幸福感简直堪比盒装奶酪通心粉——而对于年纪稍大的一代人来说,它仿佛有一丝成功的味道。这种食物老少皆宜而且振奋人心。每次有人跟我打听唐人街里最“正宗”的食物时,我心里都想让他们尝尝这玩意儿。As I ate condensed-#173;milk toast (as good as it sounds) and drank milk tea the texture of cream, I marveled at the décor. Simulated windows open onto an HDTV Hong Kong street scene; stare long enough, and you feel as if you can hop the bus to Kowloon. But it was after stepping back out onto Mott Street that I understood the significance of this place. Naming the restaurant Cha Chan Tang is like naming a coffee shop Coffee Shop; there used to be cha chaan tengs all over Chinatown, but this is something more. It’s a Cantonese theme park, not a place to remind you of home as much as a place to remind you of where your parents used to call home. Everything has the familiarity of things you remember from vacation, but when I ordered, practicing the Cantonese in my head to make sure I had the sounds right, my server caught me off guard with totally unaccented English. He was born here, raised here. This is a new generation of Chinatown, one that doesn’t mind staying.我吃着炼乳吐司(和听上去一样好吃),喝着奶茶,感受着丰富泡沫的口感,店里的装潢也让我震惊。打开的仿真窗户正对着高清电视上的香港街景;盯着多看一会儿,仿佛就能搭上去九龙的巴士。后来走回到莫特街上,我才想通这个餐厅的意义。这家店起名“茶餐厅”,就好比咖啡店的名字起做“咖啡店”。曾经,唐人街上到处都是茶餐厅,但这家店和那些有所不同。它是一个广东主题公园,并不是让你怀念家乡的地方,而是让你怀念父母一辈过去称为家乡的地方。一切都和假期里的记忆吻合,但当我点菜前在脑海中练习粤语,想确保发音准确时,务生纯正的英语却令我猝不及防。他在这儿出生,也在这儿长大。这是唐人街的新一代,是不介意留下的一代。On the walk back to the subway, I went under the Manhattan Bridge on Division. There, in storefront employment agencies, men just-#173;arrived in this country go to find jobs serving .95 General Tso’s. Most of these agencies are nothing more than a desk, a counter, a map on the wall; the new immigrants learn words like “Nebraska” and “Newport News” before stepping onto a bus outside and making those words their homes. I saw a man walk into one, leathery skinned, looking slightly lost, a small slip of paper in his hand. And I wondered: Where will he want his kids to work one day? Where will he want them to go, or stay away from, to know that he has made it?回地铁站的路上,我从曼哈顿大桥下的蒂法信街上走过。初到美国的人们在街边的求职中介里寻份工作——在餐厅里端4.95美元(约合30.7元人民币)的左宗棠鸡。大多数中介里不过摆着一张桌子,一个柜台,墙上挂着张地图。新来的移民们学着“内布拉斯加州”和“新港新闻”之类的词,搭上一辆外面的巴士,去往这些词所代表的地方,那儿将成为他们的家。我看见一个皮肤粗糙的男人走进一家求职中介,手里拿着张纸条,看起来有点恍惚。我很想知道:他以后会想让自己的孩子去哪儿工作呢?他想让他们去哪儿,又远离哪儿来,以此明自己在这里站稳脚跟了呢? /201505/377426

Fed up of with being constantly groped by women, the waiters of Scottish pub ‘Hootananny’, in Inverness, have decided to stop wearing their kilts. That’s a pretty big deal, since Hootananny staff have been wearing tartan to match the traditional Scottish atmosphere, ever since the place opened. But now the guys say that they’re being sexually harassed by female revelers who lift up their kilts to check if they are true Scotsmen!在因弗内斯,苏格兰风格酒吧Hootananny的男性务员们因不堪女顾客的骚扰,决定不再穿苏格兰短裙。这可是件不得了的事,为了与店内传统的苏格兰氛围相衬,Hootananny的员工们从开业伊始就穿着格子裙了。但是现在这些人表示不愿再受女酒鬼们的性骚扰了,她们就为了检验他们是不是真正的苏格兰男人竟然去掀他们的苏格兰裙!According to Hootananny assistant manager Iain Howie, the harassment usually occurs during the weekends when the pub is at its busiest. “You get large groups of drinking women circling around when you are collecting glasses and asking whether you are a true Scotsman,” he said. “And they find out for themselves。”Hootananny的副经理伊恩·豪伊说,这些骚扰一般都发生在周末最忙的时候。“当你在整理玻璃杯的时候,一大群醉醺醺的女人把你围在中间问你是不是苏格兰男人,”他说道,“然后她们还要亲自检查一番。”“The first few times it’s funny,” he added. “But when it is really busy and everyone has to work fast and hard, and your hands are full of glasses, you feel quite vulnerable. You are thinking, ‘are you going to get broken glasses, or is your kilt going to get lifted up again?’ They see it as a bit of fun, but it is a bit of an embarrassment。”“第一次碰上这种事时会觉得很有趣,”他补充道,“但是在店里真的很忙、每个人都忙得团团转满手酒杯的时候,你就会变得很焦虑,你会想:‘你会不会打破杯子,或者你的裙子是不是又要被掀起来?’客人们觉得这样很好玩,但是对我们来说真的很尴尬。”Hootananny founder Kit Fraser has taken his staff’s side on the issue, describing it as ‘pure sexism’. “It may seem funny but it is serious, too – the women are sticking their hands up their kilts. Can you imagine if I went into a restaurant and stuck my hand up a girl’s skirt? I would be taken to the police station and rightly so。”Hootananny的创始人基特·费雷泽在这件事情上是持他的员工的,他称这件事“完全是性别歧视”。“女客人伸手去掀务员的裙子这件事,看似好玩,实际上却要严肃对待。你能想象当我到餐馆里伸手去掀女孩的裙子会有什么后果吗?我会被带去警察局,这才是正确的对待方式。” /201507/386997

Hi, dad? Where#39;s mom?爸,我妈呢?She#39;s in the chat room talking to someone.你妈正和一长舌妇在聊天八卦呢!Really? Mom#39;s on the internet?啥?老妈这么潮,都学会上网了啊?What internet? They#39;re in the kitchen. You know your mom. Any room she#39;s in is a chat room.上网?捞鱼么?你妈在厨房呢,你知道你妈有个本事就是她在哪儿呆着,哪儿就自动变成聊天室了。 /201506/379710

5.Percy Bysshe Shelley5.珀西·比西·雪莱Percy Shelley was a great friend of Lord Byron, but his character was a little different. He was a well-intentioned and idealistic poet who unwittingly left a trail of destruction in his wake. He was the son of a landowner and educated at Eton, where he was known as “Mad Shelley” for his interest in the new science of electricity. He was bullied terribly and developed a hatred of the social system, becoming a passionate supporter of the French Revolution.雪莱是拜伦的好朋友,但他们的性格有点不同。他是个善良的理想主义诗人,偶尔无意中留下点破坏的痕迹。他是一个地主的儿子,就读于伊顿公学,因为对电力新科学的爱好被人们称为“疯狂的雪莱”。他深深地受害于社会制因此特别仇恨它,后来成了法国大革命热情的持者。At Oxford, he wrote a pamphlet entitled “The Necessity of Atheism” that was sold in a bookshop directly opposite his college and led to his expulsion. He became estranged from his father and was forever in need of money. With a growing family and a lurid reputation within England, Shelley left for a peripatetic life in Italy in 1818. He dragged his family and hangers-on from Florence to Pisa, then to Naples, and finally Livorno, where he drowned in 1822.在牛津,他写了本名为“无神论的必要性”的小册子,并在大学正对面出售。因此学校开除了他。后来他日渐与父亲疏远而且总是缺钱。随着孩子增多,而且雪莱在英格兰的名誉也是骇人听闻,1818年他前往意大利过着居无定所的生活。他拖家带口从佛罗伦萨到比萨,然后到了那不勒斯,最后到了利沃诺,却于1822年在那里溺水生亡。He called for revolution throughout Britain even when it annoyed those around him and became dangerous, resulting in an attempt on his life by government spies in 1813. He truly believed that literature could change the course of history, and his poetic works abound with figures of Promethean energy that transcend their time and circumstances.即使惹怒了众人,自己也身处险境,他还是坚持呼吁全英国都发动革命。1813年政府密探甚至不得不去调查他的生活。他深信文学能够改变历史的进程,而他诗歌作品中塑造的有着普罗米修斯精神的人物也可以超越时空的限制。He also had a habit of attracting young women and then discarding them. At 19, he eloped with the 16-year-old Harriet Westbrook, only to dump her for Mary Godwin while Harriet was pregnant with his child. She later drowned herself in the Serpentine in Hyde Park. Mary Godwin#39;s half-sister also killed herself after falling for Shelley and being rejected by him and his coterie of admirers.他喜欢吸引少女的芳心,然后抛弃她们。他19岁便与16岁的哈里特·维斯布鲁克私奔,而当哈里特怀着她的孩子的时候他却为了追求玛丽·戈德温抛弃了她。她后来溺死在海德公园的蛇形湖里。玛丽·戈德温同父异母的也爱上了雪莱,但是遭到他拒绝,随后因没能进入他的粉丝团之后自杀身亡。 /201505/372856

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