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2019年12月12日 23:21:06 | 作者:国际频道 | 来源:新华社
Cloud computing has been around for some time now. But not many people believe they can do all their computing in the cloud. Not many, that is, outside the brainaics at the Googleplex.云计算已经火了一阵子。不过没多少人认为所有的计算都能在云端完成。“没多少人”的意思是——除了谷歌(Google)总部的智囊们,没多少人这么看。With its line of Chromebooks made by various hardware partners, Google (GOOG) began testing in earnest the idea that tech users could live their digital lives almost entirely in the cloud. The low-cost laptops, which are powered by the Chrome operating system first went on sale in 2011. They only run Web-based applications, not traditional desktop programs, and eschew the trappings of traditional laptops such as an optical disc er or large hard drive.谷歌之前已经开始与多家硬件商联合生产Chromebook,现在,它开始认真测试技术用户是否完全能在云端实现数字生活这个想法。采用Chrome系统的低成本笔记本最早在2011年发售。它们只运行基于网络的应用,而不运行传统的桌面程序,也避免了光驱和大硬盘这类传统的笔记本配件。After a sluggish start, Chromebooks are gaining momentum. But by and large, people buy them because they are cheap. I personally raved about the 0 Samsung Chromebook not because it#39;s a great computer, but because a) I aly have a couple of Macs around the house, and b) at that price, I could afford to get an extra laptop and put up with the shortcomings of a Web-only device: no iTunes or iPhoto, no Skype, no Minecraft (if you don#39;t know what that is, ask any third-grade boy), and subpar versions of word processing and spsheet programs.Chromebook起初反响平平,后来却逐渐受到市场青睐。不过总的来说,人们购买它的主要原因还是价格便宜。我个人对250美元的三星(Samsung)Chromebook赞不绝口,不是因为它有多么好,而是因为:第一,我家里已经有几台苹果Mac电脑了;第二,以这个低价位就能买到一台笔记本,而且我能接受一台只能上网的电脑的各种缺点,比如说没有iTunes或iPhoto,没有Skype,没有Minecraft(如果你不知道这是什么,随便问个三年级小孩吧),而文字处理和电子制表程序也不够好。Now Google is making a bet that some people will want to live entirely in the cloud -- not primarily because it is cheaper -- but because it is better. On Thursday, it unveiled the Chromebook Pixel, a laptop as stylish and fast as any ultrabook. (That category was created by Intel (INTC) to help boost flagging PC sales; so far, no luck.) Google#39;s Pixel has a full-sized keyboard and a super-high-resolution display that works as a touchscreen, like many newer PCs running Microsoft (MSFT) Windows 8.现在,谷歌相信一些人想要完全过上云生活——不仅仅是因为它便宜——还因为它更好。周四谷歌发布了Chromebook Pixel。这款笔记本的时尚感和速度能与任何超级本媲美。【超极本始于英特尔(Intel),以提振一路下滑的PC机销量。不过到目前为止,好运尚未降临。】谷歌的Pixel拥有全尺寸键盘和高分辨率触摸屏,像许多新PC机一样采用Windows 8系统。谷歌分管Chrome和应用的高级副总裁桑达?皮采上周四在旧金山发布Pixel时说:;We think this is a real game changer in how people can start living the cloud,; said Sundar Pichai, the senior vice president in charge of Chrome and apps at Google, as he unveiled the Pixel in San Francisco on Thursday. Maybe. But the catch is that the Pixel, which will ship next week, costs a jaw-dropping ,299 for a WiFi-only model. A version with LTE to connect to high-speed cellular networks is coming in April and will cost ,449.“我们认为这是一款革命性的产品,它将引领人们的云生活。”也许吧。不过关注点在于,即将运往全球各地的Pixel价格高达惊人的1,299美元,这还是只持Wifi的版本。将在四月发行、使用长期演进技术、连接高速细胞网络的版本价格将高达1,449美元。That#39;s likely to be a tough sell. For 0 less than the base model, you can get a 13-inch MacBook Air from Apple (AAPL), the popularity of which essentially spurred the creation of the ultrabook category in the first place. The Air may not have a touch screen, but you can do all the cloud computing you want and run just about any desktop program. You can store your photos, music and s, and yes, back them up in the cloud if you want.这款产品很可能不好卖。花上比这台基础版少100美元的价钱,你就能买到13英寸的苹果Macbook Air。起初正因为它的人气,才促使了超极本的诞生。Air可能没有触摸屏,不过你可以在上面进行任何你想要的云计算,同时还可以运行任何桌面程序。可以储存照片、音乐和视频。如果你愿意,还可以把它们备份在云系统里。So who will buy the Pixel? Pichai says that plenty of businesses have aly embraced the concept of cloud computing and use Gmail and other Google apps for most of their productivity needs. What#39;s been lacking is a really good Chrome-based laptop, especially for software developers and other power users who demand speed and high-resolution displays. ;In my personal experience, it#39;s the fastest laptop I used,; Pichai said.谁会买Pixel呢?皮采说大多数公司已经接受了云计算的概念,同时使用Gmail和其他谷歌应用来满足自己的生产需要。市场缺少的就是真正好用的Chrome系统笔记本,尤其是对软件开发商、以及需要高运算速度和高分辨率屏幕的超级用户而言。皮采说:“就我个人经历来说,这是我用过的最快的笔记本。”As an additional enticement -- or perhaps to make up for its limitations -- the Pixel comes with a whopping 1 terabyte of free storage on Google Drive, enough to store most people#39;s photo and music collections many times over, for 3 years. In a couple of months, Google will also offer a Web-version of Quickoffice, which Google acquired last year, and which will provide better compatibility with Microsoft Office programs than Google Docs does currently.它还有个优点——可能也是为了弥补它的局限性——Pixel在Google Drive上有着巨大的1TB在线存储空间,足够供大多数人在3年中收藏照片和音乐。几个月之后,谷歌还会提供去年获得的Quickoffice网络版本,它与微软(Microsoft)Office软件的兼容性比目前的Google Docs要更好。The Pixel also represents Google#39;s latest foray into hardware. Unlike prior Chromebooks, which were made by the likes of Samsung, Acer, and Hewlett-Packard (HPQ), the Pixel is entirely a Google product, though it is being assembled by a contract manufacturer in Asia.Pixel也代表着谷歌对硬件的最新尝试。不同于之前由三星(Samsung)、宏基(Acer)和惠普(Hewlett-Packard )等厂商制造的Chromebook,Pixel完全是谷歌的产品,虽然它是由亚洲的一家签约制造商组装的。All indications suggest the transformation of Google from an Internet company into a computing company that makes both hardware and software will continue apace. On the hardware front, there will be Google Glass, of course, and more Nexus-branded mobile devices made by Google or its Android partners. There will also be handsets and tablets, made by Motorola Mobility, whichGoogle purchased for .5 billion. In the words of Larry Page, it#39;s all about keeping up with the unprecedented rate of change in personal computing. ;It#39;s why we#39;ve put so much focus on devices,; Page said during the company#39;s most recent earnings call. ;They#39;ve been one of our biggest bets in the last few years -- along with the software to go with the devices, Chrome and Android.;所有迹象都表明,谷歌正在加速从一家网络公司向同时制造软、硬件的计算机公司转型。在硬件方面,将会有谷歌眼镜(Google Glass),当然,还有许多谷歌和安卓合作伙伴制造的Nexus移动设备。还将会有谷歌125亿美元收购的托罗拉移动(Motorola Mobility)制造的手机和平板电脑。按照拉里?佩奇的说法,这都是为了跟上个人计算领域史无前例的剧变。佩奇在最近一次的收益电话会议上说:“这就是为何我们要如此关注设备。它们是我们最近几年来最大的努力之一——还包括与设备相关的软件,Chrome和安卓。”It will be interesting to watch. If it succeeds, the Pixel would be a huge validation for Google#39;s cloud-only vision of computing. The company has long hedged its bets with Android, which runs apps whether they live in the cloud or on the device itself. But no one in the industry would have more to gain if pure cloud computing becomes a truly viable alternative to the PC.未来的形势十分有趣。如果Pixel获得成功,它将是对谷歌纯粹云计算的巨大肯定。公司长期以来都将赌注押在了安卓上,它可以同时运行云端或是设备本身的应用。但是,如果纯粹的云计算成为了PC机一个真正可行的选择,那这个行业中的人们将很难再有什么新的作为。 /201303/227718Facebook’s quarterly earnings, released last month, have surpassed most market expectations, sending its stock price to an all-time high. They have also confirmed the company’s Teflon credentials: no public criticism ever seems to stick.Facebook上月公布的季度业绩超出了市场中大多数人的预期,股价因此被推升至有史以来的最高点。这再次显示,它好像给自己的招牌涂了一层“特氟龙”,任何公众批评都没法“粘”在上面。Wall Street has aly forgiven Facebook’s experiment on its users, in which some had more negative posts removed from their feeds while another group had more positive ones removed. This revealed that those exposed to positive posts feel happier and write more positive posts as a result. This, in turn, results in more clicks, which result in more advertising revenue.华尔街也已原谅了Facebook对用户所做的一个实验。在那个实验里,在用户不知情的情况下,Facebook在其中一些用户的朋友动态中删除了较多消极帖子,而在另一些用户的朋友动态中删除了较多积极的帖子。结果显示,那些看到更多积极帖子的人感觉更快乐一些,于是他们会发出更多积极的帖子,这反过来增加了点击量,从而能带来更多广告收入。Troubling ethics notwithstanding, the experiment has revealed a deeper shift in Facebook’s business model: the company can make money even when it deigns to allow its users a modicum of privacy. It no longer needs to celebrate ubiquitous sharing – only ubiquitous clicking.这次实验带来的道德问题暂且不谈,它更揭示了Facebook商业模式的深层次变化:即便它屈尊赏赐用户一点隐私权,依然能确保滚滚财源。这家公司所推崇的,不再是“无所不在的分享”,而是“无所不在的点击”。At the earnings call, chief executive Mark Zuckerberg acknowledged that the company now aims to create “private spaces for people to share things and have interactions that they couldn’t have had elsewhere”. So Facebook has recently allowed users to see how they are being tracked, and even to fine tune such tracking in order to receive only those adverts they feel are relevant. The company, once a cheerleader for sharing, has even launched a nifty tool warning users against “oversharing”.在发布季报时的电话会议上,Facebook首席执行官马克#8226;扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)承认,Facebook现在的目标是“为人们建立私人空间,让他们可以分享信息,实现他们在其它环境中无法实现的互动”。基于这个目标,Facebook最近已允许用户查看该网站如何跟踪他们的数据,甚至还允许用户对数据的使用方式进行微调,从而可以只收到他们感兴趣的广告。这家当初极力鼓励用户间分享的公司,甚至还推出了一种工具,能提醒用户防止“过度分享”。As usual with Facebook, this is not the whole story. For one, it has begun tracking users’ browsing history to identify their interests better. Its latest mobile app can identify songs and films playing nearby, nudging users to write about them. It has acquired the Moves app, which does something similar with physical activity, using sensors to recognise whether users are walking, driving or cycling.和Facebook所做的其它事情一样,这不是事情的全貌。首先,为了更准确地了解用户兴趣所在,Facebook早已开始跟踪用户的浏览历史。该公司最新推出的一款移动应用能分辨用户附近播放的歌曲和电影,并鼓励用户对它们做出评价。同时,该公司还收购了Moves应用,这款应用能利用手机内的传感器,跟踪用户的运动状态,分辨他们是在走路、开车还是在骑自行车。Still, if Facebook is so quick to embrace – and profit from – the language of privacy, should privacy advocates not fear they are the latest group to be “disrupted”? Yes, they should: as Facebook’s modus operandi mutates, their vocabulary ceases to match the magnitude of the task at hand. Fortunately, the “happiness” experiment also shows us where the true dangers lie.但是,Facebook既然在一开始就热情接受了“保护隐私”这种说法,并从中盈利,个人隐私的维护者们难道不该担心,他们可能成为又一个“被带歪了的”团体?没错,他们确实应该感到担心:随着Facebook不断改变做法,它所定义的“隐私”已与“保护隐私”这个真正目标相去甚远。所幸的是,那个有关“幸福感”的实验向我们展示了这其中真正的危险是什么。For example, many commentators have attacked Facebook’s experiment for making some users feel sadder; yet the company’s happiness fetish is just as troubling. Facebook’s “obligation to be happy” is the converse of the “right to be forgotten” that Google was accused of trampling over. Both rely on filters. But, while Google has begun to hide negative results because it has been told to do so by European authorities, Facebook hides negative results because it is good for business. Yet since unhappy people make the best dissidents in most dystopian novels, should we not also be concerned with all those happy, all too happy, users?比如,许多人士批评Facebook的实验加剧了部分用户的悲伤情绪。但是,Facebook对幸福感的过度推崇其实同样有问题。Facebook暗示人们“有快乐的义务”,它的反面即是人们“有被遗忘的权力”(谷歌此前就被批评无视人们这种权力)。这两者都依赖对信息的过滤。不过,虽然谷歌开始隐藏负面搜索结果,是出于欧盟当局的压力,Facebook隐藏负面帖子,却是因为这对它的业务有好处。不过,既然在多数反乌托邦小说中,最好的异见者都是那些不快乐的人,难道我们不该提防那些整天乐呵呵的,甚至太过快乐的用户?The happiness experiment confirms that Facebook does not hesitate to tinker with its algorithms if it suits its business or social agenda. Consider how on May 1 2012 it altered its settings to allow users to express their organ donor status, complete with a link to their state’s donor registry. A later study found this led to more than 13,000 registrations on the first day of the initiative alone. Whatever the public benefits, discoveries of this kind could clearly be useful both for companies and politicians. Alas, few nudging initiatives are as ethically unambiguous as organ donation.那个幸福感实验明,Facebook会毫不犹豫地修改算法,只要此举符合它的商业或社会利益。回想一下,2012年5月1日,Facebook曾更改其设定,允许用户表达对器官捐赠问题的立场,同时还附上了用户所在国器官捐献登记网站的链接。后来的一个研究发现,仅仅在倡议提出当天,这种做法就导致逾1.3万人登记捐献器官。不论公众从中获得了什么好处,这一发现显然对企业和政客都很有用。但是,很少有其他倡议像器官捐赠一样在道德上没有争议。The reason to fear Facebook and its ilk is not that they violate our privacy. It is that they define the parameters of the grey and mostly invisible technological infrastructure that shapes our identity. They do not yet have the power to make us happy or sad but they will ily make us happier or sadder if it helps their earnings.我们担心Facebook及其同类,原因不在于它们会侵犯我们的隐私,而在于它们是规则制定者——它们可以定义灰色地带的边界,也掌握着那些决定我们以怎样的面目示人的最隐秘的计算方法。他们虽然还没有力量让我们感到快乐或者悲伤,却很乐意加强我们的快乐感,或悲伤感,如果这样做能让他们更赚钱的话。The privacy debate, incapacitated by misplaced pragmatism, defines privacy as individual control over information flows. This treats users as if they exist in a world free of data-hungry insurance companies, banks, advertisers or government nudgers. Can we continue feigning such innocence?错位的实用主义对围绕隐私权的争论产生了有害影响,人们在争论中将隐私权定义为个人对于信息流的控制权。在这样的语境下,用户仿佛存在于这样一个世界:在这个世界里,那些渴望得到个人数据的保险公司、、广告商或政府引导人员仿佛都不存在。对此,我们还能继续掩耳盗铃么?A robust privacy debate should ask who needs our data and why, while proposing institutional arrangements for resisting the path offered by Silicon Valley. Instead of bickering over interpretations of Facebook’s privacy policy as if it were the US constitution, why not ask how our sense of who we are is shaped by algorithms, databases and apps, which extend political, commercial and state efforts to make us – as the dystopian Radiohead song has it – “fitter, happier, more productive”?如果要围绕隐私权展开更有益的辩论,就需要问一问:是谁需要我们的数据?为什么?与此同时,应该提出制度化的方案,而不是一味接受硅谷企业给出的方案。与其把Facebook的隐私政策推崇得像美国宪法一样,围绕如何解释它争吵不休,我们为什么不问一句:那些算法、数据库和应用是如何影响我们的自我认知的?事实上,这些程序正在做的,是让我们像那首Radiohead乐队的反乌托邦歌曲中唱的那样——“更健康、更快乐、更高效”,而这其实正是政界、商界及政府希望看到的。This question stands outside the privacy debate, which, in the hands of legal academics, is disconnected from broader political and economic issues. The intellectual ping pong over privacy between corporate counsels and legal academics moonlighting as radicals always avoids the most basic question: why build the “private spaces” celebrated by Mr Zuckerberg if our freedom to behave there as we wish – and not as companies or states nudge us to – is so limited?如今,这个真正的问题却游离于隐私权保护的争论之外。法学家们把持着这场争论,切断了隐私保护与更大范围的政治经济问题间的联系。那些企业法律顾问和“兼职”激进分子的法学家们在围绕隐私权你来我往地开展争论之际,总是回避一个最基本的问题:既然我们按照自己的意愿行动(而不是被企业和国家推动着行动)的自由如此有限,我们为何还需要扎克伯格推崇的那种“私人空间”? /201408/320694A chocolate printer that allows sweet lovers to create their own custom-made 3D treats is to go on sale at a cost of 2,500 pounds.一款巧克力打印机将于明天上市,只要付2500英镑,甜蜜恋人们可以为爱人打造自己的3D效果巧克力甜品了。The machine squirts out chocolate and, via computer instructions, allows the user to build any shape they like out of the food. But makers Choc Edge — founded by Dr Liang Hao, from the University of Exeter — have missed the Easter rush.这款机器可以喷出巧克力,用户通过电脑下达指令把巧克力做成自己喜欢的任何形状。巧克力打印机由埃克塞特大学郝亮士创建的Choc Edge公司生产,不过它的上市错过了复活节购物狂潮。Although they hope the printer, which will go on sale on eBay, will be snapped up by retailers. Britain#39;s biggest chocolatiers Thornton#39;s have aly said they are interested.不过尽管如何,设计者们还是希望这种新产品能被零售商抢购一空,这款3D巧克力打印机将在eBay上推出。英国最大的巧克力制造商桑顿公司已明确表示对这款打印机感兴趣。Because of the eye-watering cost, however, few individuals are likely to buy one. But the device could one day allow people to design their own 3D objects after submitting their designs on a website.因为价格昂贵,个人购买巧克力打印机的可能性很小。但是在将来设计者可以通过在网上提交设计方案的方式会设计出自己的3D造型成品。Dr Hao came up with a prototype last year and has only just perfected it so that it can now go on sale.#39;We#39;ve improved and simplified the machine, so now it is really easy to use,#39; he told the B. #39;You just need to melt some chocolate, fill a syringe that is stored in the printer, and get creative printing your chocolate. #39;郝士去年研制出一台原型,但直到现在才为上市做好了充分的准备。 “我们对机器进行了改进和简化,现在它简单易用,”他在接受B采访时说。“你要做的就是溶化一些巧克力,然后将其装入打印机中的注射器,当然还需要你的创意,一帧巧克力作品就可以出炉了。”3D printing is a technology where a three dimensional object is created by building up successive layers of material.The technology is aly used in industry to produce plastic and metal products, but this is the first time the principles have been applied to chocolate.The research has presented many challenges. Chocolate is not an easy material to work with because it requires accurate heating and cooling cycles.3D打印是一种通过建立连续物体层来产生三维体的技术。这种技术已被应用于工业中生产塑料和金属制品,推广到巧克力加工却是首次。研制过程不乏挑战。巧克力不易加工,它需要精准的加热和冷却循环。Dr Hao said: ;What makes this technology special is that users will be able to design and make their own products. From reproducing the shape of a child#39;s favourite toy to a friend#39;s face, the possibilities are endless. It could be developed to help consumers custom-design many products from different materials, but we#39;ve started with chocolate as it is ily available, low cost and non-hazardous.;郝士说:“这种技术的独到之处在于,用户可以自行设计、制造产品。它可以仿制出孩子喜爱的玩具模样,还可以让巧克力看起来像你朋友的脸,可谓是创意无限。利用这款机器,用户还可以使用不同的原材料设计出不同的产品。我们以巧克力为研究的开端,因为它容易获得、成本低、无害。”;There is also no wastage as any spoilage can be eaten.#39; Dr Hao added: ‘Eventually we may see many mass-produced products replaced by unique designs created by the customer.;“既使做坏了,也照样能吃不会浪费。”郝士补充说:“最后,我们可能会看到用户的独特设计取代大批量生产的产品。”EPSRC chief executive Professor Dave Delpy said: ;This is an imaginative application of two developing technologies and a good example of how creative research can be applied to create new manufacturing and retail ideas. By combining developments in engineering with the commercial potential of the digital economy we can see a glimpse into the future of new markets — creating new jobs and, in this case, sweet business opportunities.;英国工程和自然科学研究委员会的首席执行官戴夫·德尔菲教授说:“这是对两种发展中的技术富于想像力的应用,也是如何将创造性研究用于开发新制造业和创新零售观念的好范例。通过综合利用与数字经济的商业潜力相适应的设计创新,我们看到了新的市场前景:产生新工作岗位,在巧克力打印机这个案例中我们称之为甜蜜商机。” /201204/177906

So you want to become a web developer?你想成为一名web开发者吗?Well then it’s time to put down that “Learn Super Duper Language v8.3 in 24 hours” book. Instead, make it a habit to ask yourself these 10 questions every day.那么,现在是时候放下《24小时学会超级骗子语言v8.3》书,相反,你应当养成每天反问自己以下10个问题的习惯。Is there a pattern here?是否有一种模式存在?Looking for patterns in what works and what doesn’t work leads to discovering the underlying principles that drive seemingly unrelated concepts and behaviours. To get a deeper understanding of the work that you do make it a habit of asking yourself “Is there a pattern here?”.找寻模式中的可行与不可行将发现其中看似无关的想法或基本原则。要对工作达到深入的理解,你必须养成反问自己“是否有一种模式存在?”的习惯。This applies to more than just your code. Is there a pattern in the types of changes requested by business? Is there a pattern in the way technologies evolve? Are you seeing the same types of bugs popping up again and again?它不仅仅适用于你的代码。是否有适应各类型商业变化的模式吗?是否有一种适用于技术发展的模式?你有没有看到同类型的错误如雨后春笋般冒出来?To understand is to perceive patterns#8202;—#8202;Isaiah Berlin理解就是理解模式 -- 以赛亚·伯林How can I make this simpler?怎么让它变得更简单?Often as web developers we want to produce complex and scalable solutions. Making something tremendously complex makes you feel like the master of your universe. The problem is that you will never be able to predict how your product and business is going to change in the future.开发者经常想得到复杂的和可扩展的解决方案。做一些极为复杂的东西,觉得自己就是自己宇宙的主宰。问题是将来你永远无法预知产品和业务会如何改变。“Architecture” and coding is much more like gardening than architecture. You need to be able to adapt to an ever changing environment. The more complex your solution the more difficult this becomes.“架构”和代码更像是园艺而不是建筑。你必须要有能力去适应不断变化的环境。越复杂的解决方案越难做。Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication.#8202;—#8202;Leonardo da Vinci简洁是终极的复杂 -- #8202;列昂纳多·达·芬奇Why does it work like that?东西为什么像那样运作?Knowing that something works and knowing why it works that way are two very different things. If you know why something behaves the way it does you are able to make significantly better decisions.知道东西像那样运作和知道为什么会像那样运作是两个完全不同的事。如果你知道事情为什么会那样,那么你就能够做出更好的决策。The difference between a great coder and somebody who knows a programming language is the depth of understanding that comes from understanding why.一个伟大的程序员和知道有某种编程语言的人来说,差别在于理解为什么的深度。The same principle applies when fixing an issue. “Just restart the service.” “Have you tried rebooting it?” We have all said something along those lines when a problem pops up. Every time you say something like that you lose a golden opportunity to learn.同样的原理也适用于问题修正。“重启一下务。” “你试过重启吗?” 当有问题发生时,我们经常会想到这些话。每次你这样说时,你就失去了一个学习的黄金机会。Understanding why something broke allows you to fix the root cause and eliminate this class of issues permanently. At the very least you won’t make the same mistake again.理解为什么出现这样的错误,将修正根本原因,避免出现治标不治本。最起码,你以后不要再犯同样的错误。Has somebody done this before?之前有没有人做过?Whenever you find yourself inventing a complex algorithm you are probably on the wrong track. Unless you are busy researching a PHD thesis chances are extremely good that somebody else has aly solved this problem.无论何时,你发现自己发明了一个复杂的算法,你很可能走在了错误的轨道上。除非你搜索到一份别人正好解决了这个问题士论文。Need to write an algorithm to add a label to the item closest to a users mouse? Have a look at Voronoi Tesselations. Want to find the shortest path for a delivery truck? Look at Dijkstra. Want to find tags similar to the one the user just entered, how about figuring out it’s Levenschtein distance.需要编写一个向用户鼠标旁的item添加标签的算法?看看Voronoi Tesselations. 想要找到卡车送货的最短路径?看看Dijkstra. 想要找到用户输入内容的最接近的标记?应该是找到它的Levenschtein distance.Those are just a few examples but trust me, they are everywhere.这只是几个简单示例,相信我,它们无处不在。If I have seen further it is by standing on ye sholders of Giants.#8202;—#8202;Isaac Newton如果我看得更远,那是因为我站在巨人的肩上 -- 艾萨克·牛顿Who said it first?谁最先提到它?So you think you know REST right?你认为你知道REST吗?Have you Roy Fielding’s original paper describing REST and do you understand it’s intended purpose? That blog post by that guy who has 5 minutes more experience than you using the REST API generation wizard in Super cool IDE v7 doesn’t count.你有读过Roy Fielding描述REST的论文原文吗?你真的明白它的最初用意吗?那种在IDE v7工具中比你多用REST API生成向导5分钟的家伙写出来的客可不算数的。Do yourself a favour and always try the original source of a concept or theory. Then by all means go the latest developments by industry thought leaders but if you don’t know where they started how can you follow where they are going?帮自己一个忙,试图去读概念或原理的原始文档,然后通过各种手段去了解行业领袖的最新发展动态。如果你不知道他们是从哪些开始的,那就紧跟他们的步伐吧?(不知道他们从哪来,就跟着他们到哪去吧!)Do I love what I’m doing?我喜欢现在所做的吗?Lets face it programming is hard.请面对编程其实是很难的。Besides being hard programming is constantly evolving. The state of the art framework from 2 years ago is a clunky dinosaur by todays standards. To stay at the top of your game you will need to commit to a lifelong process of learning and research.除了很难以外,编程还是发展很快的。Art框架从2年前的“笨重恐龙”已经发展到今天的标准。为了站到你“游戏”的顶端,你必须树立一个终生学习和研究的信念。If you don’t love what you are doing you don’t have a hope in hell of keeping up with the guys who do. So find out what kind of coding gets you fired up. Don’t decide to become a security specialist because there is a gap in the market or because it pays well, don’t become a UX expert just because an article just came out in WIRED saying that UX is the hottest job in tech.如果你不喜欢你所做的,那么你就没有跟上其他家伙(喜欢自己所做的)的可能。所以找到让你燃烧的编程类型!不要因为市场缺口或者收入不菲而决定成为一名安全专家,不要因为一篇文章说UX是最热门的职业而决定成为一名UX专家。I’ll say it again, do what you love.再说一次,做你喜欢的。Do what you love and the necessary resources will follow.#8202;—#8202;Peter McWilliams做你喜欢的,所需的资源将随之而来的 -- 彼得·麦克威廉斯Where else could I use this?其他地方还可以使用吗?One of the biggest limits I see web developers placing on themselves is a failure of imagination.我看到web开发者最大的一个限制就是,自己失败的想象力。If we learn something in a specific context or see a technique used to solve a specific problem we assume that’s the only place it applies. This is almost always wrong. Every time you learn something new ask yourself: “Where else could I use this?”.如果我们学习到一个适应于特定环境的东西,或者看到解决某个特定问题的技术时,我们认为这就它唯一适用的地方。这是完全错误的。每当学到新东西时,反问自己:“其他地方还可以使用吗?”Found great new positioning methods to place nodes on a graph, how about applying that same technique to find interesting data points in a dataset that has 2 dimensions? Found a cool way to send data over websockets from the client to the server? How would this apply in making a scalable set of backend services? Sometimes you will be wrong, but sometimes you will be right.当发现了在图表上定位节点的新的伟大的方法时,是不是可以将它应用于二维数据集中感兴趣数据的定位呢?当发现通过websockets从客户端发送数据到务器端的新方法时,它怎么才能应用到可扩展的后台务上呢?有时是错误的,但有时也是正确的。Which brings us to our next question…这给我们带来了下一个问题......Logic will get you from A to Z; imagination will get you everywhere.#8202;—#8202;Albert Einstein逻辑只能带你从A到Z,想像力去可以带你到任何地方 --- 阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦What did I fail at today?今天有什么做错的吗?One of the easiest ways to increase innovation is to lower the cost of failure.增加创收的最简单方法是降低错误的损失。The game developing company Valve has embraced this like few others. The same applies to your progression along the path to becoming a web developer, if you are afraid to fail you will never make those big breakthroughs.游戏开发公司Valve和其他几个公司很认为这个观点。这同样适用你成为web开发者的进步过程。如果你害怕失败,你就不会有大的突破。Be brave, try something, fail, learn and try again.勇敢、尝试、失败、学习然后再来。Do not fear mistakes. You will know failure. Continue to reach out.#8202;—#8202;Benjamin Franklin不要害怕错误,认识失败,然后重新来过。--- 本杰明·富兰克林How can we make this possible?怎么使它变成可能?In the world we live in there really is very little that is impossible (with a few exceptions).我们生活在世界上很小的一个地方是不可能的(除了少数例外)。Start from the assumption that whatever you want to do is possible and then work your way back. You might find that what you wanted to do is impractical for the time being but with the pace of change in todays world, it might become practical sooner than you think.假设不管你做的什么事情都是可行的,然后采用向后的方向回推回去。你可能会发现,你想做的暂时是不切实际的,但它足以改变世界,可能变成现实的速度比你想像的还要快。It always seems impossible until its done.#8202;—#8202;Nelson Mandela直到完成前,似乎都还是不可能的 --- 纳尔逊曼德拉Who can I learn from?我可以向谁学习?You should never work anywhere where you are the smartest person in the room.永远不要在你是最聪明的地方工作。Pick jobs and companies where you can work with people who inspire you and challenge you to be better. It doesn’t have to be coding related, there is a world outside your text editor and the command line. Learn things from other fields and find ways to apply it in your job.挑选拥有可以启发你、激励你做得更多的同事的工作和公司。不要与编程扯上关系,在文本编辑器和命令行外面还有一个完整的世界存在。从其他领域学习,设法应用到你的工作中。Being competent isn’t good enough anymore.不管怎么样,比称职更好! /201410/337015

According to the Daily Mail on December 9, Julian Assange, the WikiLeaks founder has chosen what looks like an 007 film set as the back-up store for the thousands of confidential emails and documents that have shaken the world. The picture shows the Pionen data center, 100ft below ground in a former Cold War nuclear bunker in Stockholm, Sweden。  据英国《每日邮报》12月9日报道,维基解密网站创始人朱利安#8226;阿桑奇选择的“数据储存室”就像是再现了一部007电影里面的场景,这个“数据储存室”用来储存成千上万份机密文件和电子邮件,足以“动摇”整个世界。照片显示的是这个地下数据中心Pionen,距离地面100英寸,位于瑞典斯德哥尔市一个冷战期间的旧核掩体中。 /201012/120483

Facebook and Microsoft Corp representatives said Friday night that after negotiations with national security officials, their companies have been given permission to make new but still very limited revelations about government orders to turn over user data.Facebook和微软公司代表说周五晚上在与国家安全局官员谈判后,他们公司已经得到允许可以披露新的但仍然非常有限的关于政府命令提交的用户数据。The announcements come at the end of a week when Facebook, Microsoft and Google, normally rivals, had jointly pressured the Obama administration to loosen their legal gag on national security orders.当Facebook、微软和谷歌,通常的对手,联合迫使奥巴马政府放松了对国家安全命令的法律禁言,公告在一周结束时出来。Those actions came after Edward Snowden, a contract employee at the National Security Agency, revealed to The Guardian newspaper the existence of secret surveillance programs that gathered Americans#39; phone records and other data. The companies did not link their actions to Snowden#39;s leaks.这些行动是在爱德华#8226;斯诺登,国家安全局的一名雇员向《卫报》透露存在收集美国人电话记录和其他数据的秘密监视程序后出来的。这些公司没有将他们的行为与斯诺登的泄漏相联系。Ted Ullyot, Facebook#39;s general counsel, said that Facebook is only allowed to talk about total numbers and must give no specifics. But he said the permission it has received is still unprecedented, and the company was lobbying to reveal more.Facebook的首席法律顾问Ted Ullyot说Facebook只允许谈论总数,不能给细节。但他说得到的允许仍然是前所未有的,公司正游说透露更多。Using the new guidelines, Ullyot said Facebook received between 9,000 and 10,000 government requests from all government entities from local to federal in the last six months of 2012, on topics including missing children investigations, fugitive tracking and terrorist threats. The requests involved the accounts of between 18,000 and 19,000 Facebook users.使用新的指导方针,Ullyot说Facebook在2012年下半年接到9千到1万条政府请求,从美国联邦到州及各级地方政府,主题包括失踪儿童调查、逃亡跟踪和恐怖主义威胁。这些资料信息涉及1.8万至1.9万名脸谱用户。 /201306/244103

Since the early days of the game industry, consoles have ruled the home. Companies like Nintendo, Sega, Sony and Microsoft MSFT -1.11% thrived by building closed ecosystems that developers could creates games over the course of five to 10 years before a new, more powerful box entered the market and the cycle began all over again. But ever since the introduction of smartphones from companies like Apple AAPL -1.31% , Nokia, Samsung, LG, Google and Amazon AMZN -1.02% , game creators have flocked to these powerful mobile devices and an entire ecosystem of small and independent development studios have flourished (also in part thanks to the digital distribution networks on new consoles from Nintendo, Sony and Microsoft).自视频游戏业发展早期开始,游戏机就主宰了千家万户。像任天堂(Nintendo)、世嘉(Sega)、索尼(Sony)和微软(Microsoft)等企业都依靠打造封闭的生态系统赚得盆满钵满。开发者可以有5到10年的时间开发游戏,直到一款更强大的新游戏机进入市场,这个循环才会被重启。不过,自从苹果(Apple)、诺基亚(Nokia)、三星(Samsung)、LG、谷歌(Google)和亚马逊(Amazon)等公司推出智能手机以来,游戏开发者们就纷纷涌向这些强大的移动平台,同时,一个由小型独立开发工作室构成的完整生态系统也逐渐兴盛(这也要部分归功于任天堂、索尼和微软为新游戏机开发的数字销售网络)。In recent years, this marriage between smartphone (and tablet) and the traditional game console has resulted in micro-console devices like Ouya, Mad Catz M.O.J.O., Nvidia Shield and Amazon Fire TV. With Google’s GOOG -1.04% entry into this space this fall with Android TV, game developers will be able to create cross-platform experiences that will begin to compete more directly with the traditional console manufacturers. Chris McKillop, Android TV engineering manager, explains how this new technology could forever change the game.而近年来,智能手机(和平板电脑)与传统游戏机的联姻,造就了不少像Ouya、Mad Catz M.O.J.O.、Nvidia Shield和亚马逊Fire TV这样的小型游戏机。今年秋季,随着谷歌携其安卓电视(Android TV)挺进这一领域,游戏开发者们将能够创造跨平台的游戏体验,从而与传统游戏机厂商开始更直接地交锋。安卓电视的工程经理克里斯o麦基洛普在此为大家解读这种新技术将如何彻底颠覆游戏业。Fortune: What are your thoughts on the speed at which new technology from companies like Nvidia has impacted the gaming capabilities of Android smartphones and tablets?《财富》杂志:英伟达公司(Nvidia)这类芯片企业的新技术影响了安卓智能手机和平板电脑的游戏能力。您如何看待这种影响力的速度?McKillop:It’s incredible. The latest generation of GPUs in Mobile SoCs are now at or exceeding those of the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360. When the PS3 originally launched, Android was still nearly two years away from a 1.0. It’s not going to take long for the mobile chipsets to catch up with the current fourth-generation systems (PlayStation 4 and Xbox One).麦基洛普:简直难以置信。现在最新一代手机系统级芯片(SoC)的图形芯片(GPU)速度已经达到或超过PlayStation 3和 Xbox 360了。当PS3刚推出时,安卓1.0还要近两年后才发布。用不了多久,手机芯片的速度就能赶上当前的第四代系统(PlayStation 4和Xbox One)。How have you seen mobile game experiences advance over the years on Google Play?您认为这些年来Google Play的游戏体验有提升吗?Mobile game experiences have made big strides on Google Play. Android is all about the ecosystem, and moving an ecosystem forward happens over time. It started with the NDK in 2009 and now with the upcoming Android Extension Pack for PC class gaming in L release. I don’t see any limit to what game developers can bring to Android. As the broader handset and tablet space start having CPUs and GPUs that can provide great high definition gaming, there is a big incentive for developers to be on Google Play.Google Play上的手机游戏体验已有很大进步。安卓就是一套纯粹的生态系统,要想让一套生态系统阔步前行是需要时间的。它始于2009年的一个开发包(NDK),马上要进行的L轮发布,将推出专为PC级游戏打造的安卓扩展包。我不认为游戏开发者为安卓系统开发新游戏时会受到任何限制。随着更多手机和平板设备开始装备能持高清分辨率游戏的处理器和图形芯片,开发者将有更大动力入驻Google Play。What opportunities has Android opened up for game developers, especially smaller teams?安卓为游戏开发者、尤其是那些小团队开放了哪些机会?There are a lot of small shops (sometimes just one developer) doing great work. Since Google Play Store has such a quick turnaround time for developers to publish updates and new games, it makes it easier for smaller shops to have a bigger impact. Another element is free-to-play gaming.有很多小团队(有时候仅有一个开发者)都做得很棒。由于Google Play商店为开发者发布更新及新游戏提供极快的周转时间,那些小团队更容易获得更大的影响力。另一个机会则是免费游戏。How do you see Android TV impacting the current game ecosystem, which is tiered separately (for the most part) across mobile, console and PC games?目前的游戏生态系统(很大程度上)分布于手机、游戏机和PC游戏中,您认为安卓电视对这一系统有何影响?Over the past year, I’ve had the opportunity to discuss this with game developers across all three of these spaces. Mobile developers are excited to have more screens running Android. I don’t think we know yet exactly how the console players will come to the space but, as Android TV grows, it’s a question that will have to be answered. We have some ideas, and I’m excited about the next couple of years as they come to life.过去一年中,我有机会和来自这三个领域的游戏开发者都做过深入探讨。手机开发者对更多屏幕开始运行安卓感到非常振奋。尽管目前我们还无法确切知道游戏机玩家会如何进入这个领域,但随着安卓电视的发展,这个问题的必然会揭晓。我们已经有些创意了,在接下来的几年中,这些想法将成为现实,对此我十分憧憬。What differentiates the big-screen gaming experience from the mobile experience today?今天,是什么使大屏游戏体验和手机游戏体验有所不同?Input system and power. Mobile experiences are almost always touchscreen-based and battery operated. Once you hit the living room, developers are going to see gamepads and remote controls, and the systems will be plugged into a wall so the chipset can run faster for longer. For some developers, it will be the first time they have had to think about non-touch gaming. For others, it will be like going back in time. Prior to the upcoming L release, Android hadn’t set down a standard for button mappings and how Gamepads should work. This made it really hard for developers to target controllers, so they either did one-off development for a single brand or just ignored controllers altogether. Android TV will give them a reason to get controllers working, and this will translate directly to controller gaming on phones and tablets. That’s the power of a single platform across all form factors.输入系统和耗电问题。手机游戏基本上都是基于触摸屏的,要靠电池驱动。但一旦来到客厅,开发者就会看到手柄和遥控器,系统也将用上交流电,这样芯片运行速度就更快也更持久。对有些开发者来说,这将是他们首次必须考虑没有触控的游戏型态。而对另一些人来说,这种场景又犹如时光倒流。在即将到来的L轮发布前,安卓还没有确定键盘布局和手柄生效方面的标准。这就使开发者很难针对控制器做开发,于是他们要么为某个品牌做一次性开发,要么干脆不考虑控制器。而安卓电视将让他们有理由使控制器生效,而这会直接导致手机和平板设备出现控制器游戏。这就是跨形态单一平台的力量。How do you see micro-consoles like Android TV changing that?您认为像安卓电视这样的小型游戏机会如何改变这种情况?Android TV is much more than just a system for micro-consoles, it’s all about bringing Android to the big screen in your living room — either built into your TV, cable STB, media streamer or micro-console. Having a standard platform for all of these devices is going to have the same impact in the living room that having a standard platform for mobile devices has had on the mobile industry since 2008. It’s going to be a big win for developers and consumers and raise the overall expectations of everyone involved.安卓电视绝不只是供小型游戏机使用的系统,它的使命是将安卓系统带到客厅的大屏幕上——植入电视、有线机顶盒、流媒体播放器或是小型游戏机。自2008年以来,手机的标准平台对手机业产生了深远影响,现在为所有这些设备提供一个标准平台也会对客厅产生同样重大的影响。这将为开发者和消费者带来巨大的双赢局面,同时也将提高所有参与者的期望值。How have you worked with Nvidia on Android TV?你们与英伟达公司在安卓电视项目的合作是如何进行的?We have worked very closely with Nvidia (they are at the heart of the ADT-1). The folks at Nvidia really “get” gaming and gamers — it’s in their DNA. They have helped us work with game developers, as well as optimize graphics performance on the developer devices we gave away at Google IO. We also work with GPU vendors across the industry, including Qualcomm ARM, Intel, etc.我们一直与英伟达密切合作(他们是ADT-1的核心)。英伟达的人确实很“懂”游戏和玩家——这就是他们的DNA。他们一直帮我们与游戏开发者开展合作,还帮着优化我们在谷歌开发者大会(Google IO)发布的开发者样机的图像性能。我们还和图像芯片业内的多家供应商合作,包括高通公司(Qualcomm)、ARM公司、英特尔公司(Intel)等。What does Tegra K1 technology open up for game experiences?英伟达“图睿”(Tegra)K1技术为游戏机玩家带来哪些体验?It brings third-generation console and PC-class gaming to mobile and small living room devices. We did a demo with Nvidia and the folks at Epic Games with Unreal Engine 4 at Google IO to show off what’s going to be possible.它使手机和小型游戏机也能享有第三代游戏机和PC级游戏的性能。我们与英伟达开发了一台样机。在谷歌开发者大会上,Epic Games公司的人用“虚幻引擎4”(Unreal Engine 4)在这台样机上展示了玩家将享有的体验。How do you see game developers creating titles across mobile devices and Android TV when it comes to the touchscreen versus physical controller?当需要在触屏和实体手柄之间做出选择时,游戏开发者就会开发手机和安卓电视都适合的游戏,您怎么看这种现象?In an ideal world a game should operate both ways equally. Since the physical controllers for Android TV devices will also work with phones and tablets, the investment for developers will be across all devices. Most of the games on the Preview Play Store for Android TV are the same ones you install on your phone or tablet. I can see a lot of kids carrying a tablet and two gamepads to school next year.理想情况下,一款游戏应该在这两个平台上都能玩。由于安卓电视游戏机的实体手柄也适用于手机和平板,因此开发者投资打造的游戏也适用于所有设备。在Preview Play Store,适用于安卓电视的绝大多数游戏和你安装在手机和平板上的游戏是一模一样的。明年我就会看到很多孩子带着平板和两个手柄去学校了。How does technology like Unreal Engine 4 open up new opportunities for cross-device and cross-platform gaming experiences?“虚幻引擎4”这样的技术会如何给跨设备及跨平台的游戏体验带来新机遇?When a game developer invests in something like Unreal Engine 4 for the core of their experience, it broadens the market they can address with a lower incremental cost. Couple this with a system like Google Play Games Services, and you can really do some fun things with cross-platform, multi-device and multi-user gaming.当游戏开发者投资打造“虚幻引擎4”这样的技术后,它就能以更低的增量成本开拓更大的市场。将其与Google PlayGames Services这类系统结合后,就能真正通过跨平台、跨设备和多用户游戏来做些有趣的事了。How do you see the actual gameplay experiences evolving with the ability to play on the road and then continue on the big screen at home?随着玩家具备先在路上玩,回到家又继续在大屏幕上玩的能力,您怎么看待他们的游戏体验由此获得的提升?Most games have a cloud-based solution, like Play Games Services, for save game state so you don’t lose your progress if you get a new phone. Since we are using the same core platform for Android TV, all the same technologies continue to work. Developers love that if you buy a game on your TV, it’s installable on your phone and vice-versa. You will see us investing heavily in these sort of cross-device experiences going forward.大多数游戏都有云端的解决方案,比如Play Games Services,这样当玩家买了新手机后,就能保留游戏状态,不会失去通关进程。由于我们在安卓电视上也用了同样的核心平台,因此所有同类技术还是管用的。开发者非常乐见的情景是,玩家买了一款电视上玩的游戏,同时又把它装在手机上,反之亦然。大家会发现,我们会继续在这类跨设备体验的开发上投入重金。One of the current challenges facing game developers on Android is the sheer number of different devices. How do you see a unified platform like Android TV making things easier for developers to focus on creativity versus ports?目前安卓平台的游戏开发者面临的主要挑战之一是不同设备的数量问题。据称像安卓电视这样的统一平台可以让开发者更容易关注创意而不是与大量端口适配,对此您怎么看?We have CPU and GPU performance requirement built into the Android TV spec. We want game developers to know that even on the low-end devices they are going to have room to play. There will always be devices that perform well beyond these specs, and there will always be game developers that want to take advantage of those capabilities when they are present. This looks a lot like the PC gaming space, and it is a model that has worked well for years. I think game developers are going to be pretty happy with this approach.在安卓电视的技术规范中,我们规定了CPU和GPU的性能要求。我们希望开发者了解,就算在低端设备上他们也有施展的空间。总会有一些设备的性能远超这些规范,也总会有开发者希望能利用好这些性能。这种情况和PC游戏领域很像,这也是多年来一直运作良好的模式。我想游戏开发者会十分喜欢这种方法的。Given the speed at which we’ve seen technology, including the Tegra line of chips, advance over the last few years, how do you see more advanced and complex games impacting the traditional console business dominated by Sony, Microsoft and Nintendo?过去几年来,像“图睿”系列芯片这样的技术突飞猛进,在此背景下,您认为更先进也更复杂的游戏会对一直由索尼、微软和任天堂这些巨头统治的传统游戏机领域产生何种影响?Technology always ends up disrupting existing industries. You just need to look at the mobile space and compare the big players in 2006 with the big players in 2014 to see this in action. I don’t think that the living room will be any different, but it’s impossible to predict the winners and losers. Let’s look back in five to six years.技术最终总会颠覆现有产业。只需要看看手机领域,对比一下2006年大卖的机型和2014年的大卖机型就能看出这一点。我不认为客厅这个领域会有所不同,但也不可能预测最终谁赢谁输。等过了五六年后再回头看吧。How have you worked with actual game developers in creating Android TV?在打造安卓电视时,你们和游戏开发者们到底是如何合作的?We started reaching out to select game developers almost a year ago and disclosed our plans with close partners. We also worked closely with Nvidia and their existing Nvidia Shield developers to get their apps y for a non-touch world. Probably one of the best parts of building Android TV has been how positive and supportive the various game developers have been around our efforts. Android has an incredible Developer Relations team that is filled with avid gamers.几乎一年以前我们就开始遴选游戏开发者了,并向密切合作伙伴透露了自己的计划。我们还与英伟达公司及其Nvidia Shield目前的开发者们密切合作,使其应用能适用于非触控领域。在打造安卓电视的过程中最好的一部分可能就是,围绕着我们的努力,不同的游戏开发者是那么积极乐观、全力持。安卓有一令人难以置信的开发者关系团队,它是由许多充满活力的玩家组成的。 /201410/337918

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