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淮安男科医院哪家好点120咨询

2019年10月18日 10:48:46 | 作者:网上对话 | 来源:新华社

Finance and economics财经商业South Koreas housing market韩国住房市场Lumping it多轨并行Landlords are having to ditch a century-old rental system房东们正不得不抛弃持续了一个世纪的租房系统Jeonses future is hazy Jeonse的租房方式看不到未来MOST South Korean urbanites would leap at the chance to part with 0,000 to rent a smallish flat for three years in Seoul, the capital.大多数韩国城市居民可能利用这一机会放弃在其首都首尔以150,000美元的价格租住一间小型公寓三年。These days, however, most Korean landlords would spurn such a measly deposit.然而,近日大多数韩国的房东可能摒弃这一少得可怜的保金。Koreas unusual rental system, known as jeonse, does not involve monthly rental payments.韩国特殊的租房系统,被称为Jeonse,并不持付月租。Instead, tenants provide landlords with a deposit, typically between a quarter and half of the propertys value, to invest for the duration of the lease.相反,房客向房东提供一笔保金,保金的数额一般在房产价值的四分之一到一半,让他们在租期进行投资。Property owners keep the returns and then repay the lump sum at the end of the tenancy.房产所有者保存收益并在租期结束后,退还总额。Average deposits have now risen for 76 consecutive weeks in Korea, the longest streak ever.韩国平均保金现在已经连续上升了76周,这是有史以来历时最长的增长。Thousands of jeonse leases in the capital are now as high as 90% of the value of the house; they sometimes exceed it in areas where property prices have fallen since leases were agreed.在首都成千上万的Jeonse 租约价值现在高达房屋价值的90%,在有些房价下降的地区,他们有时候超过这个比例,因为租约在过去已经达成。The jeonse system was once prized by both tenants and landlords.Jeonse体系曾广受租客和房东的赞誉。In the 1960s rapid urbanisation drew farmers to Koreas thriving cities, boosting demand for homes at a time when capital was being mobilised for state-led industrial development.在1960年,高速的城市化促使农民前往新兴城市,对房屋的需求在资本因为政府主导的工业发展而被调动起来时呈现爆炸性的增长。The government thought property unproductive, so restricted banks from lending to developers, homeowners and tenants, says Son Jae-young, a professor of real estate at Konkuk University in Seoul.首尔建国大学不动产方面的Son Jae-young教授这样说道:政府认为房产对于生产力发展增益不大,因此限制向开发商、房屋所有人和租客贷款。In response jeonse emerged as a self-help funding mechanism.Jeonse 体系因此衍生为一个自助融资机制。Tenants deposits financed landlords properties, interest-free, while pushing renters to pool savings: over time, the deposit would become their own home-purchase fund. For decades, monthly rental was synonymous with poverty.租客的保金增长了房东的财产,而且没有利息,同时促使租房者积蓄存款;随着时间的发展,这些保金会成为他们自己的购房基金。在过去的几十年时间里,付月租是贫穷的代名词。Yet interest rates and property prices have sunk since 2008.然而利率以及房价自从2008年开始已经下降。To earn a decent return on their investments, landlords have been raising jeonse prices.为了赢取一个可观的投资回报,房主一直在提高 Jeonse的价格。Tenants have tended to take out low-interest loans to cover the hike.房客趋向于用低息贷款来付不断攀高的价格。Since such borrowing has almost doubled, from 33.5 trillion won to 60 trillion won, according to the Bank of Korea, the central bank.根据韩国中央—韩国的统计,自年以来,这样的借款几乎加倍,从33.5万亿韩元(31.5亿美元)增长到了60万亿韩元。That undermines one of the main advantages of this unusual system.该举削弱了这个独特系统的一个主要优势。Previously the large cash deposits that tenants had to build up helped shelter the Korean property market from bubbles, by restraining price increases, and from busts, by providing buyers with y pots of cash.之前租客累积的大额现金保金通过限制价格上涨避免韩国房产市场的泡沫并通过为卖方提供大量准备的现金防止破产。It also helped protect the banking system from losses on risky mortgages.它也有助于保护系统,免受高风险抵押贷款的威胁。Long considered a deal between individuals, the deposits are still not included in Koreas household debt statistics, nor in calculations of average loan-to-value ratios.因为长期以来被认为是个体间的交易,这项保金既不被纳入韩国家庭债务统计,也不被用于计算平均住房担保贷款率中。Central bank data on jeonse loans only go back to .中央有关jeonse贷款的数据只能追溯到年。But Sun Dae-in, the author of a recent book on Koreas housing market, says the deposits held by landlords must be seen as debts.但是,近期出版的有关韩国住房市场一书的作者Sun Dae-in 这样说道:被房东持有的保金必须被视作为债务。He estimates that about half of all jeonse money is used to finance a second or third property.他估计大约一半的Jeonse被用作购进第二或第三处房产。If added to housing loans, the average LTV ratio would jump from just under 50% to over 75%.如果增加到住房贷款,平均住房担保贷款 比率会从低于50%的水平攀升至超过75%。Last November the Bank of Korea estimated that a tenth of Koreas 3.7m jeonse landlords may find it hard to repay tenants deposits.上个十一月份,韩国估计370万 Jeonse房东的十分之一或许会发现付租客的保金有困难。Aly more landlords are choosing to rent their properties for a monthly fee: 40% did so last year, up from 34% in 2012.已经有越来越多的房东选择按月费的方式来出租他们的房产。But some homeowners would rather not ditch jeonse entirely: more than a quarter are using its hefty sums to pay off a mortgage on the rented property, according to the Bank of Korea.但是一些房屋所有者不愿意完全放弃Jeonse:根据韩国的数据,超过四分之一的人正通过其庞大的总量来偿还抵押他们已经出租的房产的贷款。They often offer tenants the option to substitute a monthly payment for an increase in the deposit.他们通常提供租客用月付方式来替代保金的增长的选择。A hybrid system, still unique to Korea, is taking root.一个依然有着韩国特色的混合系统正在生根发芽。 /201402/276299

Business商业报道Takafumi Hories comeback堀江贵文的回归Up, up and away升高,升高再升高The controversial entrepreneur remains popular, brash and ambitious这个有着很大争议的企业家依旧很受欢迎并且野心勃勃IN 2005 Takafumi Horie, then president of Livedoor, an internet firm, joined the X PRIZE Foundation,2005年,互联网公司活力门的总经理堀江贵文加入了X奖基金会。a charity which gives cash for innovative projects such as space tourism.X奖基金会是一个慈善组织,这个组织会为一些创新科技项目提供资金,如:太空旅行。Joining forces with the likes of Larry Page and Elon Musk, co-founders of Google and PayPal respectively, was a typically bold move by the self-styled boy billionaire from Fukuoka.加入一个有拉里佩奇和埃隆?马斯克这样的人的组织,无疑是这个福冈不为人知的亿万富翁小子的一项勇敢举措。拉里佩奇和埃隆?马斯克分别是谷歌和贝宝的合作创建人。Instead of going into orbit, however, Mr Horie went behind bars.不像其他人那样走的一帆风顺,堀江贵文曾在监狱过刑。He was arrested in Japans biggest financial scandal of the decade.他被捕的原因是卷入了日本数十年来最大的财政丑闻。Now, however, he is out on parole, and says he will soon launch a low-cost space-tourism business using a Russian capsule.但是现在,他假释出狱,并且表示,他马上就会使用俄罗斯研发的一种太空舱经营一个低成本的太空旅行企业。He has completed several test launches.他已经进行了多次发射演练。A large Japanese firm is on the verge of sponsoring a flight next year, he says.他说,日本的一家大公司已经准备明年投资一架飞机。Other investors, he claims, are standing by.并且声称,其他的投资者也都蠢蠢欲动了。This time the money will come not from inflating the earnings and shares of Livedoor, for which Mr Horie was sent down,现在这个时期,对于像堀江贵文这样子被开除的人来说,钱不是那么容易就能从活力门的股份和通货膨胀的工资中挣到,but from a dedicated following of 20- and 30-somethings who pay to hear his thoughts via a monthly digital magazine.但是他却可以从一大批忠心的追随者中赚到钱,那些追随者会订电子月刊付钱听他的想法。He has almost a million followers on Twitter. Social media and crowdfunding platforms, he says, make it far easier now to launch new businesses.他在推特上已经有了将近一百万的追随者。他说,社交媒体和云募资平台使得创建新企业变得更加容易。Not even 21 months in a Japanese prison,绝不仅仅只是21个月在日本监狱生活,including solitary confinement, freezing temperatures and forced labour, were able to stop him entertaining an audience.这之中堀江贵文还被送到那种极度寒冷且被迫大量劳动的地方单独监禁,这种经历使得他不再用愉悦的口吻为自己的听众做讲解。From his cell he published two well-received books with gritty manga strips describing his new life:牢狱中,他在自己的小房间中出版了两本很受欢迎的书,书中他用日本漫画来描绘自己的生活:cleaning pubic hair out of toilets, being farted at by the senior prisoners he had to tend to, and having to surrender porn magazines to prison guards.清理洗手间的毛发,比自己早来的犯人冲着自己放屁,被迫向监狱看守交出自己的色轻杂志。He also dreamed up dozens of new-business ideas.他也在书中阐述了很多关于新企业的想法。Among the 30 or so earthbound plans are a new reality show where fans will pay to put their idols on television,大约有三十个切合实际的计划都是关于一个新的实体秀的,在这个实体秀中,粉丝需要付钱把他们的偶像放到电视上,a celebrity-chat smartphone application and a scheme to undercut the price of livestreaming to phones. Nothing too radical, then:付钱去申请一个和名人电话通话的机会,付钱去买更为廉价的主流音像资源到手机上。这之中没有任何一个特别激进的,然后:Japan, after all, is aly awash with social-media and smartphone start-ups.日本就会充斥着社交媒体和智能电话企业。As for his reception back into business life,至于他返回商业界的感受,Mr Horie jokes that everyone has welcomed me, except for the chairman of Fuji TV.堀江贵文开玩笑地说道:每个人都很欢迎我,除了富士电视套台长。Many people reckon the entrepreneur was punished harshly mainly because he tried to win control of the big broadcaster, and because he flaunted his wealth.很多人推测堀江贵文之所以被如此严厉的惩戒主要是因为他曾经试图去控制广播公司,而且他还总是去炫耀自己的资产。The authorities usually treat accounting fraud more leniently. In July a group of executives at Olympus, a camera-maker, received suspended prison sentences for a far larger scheme.政府惩罚做假账的都比这轻。七月,奥林巴斯的一组高官由于一个很大的商业阴谋而被判缓刑。Mr Horie, now 40, says he is trying to forget what happened.四十岁的堀江贵文说他正在试图忘记所发生的不好的事情。It will be hard for his generation to do likewise.但这对于他那一代人来说却很难。William Saito, a serial entrepreneur who travels the country encouraging graduates to start new businesses, says he has spent the past five years trying to undo the dispiriting effect of Mr Hories fall and punishment on young people.连环创业者威廉斋藤游遍全国去游说毕业生创业,他说,他过去五年都在尝试解开堀江贵文的失败为年轻人们带来的负面效应。A successful new venture would help greatly.一个成功的新企业将会起到很大的帮助。 /201309/255982

I guess you never heard of Trigona hypogea, a South Americanbee that not only collects meat from animal carcasses, but has more recently been discovered to have a taste for live prey as well.你也许从未听过一种南美洲的蜜蜂,它们不仅吃动物尸体,而且最近科学家发现它们还喜欢吃活的动物。Scientists have seen the bees swiftly raid recently abandoned wasp nests, carrying off wasp eggs,larvae, and pupae until the nest is empty.蜜蜂迅速地袭击被遗弃的蜂窝,拿走蜂卵,幼虫和蛹,把蜂巢搬空。Theyve observed the bees collecting toad eggs too.科学家们观察发现蜜蜂还会收集蟾蜍卵。All developing, young bees need protein.所有的小蜜蜂都需要蛋白质。Pollen is actually very rich in protein.花粉蛋白质含量很高。The adults of most bee species feed predominantly on nectar and save the pollen for their younger colony members.大多数的成年蜜蜂主要以花蜜为生,并且将花粉留给幼蜂。These South American bees simply require a different source of protein.这些南美蜜蜂只是需要不同的蛋白质出处。Their anatomy reflects their different eating habits.解剖学反应出它们不同的饮食习惯。The leg modifications that enable most bee species to transport pollen are largely diminished on these bees.蜜蜂腿上那些能帮助它们运输花粉的装饰物在这些南美洲蜜蜂上大部分已经消失了。Their mouth parts are sharper, sort of tooth-like.它们的口器变得更锋利,有点像牙齿。The bees prepare the meat for later consumption by the younger members of the colony by chewing it and then mixing it with sugary liquids, perhaps collected from fruit.蜜蜂为幼蜂准备的肉是通过咀嚼,然后将肉与含糖的液体,大概是从水果中提取的。Microbes break the mixture down into a viscous goo, which delivers important nutrients to the young bees.微生物将混合物分解成一种粘稠物,这种粘稠物将重要的营养输送给幼蜂。 201404/291902

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