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福建泉州新阳光妇产做宫颈手术天涯热点

楼主:城市卫生 时间:2019年07月20日 03:41:34 点击:0 回复:0
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It#39;s been more than a year and a half since I left Bessemer Venture Partners to join Pinterest. Since then, I#39;ve taken quite a few meetings and phone calls from junior VCs or MBAs asking about my transition from VC to operating. By far, the most common question I get from this bunch is something along the lines of, ;Did you learn anything actually useful in VC?;大约一年半前,我从柏尚风险投资公司(Bessemer Venture Partners)辞职加入了Pinterest。自那以来,我遇到过、也接到过一些年轻风投人或MBA们的电话,询问我是从风投转型到营运的心得。迄今为止,我遇到过的最常见的问题大概就是“你从风投行业学到了什么真正有用的东西?”Yes.是的,我们今天就来聊聊这个话题。1. I learned how to ask the right questions. Anyone can ask questions. But learning how to ask the right questions -- to use questions as a mechanism to uncover the hidden truth in a company#39;s business model, or the tradeoffs in an engineer#39;s architecture, is something that comes with training. VCs spend a huge amount of their time asking questions, and thus learn the craft of asking the right ones. This skill has been enormously valuable to me as I transitioned to Pinterest.1.我学会了提问。任何人都可以提问。但如何提问,并藉此发现一家公司商业模式的真相或者一位工程师架构的妥协,是需要一些训练的。风投资本家花大量的时间提问,因此懂得如何问正确的问题。我转型至Pinterest时,这项技能对我来说极其重要。2. I learned how to people. In my first performance review at Bessemer, people judgment was one of my weaknesses. I#39;d now say it#39;s one of my strengths. As a VC, you#39;re constantly meeting founders and building your pattern recognition for ing people. This skillset is particularly useful when you#39;re in a business or corporate development role but, as with asking the right questions, it#39;s one of those horizontal skills that will serve you anywhere.2.我学会了识人。我在柏尚做第一次绩效评估时,识人是我的一个弱点。现在,我可以说这是我的强项。风投资本家需要经常与创业者会面,需要建立自己的识人模式。处在商业或企业拓展职位时,这项技能特别有用。但正如提问一样,这类横向技能不管走到哪里都能用得上。3. I learned how to learn. In VC, you#39;re constantly ramping up in a new area. Each company you evaluate comes with its own ecosystem that needs to be understood. Similarly, trends in the tech ecosystem turn over so quickly that, if you ever stop adapting and learning, you#39;ll quickly become a dinosaur and won#39;t know a Snapchat when you meet one. That drive to constantly learn will help you adapt to new environments and challenges.3.我学会了学习。风投行业的人经常要硬着头皮了解新的领域。你评估的每一家公司都有独特的生态系统,需要你去了解。类似的,科技生态系统的趋势变化这么快,一旦停止适应和学习,人很快就会变成老古董,连什么是Snapchat都不知道。这种持续学习的动力能帮助你适应新的环境和挑战。There#39;s a flipside to these three though:但这三点也存在另一面:1. In startups, you#39;ve got to answer the questions. One thing I learned early on at Pinterest is that my muscle for asking questions was a lot stronger than my muscle for answering them. As with asking questions, there#39;s an art to answering questions well. It#39;s been good to exercise this skill.1.在初创公司中,你必须回答问题。我在Pinterest很早就了解到的一件事是,我的提问能力远超回答能力。和提问一样,回答也是一门艺术。锻炼这项技能很重要。2. I didn#39;t learn how to an organization. VC firms tend to be smaller partnerships. Although Bessemer was about 45 people when I left, I was never in an office with more than 10 people. As Pinterest has grown from 30-odd people when I joined to more than 200, I#39;ve had to learn how to navigate a company. People who have come from larger companies definitely have a leg up in this regard.2.我不知道如何解读一个组织。风投公司往往是规模较小的合伙企业。虽然在我离开时,柏尚已经有了大约45人,但每次我在办公室里时,办公室里从没超过10个人。随着Pinterest从我加入时的30多人发展到了如今的200多人,我必须学会如何理清公司的结构。来自大公司的人们在这方面当然比我强很多。3. I#39;m not specialized. VCs rarely specialize. Sure -- I knew the e-commerce ecosystem cold, met with countless consumer companies, and quite a few adtech companies, but that doesn#39;t compare to spending several years working at Google. But you#39;ve got to start somewhere ...3.我没有专长的领域。风投资本家很少专长某一领域。当然 -- 我很了解电子商务生态系统,我见识过大量的消费公司和广告科技公司,但这都不比不上在谷歌(Google)工作几年。但凡事总有个开始...Good luck!祝你好运! /201312/268293APPLE used to be coy about its upcoming products. The press invitation unveiling of its latest iPad tablet computer depicted a finger pressing a high-resolution touch-screen with the label: ;We have something you really have to see. And touch.; In the event, perhaps the biggest surprise to come out of the presentation by Apple#39;s boss, Tim Cook, was that the company is calling the device just ;iPad; and not, as had been expected ;iPad 3;. 苹果总爱对自己的新产品严格保密。在新iPad平板电脑发布会上,有一只手指按在一块高分辨率的触摸屏上,旁边还注明着这样一段话:“我们要让你真正去看,去摸”。或许后来真正让人惊讶的是苹果CEO蒂姆#8226;库克仅仅把新产品称为“ipad”,而不是人们预期的“iPad3”。 To be sure, the svelte gizmo sports a plethora of improvements over its numbered predecessor, the iPad 2. Its new ;Retina Display; boasts four times as many pixels, close to the limit of human perception, and its four-core graphics processor makes the experience of what was aly the smoothest tablet smoother still. Lower-resolution apps, such as those developed for earlier iPads, still look sharp on the new device (each old pixel is translated into four new ones), something rival Android devices, which come in a variety of shapes and sizes, struggle with. It also has a better, 5-megapixel camera. But these changes had been much anticipated in the blogosphere#39;s techier quarters. 的确,这个纤薄的小玩意比起前辈iPad2有着大量的改进。比如它的“视网膜屏幕”,声称其像素是以往的4倍,已接近人类视觉极限,而四核图形处理器将为平板带来最流畅的操作体验。即使是为前代ipad设计的那些低分辨应用程序在新产品上画质表现依旧细腻(每个像素被转换成四个),这对于各式各样的安卓设备来说这是一大优势,此外,新iPad还采用了更强大的500万像素摄像头。但是,这些改进早已被客世界的技术板块预测到了。 There was a bit more uncertainty about fourth-generation (4G) mobile connectivity. Here, Apple seems to have dealt with several bugbears of Long Term Evolution (LTE), an increasingly ubiquitous 4G standard capable of faster download rates and more consistent reception. LTE smartphones are often ungainly due to the hefty electronics needed to support it. Apple, famous for its sleek design, could have none of that. The iPad#39;s aly ample battery has been tweaked so that it matches the ten hours in 3G mode of older models, and lasts fully nine hours with LTE on, while feeding a power-hungrier display. That marks a significant improvement over the smaller LTE devices currently on the market, some of which last only a few hours. 有一点不确定就是新iPad在4G移动数据的连通能力上,苹果似乎在LTE(Long Term Evolution长期演进)上遇到了一点小麻烦,LTE作为4G标准已经初具规模并且在上传和下载速度上都有着良好的表现。但由于LTE芯片比较庞大,所以LTE智能手机常常显得很笨拙,但这当然不会出现在以时尚设计著称的苹果身上。新iPad还配备了一块强劲的电池,这不仅使它在满足更加耗电的屏幕同时,还能在3G模式下坚持使用10小时(达到了前代的标准),即使在4G模式下也能坚持9小时。这在当前LTE设备市场算得上一个重大的突破,因为同类产品只能使用很短时间。 Apple used its buying power and dominant position in the tablet market to hit competitors like Microsoft, whose partners are preparing to launch an array of Windows 8 Metro slates later this year. The new iPad prices haven#39;t budged. They start at 9 for a 16-gigabyte Wi-Fi only unit and finish at 9 for a 4G tablet with 64 gigabytes of flash storage. At the same time, Apple is keeping the older iPad 2 on the market for 9 with Wi-Fi and 9 with 3G. 苹果利用其粉丝的购买力和其在平板市场的主导地位给了竞争对手强力一击,比如微软,后者准备在年底与合作伙伴推出一系列预装Windows 8 Metro界面的平板电脑。此外,新iPad的价格并没有超过上一代,最低是16G的 Wifi版,499美元起,最高的是64G的4G版,829美元。同时苹果还调低了iPad2的价格,Wifi版399美元,3G版529美元。 Other firms had aly been hard-pressed to meet Apple#39;s price, battery life and hardware features, let alone its swish operating system, copious media catalogues and the internet#39;s biggest app store. With an upgrade at the top of the line and a drop in price for the current bestselling model, the iPad is unlikely to be dethroned any time soon. Apple has every reason to blow its own trumpet. 苹果产品的价格、电池续航时间还有硬件,更不用说其华丽的操作系统、丰富的多媒体资料和最大的网上应用商店,这些都给了其他公司很大的压力。在升级高端产品线的同时调低畅销产品的价格,新iPad在很长一段时间内都不会过时,苹果的确有他骄傲的资本。 /201204/176644

That locking mechanism on your tablet computer or smartphone? It’s mostly a relic from the days of the keyboard. With the advent of touchscreens, the three-by-three grids and four-digit passcodes popular on today’s mobile devices are anachronistic. Yet they persist, despite “shoulder surfers” and the telltale oilsleft by swiping fingers.眼下平板电脑或智能手机上的锁屏程序可谓键盘时代的遗物。随着触摸屏的出现,如今移动设备上常用的“九宫格”式和四位密码都过时了。然而,它们仍然在广泛使用,尽管老有人站在别人身后偷窥,而用户手指划过屏幕时留下的油迹也会泄露密码。A new study from Rutgers University suggests that squiggling—yes, squiggling—on the screen of your tablet or smartphone may provide a better authentication mechanism than the standard pattern locks favored by Google’s GOOG 1.54% Android operating system and the Personal Identification Numbers (PINs) preferred by Apple’s AAPL -0.09% iOS.美国罗格斯大学(Rutgers University)一项新研究表明,在平板电脑或智能手机上信手涂鸦可能是比谷歌(Google)安卓( Android)操作系统所采用的标准模式锁屏以及苹果(Apple)所青睐的个人识别号码(Personal Identification Numbers, PINs)更好的身份验机制。“The current locking and authentication mechanisms available for mobile systems commercially do not work so well,” said Janne Lindqvist, an assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering at Rutgers University and an author of the study. “Instead of having old methods or cued methods, we let people just generate gestures without any kind of visual cue or other kind of instructions.”研究报告的执笔人之一、罗格斯大学电气和计算机工程助理教授珍妮o林奎斯特称:“目前移动系统采用的商业化的锁定和身份验机制不太好用。我们弃用给用户提示的老方法,转而让用户在屏幕上信手涂鸦,不存在任何视觉提示或其他类型的指示。”The studies’ researchers, which included collaborators from the Max-Planck Institute for Informatics and the University of Helsinki, asked 63 participants to scrawl “continuous free-form multitouch gestures,” essentially finger-painting on the blank touchscreen canvas of a Google Nexus 10 tablet. No grid, no template: the subjects improvised a pass-doodle, rather than a password.这项研究的研究人员包括来自马普信息学研究所(the Max-Planck Institute for Informatics)以及赫尔辛基大学(the University of Helsinki)的合作者。他们请63位被试者以“连续不规则多点触控手势”信手涂鸦,本质上是以谷歌Nexus 10平板电脑的空白触摸屏为画布,以手指为笔作画。没有“九宫格”,也没有模版,被试者即兴创作的是“密画”,而非密码。The researchers then asked users to recall and redraw their scribbles after a short break and a bit of distracting mental math (counting down from 20 to 0 and rotating a shape in their minds). Next, the researchers retested the users’ memory after a minimum of 10 days. (Six subjects didn’t return for the second test.)随后,研究人员要求被试者在短暂休息和令人分心的心算(从20倒数到0,同时想像一个图形在自己脑海中转动)后,回想并重复自己刚刚画的手势。然后,在至少10天之后,研究人员再次测试了被试者的记忆(有6名被试者未回来参加第二次测试。)The trick—as with any good password—was to concoct a gesture complex enough to dupe spies yet simple enough to remember.如同所有好的密码一样,手势的关键在于复杂到能骗过窥视的人,但却简单好记。“You never need to be perfect,” Lindqvist said on reproducing a gesture swipe-for-swipe. “You can make a bit of errors, but not too much. It depends a lot on the security policy you want to implement.”关于手势的正确性,林奎斯特解释道:“你不必做到完美。你可以出一点错,只要不太多。这很大程度上取决于你想要采取的安全策略。”For instance, authentication for a mobile device might accept a higher error rate than one protecting a bank vault.例如,手机身份验程序可接受的密码错误率可能高于保险柜的安保系统。To verify matches, the team used a “recognizer” algorithm, which compared each gesture to a set of stored templates. The algorithm then calculated an average score for each attempt at unlocking. Gestures whose scores rose above a certain threshold value were authorized entry.为了验手势是否匹配,研究团队采用了“模式识别”算法,将每个手势与一套储存的模版进行比对,同时计算出每次解锁操作的平均分。分数高于特定阈值的解锁操作就能获准进入。“You never can, in any case—with any kind of meaningfully complex gesture—repeat it exactly the same way,” Lindqvist said, noting that it takes at least three repetitions, or templates, for a gesture to become stable. (For improved accuracy, the study used 10 templates per participant.)林奎斯特说:“无论如何,对于复杂的手势,大家绝对不可能做到百分之百准确重现。”林奎斯特指出,至少需要三次重复或模板才能使手势稳定。(为了提高准确度,在研究中对每位被试者采用了10个模板。)The researchers also used a flexible algorithm. Participants were able to draw anywhere on the device’s screen at whatever size and angle they wished, as long as the shape of the gesture was correct. Such flexibility may allow single gestures to adapt across platforms: for instance, on the larger screen of a tablet versus the smaller screen of a smartphone.研究者还使用了一种适应性很强的算法。被试者们能够在移动设备屏幕的任何地方、以任意角度画出图案,大小也可随心所欲,只要手势的形状正确即可。这样灵活的算法可以让同一手势跨平台使用,例如大屏幕的平板和屏幕相对较小的智能手机能使用相同的手势密码。To measure each gesture’s level of security, the researchers imported a concept from Information Theory called “differential entropy.” This metric quantified the “information content,” or “surprisingness,” of a gesture. Generally, the most secure gestures were the most complex. Some of these looked like brambles, tumbleweeds or multi-faceted jewels.为了准确衡量每种手势的安全性,研究人员引入了信息论中的“微分熵”概念。这个概念能量化手势的“信息内容”或者说“多样性”。一般来说,越复杂的手势越安全,它们有些看着像荆棘、风滚草等植物,还有些看起来像是有很多面的珠宝。On average the most memorable gestures were shorter and simpler than those best for security. Some of the most memorable ones included simple angular shapes, like triangles, and signatures.通常,与最安全的手势相比,那些最容易记住的手势一般比较简洁,其中包括简单的图案造型,例如三角形和签名等。The least-secure gestures consisted of gentle, looping circles.而最不安全的手势则要数单调循环的圆圈。Another measure of security involved a “shoulder surfing” test. Six student volunteers independently watched s of another student performing three representative gestures. These “attackers” were then asked to replicate each gesture.另一种衡量安全性的方法是所谓的“背后偷窥”测试。方法是让六名学生志愿者独自观看一位学生演示三种典型手势的视频,然后凭记忆重复这些手势。The preliminary results were promising. “None of the attackers came even close to the gesture,” Lindqvist said.初步测试的效果令人振奋。林奎斯特称:“偷窥者们甚至都无法画出相近的手势。”In fact, one attacker did nearly replicate one of the gestures—a backwards “N”—but did not come close enough for a “recognizer” to authenticate.事实上,还是有一人几乎画出了其中一种手势——一个倒写的字母“N”,但相似度没有达到系统“识别”通过的程度。“Typing in a password seems to be an artifact of the past,” said Nasir Memon, professor of computer science and engineering at New York University, who was not involved in the study. “There is definitely a need to explore the alternatives.”纽约大学(New York University)计算机科学与工程专业教授纳西尔o梅蒙说:“输入密码已经过时了,我们亟需发掘替代方案。”梅蒙并没有参与上面提到的研究。Still, even with the aid of muscle memory, one must question how confusing a world of security gestures might become.不过,即便有肌肉记忆辅助,我们也可能会被一大堆手势密码弄得不知所措。“If you have three different gestures for three different accounts, how do you deal with that?” Memon asked.梅蒙反问:“如果你的三个账号有三个不同的手势密码,你怎么区分?”In future studies, Lindqvist said he plans to instruct participants in best practices for generating secure and memorable gestures. He also hopes to expand the shoulder-surfing test. “I think that this robust alternative and a better alternative than the current method, and looking forward to working on this more,” Lindqvist said.林奎斯特表示,在未来的研究中,他计划指导被试者,帮助他们掌握最佳的做法,获得安全又好记的手势。此外,他还希望扩展背后窥视测试。他说:“我认为手势密码非常安全,比现有方案要好。我希望在这个领域继续深入研究。”If the new tactic’s promise holds, the future of password security may look less like a keyboard and more like finger-skating. For now, though, the billions of people around the world using mobile devices must stick with their PINs and patterns.如果这种新方法靠谱,未来密码安全可能不再靠键盘,而是靠信手涂鸦。不过,目前全球几十亿移动设备用户只能用谷歌安卓系统的标准模式锁屏和苹果的个人识别号码。“It holds potential,” Memon said. “But we’re still a long way from it being seriously adopted.”梅蒙说:“手势密码确实有潜力。但它要得到广泛的采用还有很长的路要走。” /201406/308560

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