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2020年01月28日 22:56:33 | 作者:新华时讯 | 来源:新华社
Alibaba阿里巴巴Under scrutiny一审再审American regulators are investigating Chinas e-commerce giant美国监管机构正调查中国电商巨头“WE HAVE from time to time been subject to PRC and foreign government inquiries and investigations.” So declared form 20-F, a regulatory filing submitted by Alibaba, Chinas biggest e-commerce firm, to Americas Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) on May 24th. It is tempting to dismiss this as boilerplate language. All foreign firms listed in America (Alibaba trades on the New York Stock Exchange) are required to file this document regularly. In fact, it is not inconsequential. The filing revealed that Alibaba is the target of an ongoing SEC investigation into its accounting practices. The companys shares fell sharply after the news became public.中国最大的电商—阿里巴巴在5月24日上交给美国券交易委员会(SEC)的20-F年报(译者注:监管文件,20-F是对那些注册地不在美国的上市公司所要求的年报,美国本土的上市公司用10-K格式的年报)称:“我们时常受到国内和外国政府的调查和问讯。”这样的说法很难不被当成是打官腔。所有在美上市的外国企业(阿里巴巴在纽约券交易所公开交易)需要定期填写相关文件。然而事实上这并非无关紧要。监管文件显示阿里巴巴已经成为美国券交易委员会调查会计实务的目标。消息曝光后,该公司的股票急剧下跌。The SEC appears to have three areas of concern. It wants to know more about the Cainiao Network, a logistics joint venture worth .7 billion in which Alibaba has a 47% stake. The agency also wants data on “Singles Day”, an annual marketing promotion that last year apparently generated .3 billion in gross merchandise value (GMV) on one day. As GMV is not a recognised term in GAAP, the accounting standard used in America, the SEC may be digging into this claim.美国券交易委员会要考虑的主要是三个方面。菜鸟网络科技公司便是其中之一,这个公司是市值77亿美元的合资的物流公司,阿里巴巴持有47%的股份。除此以外委员会还想了解“光棍节”(一年一度的营销推广日)的数据,去年这个节日仅一天的总交易额(GMV)达到了143亿美元。但GMV并不是美国使用的会计准则GAAP(Generally Accepted Accounting Principles)认可的条款,美国监会(SEC)可能会对此深入调查。 译文属译生译世 /201606/449163Lexington莱克星顿How to win 99.6% of the vote如何赢得99.6%的选票Too many members of Congress are running unopposed许多国会议员没有竞争对手DAYS before he seeks re-election to Congress for an eighth time, Representative Mike Capuano of Massachusetts has yet to order a single bumper sticker or “I Like Mike” lawn sign. That is not as risky as it might sound. In his district, a Democratic bastion that covers the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, chunks of Harvard University and swathes of blue-collar Boston, Mr Capuano faces no Republican opponent—or opposition of any kind. His is the only name that will appear on the ballot on November 4th.在他第八次进行国会再选的前几天,马萨诸塞州的众议员迈克·卡普阿诺打算购一款车尾贴,或者“我爱迈克”之类的草地竞选标语。这并不像听起来那么冒险。在这个地区,民主党堡垒覆盖了麻省理工学院、哈佛大学大片地区以及波士顿大部分的蓝领阶层,卡普阿诺没有任何共和党对手,也没有任何反对派。他是唯一一个会出现在11月4日竞选名单中的人。This is no novelty for Mr Capuano. After he first won the seat in 1998, he never faced a Republican opponent again, often cruising to victory with such Cuban-style scores as 99.6% of the vote. Pondering past races, he struggles to recall details of the few independents who have challenged him. “I had a Communist, right?” he asks an aide. “A Socialist? Six years ago? Four?”这对卡普阿诺来说并不奇怪。在他于1998年首次赢得该席位后,他就再没遇到共和党对手了,并通常以古巴风格的得票—99.6%的选票立于不败之地。回想过去的竞选,他几乎快想不起来那少数几个和他竞选的独立派的资料了。“有个共产党,是不是?还有个社会党?六年前还是四年前来着?”他向一个副官问道。Few others in Congress have been as safe for as long. But Mr Capuano has more company than before. Ever-fewer races for the House of Representatives are closely fought, leaving four-fifths of that bodys 435 members with little to fear on polling day. Their doomed challengers—formerly stirred to action by a mix of idealism, ambition, vanity and (at times) self-delusion—seem at last to be noticing the odds against them. Add on the soaring costs of any election, and a growing number are quitting the field.国会中很少有人能够安全坐这么久的位子。但卡普阿诺拥有的同伴比之前更多了。众议院中已经很少有非常激烈的竞选了,使得这个团体435名成员的五分之四在竞选日都无需担忧。他们命定的竞争者曾经抱着理想主义、野心、虚荣和(偶尔的)自欺欺人四处活动,但最后都会发现成功机会渺茫。再加上每场选举高额的费用,越来越多的人退出了战场。In 2014 Republicans have put up no challenger in 37 House races, while Democrats are ceding 32 districts without a fight, according to David Wasserman of the Cook Political Report. A further eight House districts will see no contest between the main parties, thanks to a “top two” primary system used in Washington state and California, in which ordinary voters (rather than just party members) can pick the two candidates who compete for each seat in the general election—a move sold as a cure-all for partisan extremism, but which can turn safe districts into blue-on-blue and red-on-red fights. That total of 77 single-party House races is high by recent standards and marks a big jump since 2012, when there were 45 of them. Stephen Colbert, a comedian, once persuaded aFlorida congressman running unopposed to tell the camera that he liked cocaine and prostitutes, by arguing that it didnt matter what he said because he couldnt possibly lose.据库克政治报告的大卫·沃瑟曼称,2014年共和党在37场众议院竞选中都没有遇到对手,而民主党毫不抵抗地放弃了32个选区。在另外八个众议院选区中,由于华盛顿州和加州使用了“两大”主系统,这两个州中普通选民(而不是只有党派成员)可以选择两位候选人在大选中争夺各自的席位,因此主要党派之间都不会发生竞争。这项行动是解决党派极端主义的良药,但也会将安全区域变成党派内部斗争。据最近的标准来看,77场单党派众议院竞选数量很多,而2012年只有45场,这标志着自2012年起的一次巨大飞跃。喜剧演员斯蒂芬·科尔伯特曾经劝说一名没有遇到对手的佛罗里达国会议员在镜头前称他喜欢可卡因和,并争辩说他说什么都没关系,因为他不可能落选One-party districts cannot be good for democracy. In Massachusetts this year Republicans are running in only three of nine House races and are contesting half the seats in the state legislature. Mr Capuano, a plain-speaking former mayor, says that having a Republican opponent would have “virtually no impact” on him. In such a safe seat, danger comes from his own side. His elections are fought months before polling day, he explains. Any Democratic challengers have a narrow window to show themselves by making exploratory calls, collecting signatures, turning up to public events, and generally testing whether the congressman is vulnerable. Mr Capuano aims to be “very conscientious” about constituency service at all times, but between January and April in election years, “I step on the gas.” All signs of possible weakness are watched for. Whenever he runs unopposed in his Democratic primary he counts the blank votes cast, precinct by precinct, knowing that rivals are doing the same.一党专政区对民主党来说并无好处。今年在马萨诸塞州共和党仅参与了九场众议院竞选中的三场,竞选立法机关中的半数席位。卡普阿诺这名讲话直率的前市长称,拥有一名共和党对手对他来说“事实上毫无影响”。在这个安全的职位上,危险来自于内部。他解释说他的选举之战在大选日数月前就已经开始了。每一名民主党竞选者都有一个小窗口,可以通过打考察电话、收集签名、转向公共活动,以及普遍检测国会议员是否有弱点来展示自己。卡普阿诺旨在每时每刻都对选民务“非常尽责”,但在竞选年一月至四月期间,“我加紧了速度。”时刻都有人盯着他表现出来的任何可能的弱点迹象。每次他毫无阻力地通过民主党初选时,他都会一个选区一个选区地计算空白选票,因为他知道他的竞争对手也在这样做。In todays Democratic Party, challengers seldom invoke ideology, Mr Capuano notes, contrasting his lot with that of Republican incumbents who must fear organised attacks from the right. In politics, Republicans are like dogs, working as a pack, he suggests: “Democrats are the cats.” The congressman, 62, has something of the tom-cat about him: it is possible to imagine him ruling a maze of alleys, with many scars and a torn ear. Asked about fund-raising (he has 628,000 cash on hand, according to his most recent electoral filing), he growls: “I do my share.” Almost all will be given to other Democrats, he explains, though he will keep enough money “to dissuade potential opponents”.卡普阿诺说明,在如今的民主党中,竞争者们很少会换起意识形态,并将他的命运与需要担心右翼有组织攻击的共和党在位者进行了对比。在政治方面,共和党们就像一样,成群结队地工作,他暗示说:“民主党就是猫。”这位62岁的国会议员在某些方面和汤姆猫有点像:可以想象,他现在带着许多伤疤和撕裂的耳朵管理着一个迷宫般的小巷。当问到筹集资金(据他最近的选举文件表明,如今他手头有628,000美元)时,他愤愤不平:“我筹集了我的份额。”他解释说,几乎所有的资金都要给其他民主党,尽管他会保留足够的资金“来阻止潜在的竞争对手”。An old alley-cat might call Curt Myers an idealistic pup. A 21-year old Republican college student from Brookline, just outside Mr Capuanos fief, he has chosen to mount a hopeless bid for the Massachusetts state House, running in his home district of 15th Norfolk, a hotbed of liberalism which last saw a Republican candidate before he was born. He is realistic about his chances, but wants to give his home town “the debate it deserves”. He has beaten his fund-raising target of 25,000—enough to build a website and buy some yard signs. He is heartened that the Democratic incumbent has agreed to a public debate and that even “far-left” folk say they are glad that he is running—though they will not vote for him. Less hearteningly, he has been spat on three times for being a Republican. Alas for fans of democratic accountability, Mr Myers does not think he would run for Congress against similarly bleak odds.老野猫或许会把科特·迈尔斯称作唯心主义的畜生。他是一名来自布鲁克莱恩的21岁共和党大学生,他在卡普阿诺的地盘之外选择为马萨诸塞州议会增加一个无望的筹码,在他家乡的第十五选区诺福克中组织竞选,这个地方是自由主义的温床,在这名大学生出生之前曾经诞生过共和党候选人。他的选择很务实,就是希望给予他的家乡一场“应有的辩论”。他超过了自己的资金筹集目标25,000美元—这笔钱足够建立起一个网站并购买一些庭院标语了。民主党在职者同意举行公开辩论,即使是“最左翼”分子也说他们很高兴看到他在竞选—尽管他们不会为他投票,这些都极大地鼓舞了他。但不那么让人高兴的是,他的共和党身份已经被人唾弃了三次了。迈尔斯认为他不会参与国会竞选,因为获胜希望同样不大,这对于民主责任制粉丝来说是很不幸的。Showing up is 80% of life出席占据了80%的生活In part, this is a story about the professionalisation of politics. Even unwinnable House races are now monitored by cold-eyed number-crunchers. Both parties fear zealous amateurs who may pollute their national brand. They also fret about the effect that one race may have on another. For example, in Massachusetts Republicans have a good chance of winning the governorship so long as turnout is not too high (because conservatives are more likely to vote). So a strong Republican challenge in a close House race might be counter-productive, spurring Democrats to pour in resources, raising turnout and kneecapping the chances of the Republican in the more important race.在某种程度上,这是个政治职业化的故事。即使是坚不可摧的众议院竞选如今也在眼神冷峻的统计师们的监控之下。两党都担忧热心的党外人士会败坏他们在国内树立的品牌形象。他们同样也烦恼一场竞选会影响另一个。例如,在马萨诸塞州,只要出席率不高,共和党就很有可能赢得州长职位,因为在这种情况下保守党们更可能会投票。因此共和党在最近的众议院竞选中发起的有力挑战,很可能会适得其反,刺激民主党们大量投入资源,提高出席率,削弱共和党在更加重要的竞选中获胜的几率。Why stop at 77 seats with no inter-party contest, then? “Its going to get worse before it gets better,” predicts a Republican bigwig. Such political vacuums surely cannot last indefinitely: voters would not tolerate a House with hundreds of uncontested seats, touch wood. Until then, the creaking of a two-party system in distress will grow louder.为什么在没有党际竞争的情况下赢得了77个席位之后就止步了呢?接下来要做什么?一名共和党权贵称,“在情况变好之前,会先变得更坏”。这种政治真空当然不会无限期延续:选民们不会容忍一个议院有几百个没有竞争的席位,但愿好运。直到那时,处在困境之中的两党制度竞争会越来越激烈。译者:靳方方 校对:萧毛毛 译文属译生译世 /201410/339262But Hitler was concerned that the Stormtroopers might be getting out of his control,that they were starting to become a threat to the regime itself.但他考虑到冲锋队可能会失控,威胁到当前体制的稳定。Hitler told them the revolution was over.于是告知冲锋队革命已结束。But the Stormtroopers wanted to march the revolution ever onwards,staying true to the words of the Nazi anthem,written by Stormtrooper Horst Wessel.但冲锋队还想继续进行革命,忠实于霍斯特·维塞尔谱写的纳粹党歌。Their leader, Ernst Roehm,even wanted the Stormtroopers to take over the German Army.冲锋队的高官恩斯特·罗姆甚至想冲锋队取代德国军队。But the army didnt want anything to do with this bunch of thugs.但德国正规军不想跟这帮恶棍扯上关系。One rejected the Stormtroopers because of their behaviour.是他们的所作所为令人反感。Well, at the end, one can almost say the Stormtroopers were hated by most soldiers.到最后,大部分军人都憎恶冲锋队。Von Papen, Hitlers Vice Chancellor,had been gathering complaints about the Stormtroopers.副总理冯帕彭收集各界对冲锋队的斥诉。This was potentially dangerous for Hitler,as von Papen was close to the aged President Hindenburg.对希特勒而言,当冯帕彭接近兴登堡老总统时是潜在危机。On 17th June 1934,von Papen made a speech openly criticising the Nazis.1934年6月17日冯帕彭公开批评纳粹党。An endless dynamic creates nothing.一班活力充沛的军队毫无建树。Germany must not become a train into the unknown,with no-one knowing when it will stop.德国人不应变成街头小混混,无人知晓何时休止。But Hitler realised he could turn all this to his advantage and alter the way millions perceived him as a leader.但希特勒意识到可对此加以利用改变百万民众对他这个领袖的看法。 译文属201512/414746Say what? Big cities affect the trees in the countryside?你说什么?大都市的环境污染对农村的树有影响?You got it! According to a study conducted by Jillian Gregg,who now works at the EPAs western-ecology division in Oregon, Eastern Cottonwood trees grew twice as big inside the Bronx as they did growing in small towns on Long Island.没错!一项由Jillian Gregg发起的研究表明,在布朗克斯生长的美洲黑杨比小镇纽约长岛的高大两倍,Jillian Greg在美国环保署西部生态分署的俄勒冈州工作。But that just seems backwards.我怎么觉得好像说反了,Cities are where all pollution, should that hamper the growth ofthe trees?城市污染严重,就会影响到农村树木的生长吗?Cities are full of pollution, and it does have a detrimental effect on plant life–to say nothing of people life!城市的环境污染确实有害植物生长,更不要说人的生活了。But that doesnt mean, unfortunately, that the converse is true-that once you get outside of the city, the environment is clean.但是不幸的是,这并不能说明相反的是对的:远离城市的环境就是无污染的。Regions can suffer from pollution that blows in from the cities and then lingers around the countryside.城市的污染会从城市扩散到农村,In particular, ozone does this.Second-hand ozone?特别是污染农村的新鲜空气。“二手”新鲜空气?Indeed, Greggs study, along with others, are fingering ozone as the factor that most significantly affects plant growth.事实上,Greg和其他人的研究都指出影响植物生长的就是空气被污染了。So Cities make the pollution but it blows over the countryside and hurts trees there instead.That seems so unfair.也就是说城市是污染的源头,又扩散到农村,还不利农村树木的生长,听起来太不公平了。Its just another warning about the surprising effects of pollution-and how we all suffer from it,even when we think its someone elses problem.这可能是另一个有关环境污染出人意料的影响:虽然我们认为环境污染不是自己的问题,但是我们都承受着其带来的不良后果。 201501/351765

Tax reform in India印度税制改革The truck stops here如鲠在喉A fix for Indias indirect-tax system is overdue but it may fall short of the ideal由于印度未能及时对其间接税系统进行调整使得其未能达到理想状态TRADE negotiators were dismayed when in July India scuppered a chance to make modest progress on a global trade deal. Perhaps they hoped for too much. For years India has failed to sign a free-trade agreement even with itself. A recent report from the World Bank said bureaucracy related to tax-collection at state borders is a big reason why Indias long-distance truckers are parked 60% of the time. A proposal to address this by rationalising the myriad state and central-government levies into a harmonised goods-and-service tax, or GST, has been around since at least 2007. But grubby politics has put paid to the idea—until now.7月,印度本可让不温不火的全球贸易谈判有所进展的,可他却让贸易代表们的愿望化成了泡影,对此代表们十分沮丧。长期以来,印度未能成功签署自由贸易协定,成为世贸一员。世界在最近的一期的报告中指出,邦界边官僚主义的税收机构拦住了60%的长途卡车司机进入各邦的道路。从2007年以来,无数国家的中央政府通过统一向应税的货物和劳务征收的消费税(GST)而解决了这个问题。但是由于政治黑暗,印度至今为止都未能成功解决该问题。The resounding win by the Bharatiya Janata Party in Indias elections in May has altered the political landscape. The GST is likely to be the centrepiece of the new governments agenda for parliament when it reopens on November 24th. The main opposition party has said it will support it. A well-designed GST would make India a true common market, give a lift to manufacturing and limit the scope for corruption—the sort of big-bang reform the new prime minister, Narendra Modi, promises.今年5月份印度人民党(Bharatiya Janata Party )在大选中获得彻底的胜利可能对改变改政治格局带来了希望。在11月24日召开的新政府的议会议程时,消费税可能会作为核心税种重新开征。那些主要的反对派人员已表示将持此决议。新总理纳伦德拉·莫迪(Narendra Modi,)承诺,将设计一个机制完善的消费税使得印度市场成为一个真正的共同体,给制造业提供动力,减少政府干预,在全社会掀起一场爆炸式的改革。The present mess is rooted in the division of fiscal power in Indias constitution, says Indira Rajaraman, an economist. To ensure balance the central government was granted the right to tax the production of goods; the states could tax their consumption. The drafters ignored services but as they became more important to the economy, their taxation became the preserve of the centre. From the outset India has suffered the problem of “cascades” of tax on tax. The centre slaps an excise at the factory gate; the states compound that with a tax at the point of sale.经济学家英迪拉·拉(Indira Rajaraman)认为,目前的困境根源在于印度宪法中的财政权力部门的问题。为确保平衡中央政府获得生产产品的征税权利;邦政府也会对其消费征收一道税。起草人忽略务这一项,但是一旦务成为经济更重要的一部分,他们的税收成为保护重点。从一开始就印度遭受了“瀑布”式征管问题。中央政府在工厂门口征了一道消费税;邦政府就在销售环节计入价内在征收一次税。The problem has become bigger as new levies have proliferated. The centre imposes a tax on goods that are sold across state borders. States collect taxes on entertainment and betting. There are separate levies on transport, electricity and cars. Rates vary from state to state, adding to the complexity. This creates a big burden on businesses that sell across borders. It is in part why Indias manufacturing has a small share of GDP compared with other emerging markets, says Vijay Kelkar, a former chairman of the finance commission, which mediates between the centre and states on tax issues.在新征收额激增的情况下,出现了更加棘手的问题。中央政府对跨邦的商品销售进行征税,而邦政府则对业和业进行征税。而交通,电力以及汽车行业则单独出来分开征收。由于税率因邦而异,增加了征管难度。这就使得跨邦之间的商业交易困难重重。前印度财政部长的顾问维贾(Vijay Kelkar)士表示,这也是印度的制造业占GDP的份额与其他新兴市场相比较低的原因之所在,中央政府与邦政府之间的税收问题并不协调。How should the mess be cleared up? An ideal tax system would have three elements: it should be progressive, with the better-off shouldering more of the burden; it should not influence choices over what to produce or consume; and it should be simple. Mr Kelkars commission sketched out a GST that conforms to these principles. It would be levied at a uniform rate on all sales, including of property and financial services, with exceptions only for unprocessed food, schooling, health care and some public services. A sin-tax surcharge to the main GST rate would apply to petrol, tobacco and alcohol. With a broad tax base the GST rate could be as low as 12%—5% for the centre and 7% for the states. The properties of a value-added tax would apply so that taxes on inputs could be claimed back.如何清理这个烂摊子?理想的税收制度有三个要素:首先它应该是进步的,富人承担更多的负担——税收纵向公平;它不应该影响生产或消费选择——税收中性原则;它应该是简单地——税收的效率原则。维贾士和其委员会草拟了一份符合上述原则的消费税。除去未加工食品、教育、医疗保健和一些公共务行业以外,包括房地产和金融务在内所有行业实行统一税率。而对于汽油、烟草和酒精等税目将要额外加计征收。而消费税的基础税率为12%, 其中中央政府占5,邦政府占有7%的份额。增值税的属性将适用与此,以便进口环节的税收也可以收回来了。The government must secure the agreement of Indias 29 states to the reform. If there is to be a common rate, the states must give up their much-prized power over taxes. Many fret about the possibility of lost income. Indirect taxes are 45% of the centres tax-take but 80% of state revenue, says Morgan Stanley, a bank. There are aly worrying signs that, to placate the states, the GST in its final form will deviate from the ideal. The exclusion of land sales would raise the rate by 2-3 percentage points, reckons Satya Poddar of EY, a consultancy. Alcohol may also be out and petrol may be given a special status. But the more exemptions there are, the more the GST will resemble what it is supposed to replace. At issue is whether, as Mr Poddar puts it, the GST will be a game-changer or merely a name-changer?印度中央政府必须确保29个邦政府加入改革。是否有一个统一的税率,其前提是邦政府必须放弃他们手中牢牢掌握的税收权利。根士丹利(Morgan Stanley)表示,间接税的80%源于地方政府的收入,但是中央政府却要拿走45%的份额,许多地方政府认为地方收入将会减少。这种担心也是有道理的,为了安抚地方邦政府,消费税也许会偏离其最初的轨道。EY咨询公司的波达尔(Satya Poddar )认为,土地销售免税的话,地方收入将会增加2%-3%,酒精和汽油也可以有其他的税收优惠。但是额外的税收优惠越多将,消费税本身的特性就会越少越容易被替代。那么问题来了正如波达尔先生所认为的那样,消费税只是被改了个名字还是从内到外的改革换面呢?译者:周颖 译文属译生译世 /201411/341657

A fast-moving fire in Southern California has killed at least two people and scorched more than 35,000 acres, officials said Saturday. 周六官员称,南加利福尼亚迅速扩散的大火已造成至少两人死亡,烧毁面积超过35,000亩。California governor Jerry Brown declared a state of emergency Friday in Kern County,加利福尼亚州长杰瑞·布朗周五在克恩县宣布进入紧急状态,where firefighters worked in hot, windy conditions to battle the fire, which has burned the Lake Isabella area over the past two days. 在那里,消防队员冒着炎热、有风的条件灭火,大火在过去两天烧毁了伊莎贝拉湖地区。Hundreds of residents have been evacuated, but there are concerns that some people may not have been able to escape. 数百名居民已被疏散,但有人担心,一些人可能无法逃脱。Nearly 100 structures have been burned to ashes, while 1,500 more are under imminent threat from the roaring flames, firefighters said.消防队员称,近100栋建筑已烧成灰烬,另有1,500多栋正受大火逼近的威胁。译文属。201606/451336

Europe Georgian politics欧洲 格鲁吉亚政治A stunning victory惊人的胜利A billionaire has unexpectedly won Georgia’s elections亿万富翁出人意料地赢得了格鲁吉亚大选Bidzina Ivanishvili made a bold promise a year ago. Georgia’s richest man promised to assemble a coalition to win the parliamentary elections in 2012 and unseat the “dictatorship” of President Mikheil Saakashvili. On October 1st Mr Ivanishvili’s Georgian Dream coalition won 55% of the vote. Mr Saakashvili gracefully conceded that his ed National Movement (UNM) had lost, and welcomed Mr Ivanishvili into power.一年前,格鲁吉亚首富毕齐达·伊万尼舍维里许下了一个大胆的承诺,他将组建一个联合政党来赢得2012年的议会大选,从而废除总统米哈伊尔·萨卡什维利的“独裁统治”。10月1日,伊万尼舍维里领导的格鲁吉亚之梦联盟以55%的选票赢得了选举。萨卡什维利优雅地承认他的格鲁吉亚民族联合运动失败了,同时欢迎伊万尼舍维里掌权。But not just yet. Georgia remains a presidential republic for another year, when constitutional amendments take effect. Until then Mr Ivanishvili’s scope will be limited. He called for the president to resign at once, then rescinded. Mr Saakashvili is not budging. The coming months may be bumpy.但是目前看来,事情并不是这样。在宪法修正案生效之前,格鲁吉亚仍将保持总统制共和国一年之久。在那之前,伊万尼舍维里先生的影响范围将会受到限制。他呼吁让总统立刻辞职,随后被撤回。萨卡什维利先生不肯做出丝毫让步。接下来的几个月将会非常艰难。Despite the bickering, the election is a landmark. Never in Georgian history has a government changed so peacefully and lawfully. That crowns other achievements of the past eight years. Modern Georgia is a far cry from the ill-run backwater that Mr Saakashvili took over in 2003. Transport systems and other public buildings have been transformed. Petty corruption has vanished. The economy is growing fast. But unemployment and poverty are high and life for many is hard.尽管争论不断,但是本次大选已经成为一个里程碑。这是格鲁吉亚历史上最和平,最合法的政权转换,是近八年来最伟大的成就。2003年,萨卡什维利开始接手这滩经营不善的死水,如今的格鲁吉亚已经完全不同。运输系统和其他公共建筑得到了改善,少数腐败行为消失不见,经济迅速增长。但是失业人数和贫困人口仍居高不下,许多人的生活依然非常艰难。How Mr Ivanishvili’s disparate coalition will deal with this legacy is unclear. He has no political record and was all but unknown until a year ago. His main policy is better relations with Russia. It defeated Georgia in a short war in 2008 and occupies a fifth of its territory: the self-proclaimed states of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. A change of personality at the top should make a thaw easier. Vladimir Putin, the Russian president, once said he wanted to hang Mr Saakashvili “by the balls”.伊万尼舍维里领导的迥然不同的联合政党将会如何处理这些遗留问题,我们不得而知。他没有任何从政历史,直到一年前才为人所知。他的主要政策就是改善与俄罗斯的关系。2008年,两国之间发生了一场短暂的战争,俄罗斯取得了胜利并占领了格鲁吉亚五分之一的领土,宣布阿布哈兹和南奥赛梯地区为独立国家。国家高层领导人态度的转变将会更有利于改善两国之间的僵硬的关系。俄罗斯总统弗拉基米尔·普金曾怒气冲冲地声称要“牢牢地”绞死萨卡什维利先生。The cause of the row was Georgia’s pro-Western orientation: its bid to join NATO was anathema to Russia and regarded with deep scepticism in much of the alliance. Mr Ivanishvili says he too wants to support membership of the alliance. His first trip abroad may be to America. But the new premier’s real priority will be to revive trade with Russia. Kremlin sanctions have strangled Georgian exports such as wine, fruit and mineral water.引发争端的原因是格鲁吉亚的亲西方化的倾向:他们申请加入北大西洋公约组织,这在俄罗斯看来是对其的一种诅咒,北约也怀疑其图谋不轨。伊万尼舍维里先生表示他也持格鲁吉亚成为北大西洋公约组织的一员。他就任后首次出访的目的地将是美国,但是新总理真正的首要任务是恢复同苏联的贸易。俄罗斯政府的制裁扼杀了格鲁吉亚酒类,水果和矿泉水的出口。On other issues Mr Ivanishvili has been full of spleen about misrule, but hazy about what he would do differently. He has promised that he will be prime minister for no more than two years. Some doubt his coalition, of liberals, nationalists and eccentrics, will stay together once the euphoria of victory has passed. David Usupashvili, head of the Republican Party, says that Mr Ivanishvili’s business success shows he has the “ability necessary for a leader”. Such wealth “cannot be assembled by an unwise person”.在其他问题上,伊万尼舍维里一直对暴政深恶痛绝,但是他却不太清楚如何做得与众不同。他承诺他只担任两年的总理。一些人担心一旦胜利的喜悦过后,他领导的由自由主义者、爱国主义者和怪人组成的联合政党会不会保持团结。共和党领导大卫·乌苏帕什维利认为伊万尼舍维里的商业成功表明他具备“一个领导所需的能力”。不明智的人是无法积累如此多的财富的。Mr Saakashvili has some thinking to do, too. Nobody from his camp, or among election-watchers in Tbilisi, foresaw this outcome. Their big worry was how to keep Georgian Dream loyalists, perhaps backed by Russia, from avenging defeat with violence. The surprise highlights the complacency that is the ruling elite’s big weakness. Many in Mr Saakashvili’s party came to believe that they were destined to rule and that criticism was treachery. Now it has to play a new role of a strong loyal opposition. That may test its unity.萨卡什维利先生也该好好思考一番了。无论是在他领导的阵营,还是第比利斯的观察团中都没有人预见到这个结果。他们巨大的担心是如何防止可能得到俄罗斯持的格鲁吉亚之梦党的拥护者以暴力报复战败。这个出人意料地结果凸显了统治精英的一大缺点—自鸣得意。萨卡什维利领导的政党里许多人都认为他们注定会是统治者,批评意味着背叛。现在,他们要扮演一个新的角色,强大的忠实反对派。这是对他们凝聚力的考验。The decisive factor in the election may have been s of abuse in prison, including a man apparently being raped with a broom. Though their provenance was unclear, for many the footage crystallised resentment against the arrogance and impunity of Mr Saakashvili’s rule.决定选举的关键因素可能是监狱里虐待犯人的视频,其中包括用扫把殴打犯人的非常明显的镜头。虽然他们的出处尚不明确,但是一个个连续镜头具体化了许多人对萨卡什维利执政的傲慢和不受惩罚的怨恨。Neither side will find the post-election period easy. Giga Bokeria, Mr Saakashvili’s influential National Security Adviser, has said that Mr Ivanishvili has introduced “poison” into the political system.选举结束后的这段时期对双方来说都不容易。萨卡什维利的颇具影响力的国家安全顾问吉佳·克里亚声称伊万尼舍维里已经将“毒药”引进了政治体系。For his part, Mr Ivanishvili said during the campaign that Mr Saakashvili and his officials would face unspecified “justice” once Georgian Dream came to power. Among other wild talk, he suggested that any supporter of Mr Saakashvili’s was an “accomplice in the cruellest crime”. Even the election result is open to challenge. Mr Saakashvili’s UNM claim that Georgian Dream activists are pressing local election commissions to change results in their favour. The NATO observation mission in Georgia has expressed “serious concern” about that.而伊万尼舍维里在大选运动期间表示一旦格鲁吉亚之梦党上台,萨卡什维利和他的官员们将面临未指定的“法律制裁”。他在其他轻率的对话中也暗示任何萨卡什维利政党的持者都是“最残酷的犯罪的共犯”。即使选举结果面临着挑战,萨卡什维利领导的格鲁吉亚民主联合运动党声称格鲁吉亚之梦党的积极分子在对当地的选举委员会施压,试图改变选举结果,从而对他们有利。北大西洋公约组织驻格鲁吉亚观察使团对此表达了“深切关注”。It is all still fragile. But by admitting defeat, Mr Saakashvili handed his country a victory and wrong-footed Mr Ivanishvili, who had said that he would never be allowed to win elections. Now that he has, he has a great responsibility to the system that has vaulted him to power.虽然一切都还很脆弱,但是通过承认失败,萨卡什维利先生传递给他的国家胜利的讯号,并使伊万尼舍维里大乱阵脚,他曾表示从未被允许赢得选举。既然他赢得了选举,那么他就该对这个持他掌权的系统担负起应有的责任。 翻译:姜振南译文属译生译世 /201608/457843

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