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2018年12月12日 14:19:56来源:百科指南

Many healthy people take a daily aspirin to reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke, but a new study has found that more than 11 percent of them should not be doing so.为了降低心脏病和中风的风险,许多健康的人也每天用阿司匹林,但一项新的研究发现,在这些人当中,有11%以上其实不应这样做。Aspirin has well established benefits, but also carries the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. The American Heart Association guidelines recommend daily aspirin for primary prevention in people with a 10-year cardiovascular risk of 10 percent or more. Other guidelines suggest the cut-off should be a risk of 6 percent. (You can assess your risk at the National Institutes of Health’s online risk calculator.)虽然阿司匹林的健康效益久已确立,但它也会带来胃肠道出血的风险。美国心脏协会(American Heart Association)的指南建议,心血管疾病10年风险达到10%或以上者可每天用阿司匹林作为一级预防。其他指南则建议风险cut-off值(即截止值)应为6%(你可以使用美国国立卫生研究院[National Institutes of Health]的在线风险计算器来评估自己的风险)。Researchers studied records of 68,808 patients taking aspirin for primary cardiovascular prevention in various kinds of medical practices between 2008 and 2011. They found that 7,972 of them, or 11.6 percent, were taking aspirin daily despite having a cardiovascular disease risk of less than 6 percent.研究人员研究了2008年至2011年间,多种不同的医疗诊所中,用阿司匹林作为心血管疾病一级预防的68808名患者的医疗记录。他们发现,其中7972人(11.6%)的心血管疾病风险低于6%,但他们仍每日用阿司匹林。In some groups, inappropriate use was even more common. For example, 17 percent of women taking aspirin had less than a 6 percent risk. The study was published in The Journal of the American College of Cardiology.阿司匹林使用不当的情况在某些人群中还要更为普遍。例如,在用阿司匹林的女性中,有17%的人心血管疾病风险都小于6%。这项研究发表在《美国心脏病学会杂志》(The Journal of the American College of Cardiology)上。“We need a discussion between the patient and the clinician to see that we’re not causing more harm than good,” said the senior author, Dr. Salim S. Virani, a cardiologist at Baylor College of Medicine. Because a lot of patients take aspirin, he added, the “public health risk could be high.”该研究的责任作者,美国贝勒医学院(Baylor College of Medicine)的心脏病学家萨利姆·S·韦拉尼(Dr. Salim S. Virani)认为:“患者和医生需要讨论一下这样做是不是弊大于利。”由于有很多患者用阿司匹林,他补充道,“公共卫生风险可能会非常高。” /201502/359169。

  • It is an iconic image: Queen Elizabeth in her royal carriage, gently waving a graceful gloved hand.这是个标志性形象:女王伊丽莎白戴着优雅得体的手套,坐在皇家马车上轻轻地挥着手。Few of us can live like a queen, but we can wear that glove.我们没几个人能像女王那样生活,但那样的手套还是戴得起的。Or the pure merino wool pair worn by the duchess of Cambridge, or the singer Rihanna’s long French lace ones, or even the opera-length satin sheaths that set off Lady Mary’s gowns in “Downton Abbey.”或者是剑桥公爵夫人戴的那种美利奴羊毛手套,或者是歌手蕾哈娜(Rihanna)的法式蕾丝长手套,或者是《唐顿庄园》(Downton Abbey)里给玛丽(Lady Mary)的礼添的长袖绸缎手套。Each of these gloves was sewn in a converted cowshed on a farm in East Sussex, under the direction of the willowy Genevieve James.这些手套都是缝制于东萨西克斯一个农场里经改造过的牛棚,领头的是身形窈窕的吉纳维芙·詹姆斯(Genevieve James)。Her gloves are not heavy workaday leathers for bracing against the harsher elements but elegant accessories for women willing to pay, say, 360 pounds, or 0, for the added panache of a pair of full-length pure-wool gloves cuffed with silver fox fur.她的手套不是抵御寒冷的厚重工作皮革手套,而是为愿意花大价钱让自己大放异的女人设计的优雅配饰,比如,袖口镶饰银狐毛的纯羊毛全袖手套的售价为360英镑(约合3460元人民币),约合570美元。As design director of Cornelia James, the company founded by her mother in London in 1946, Ms. James is working to keep the British glove-making heritage alive and to expand to a broader international market.詹姆斯是科妮莉亚·詹姆斯(Cornelia James)公司的设计总监。该公司是她母亲于1946年在伦敦创立。她的目标是延续英国的手套制作传统,把它推向更广阔的国际市场。“Mum was great,” Ms. James said over a steaming cup of milky tea in the atelier, as sheep grazed outside. “She was an Austrian Jewish refugee who had to get out very quickly from Vienna in 1939.“我妈妈很了不起,”詹姆斯在工作室里端着一杯热腾腾的奶茶说道,窗外有绵羊在吃草。“她是来自奥地利的犹太难民,1939年匆忙逃出了维也纳。”“But mother had just finished studying fashion design at the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts, coincidentally the same college that turned down Hitler. So she came eventually to England with a suitcase full of the colored leather that she had been using to make things.”“妈妈当时刚在维也纳艺术学院完成装设计的学业,巧的是,当年也正是这所学院拒绝了希特勒。她辗转来到英国,箱子里装满她做设计用的各色皮革。”War was starting and while people had no money to buy couture clothing, Ms. James said, they could afford a handbag or gloves. Her mother survived the war years making and selling those.詹姆斯说,战争开始了,人们没钱购买高级定制装,但他们还买得起手袋或手套。她妈妈靠制作和销售这些东西挺过了战争岁月。Her breakthrough came after the war. She caught the attention of the royal couturier Norman Hartnell, who was designing Princess Elizabeth’s dress for her marriage in 1947 to Lt. Philip Mountbatten.战后,她的事业迎来转机。她引起了皇室裁缝诺曼·哈特内尔(Norman Hartnell)的注意。后者当时正在为1947年伊丽莎白公主与菲利普·蒙巴顿中尉(Lt. Philip Mountbatten)的婚礼设计礼。“My mother was invited to design all of the gloves for her trousseau,” Ms. James said. “Unlike these days, when you went on your honeymoon on the royal yacht you needed several pairs of gloves. This was really the start of her association with the royal family.”“我妈妈被请去给女王设计嫁妆里的所有手套,”詹姆斯说,“那时候跟现在不同,乘坐皇家游艇度蜜月时你需要好几双手套。这真的是她与皇室交往的开端。”Decades later, in 1979, the business was awarded a royal warrant, the mark of recognition for suppliers to the monarchy.几十年后,这家公司在1979年获得英国皇室供货认。Cornelia James died in 1999 at age 82. In the 1950s, at the peak of her long career, she had 250 workers under her wing in a former dairy in Brighton.1999年,82岁的科妮莉亚·詹姆斯去世。20世纪50年代,在她漫长事业的巅峰期,她麾下有250名工人在布赖顿的一个奶制品厂改造的车间里工作。But the popularity of gloves as a fashion accessory waned and the business now has just three sewers, known as machinists, working in tandem with Ms. James and her husband, Andrew Lawson. Mr. Lawson measures and cuts the fabric in the atelier, where bolts of fine wool lean against the walls and bobbins of colorful th occupy rows of shelves under bright overhead lights.但是,手套作为装配饰的潮流衰退了,这家公司现在只有三名裁缝,称为机械工,他们和詹姆斯及其丈夫安德鲁·劳森(Andrew Lawson)协同工作。劳森在工作室里测量、剪裁面料,一匹匹细羊毛靠在墙边,一卷卷色丝线摆放在一排排架子上,天花板上是明亮的顶灯。Here they make bridal gloves of lace, cotton, duchess satin or silk that sell for #163;130; stylish cotton race-day gloves for the Ascot set (up to #163;130); and fine wool pairs of the type a royal might wear to a ribbon-cutting event (up to #163;155). There’s also a cotton “Camilla” glove in a black and white yin-yang pattern (#163;110) and a taupe merino wool “Beatrice” with a demure bow atop the wrist (#163;70).他们在这里生产用蕾丝、棉、素库缎或丝绸做成的新娘手套,售价130英镑;时髦的阿斯科特赛马会(Ascot)比赛日棉质手套(最高130英镑);皇室成员参加剪仪式可能会戴的细羊毛手套(最高155英镑)。还有黑白八卦图案的棉质“卡米拉”(Camilla)手套(110英镑);手腕上镶着端庄蝴蝶结的灰褐色“比阿特丽斯”(Beatrice)美利奴羊毛手套(70英镑)。Evening gloves can be opera length and lacy (#163;66), in fine netting (#163;100), or duchess satin trimmed with Swarovski crystals for the red carpet (#163;130).晚装手套包括蕾丝长袖手套(66英镑)、细网眼手套(100英镑)以及走红毯用的镶有施华洛世奇水晶的素库缎手套(130英镑)。For more practical wear, a line of colorful cashmere gloves, made from best-quality yarn and knitted in Scotland, sells for #163;65. There is also a newer line of Italian-made nappa leatherski gloves and deerskin mittens (#163;260 a pair), lined in possum fur.更实用的手套包括在苏格兰用最高档的色羊绒制作的系列,售价65英镑。还有一个新系列——边缘镶有鼠貂毛的意大利软羊皮手套和鹿皮连指手套(一双260英镑)。While members of the royal family are appreciative and loyal customers, Mr. Lawson says, the company cannot depend solely on the queen.劳森说,虽说皇室成员是他们十分感激的忠实顾客,但公司不能只靠女王。“The queen is very, very, very cost conscious,” he said, clearly trying not to cross a line by saying so. “And our gloves are obviously quite expensive. So she will send them back to be repaired if they lose a stitch. One year she might have 20 pairs and the next year none, and the next year 15. And she never loses them, which is why most people order new gloves. She’s still wearing certain gloves of ours that we made 15 years ago.”“女王非常、非常、非常具有成本意识,”他这么说显然是不想得罪皇室。“我们的手套显然十分昂贵。所以如果手套脱线,她会送回来修补。某一年她可能会买20双手套,下一年可能一双也不买,再下一年可能又买15双。她的手套从来不丢,很多人买新手套都是因为旧的丢了。我们15年前做的一些手套,她现在还戴着。”With two stylish ridges, known as points, and measuring five inches from the base of the thumb up the arm, the queen’s made-to-measure design sells for #163;110. The white gloves are washable, a relief for someone who shakes so many hands.这双女王定制手套有两条时髦的凸条纹棱线,从拇趾跟到胳膊长五英寸,售价为110英镑。这双白手套可以水洗,对于需要经常握手的人来说,这真是让人欣慰。“Yes, she insists on that,” Mr. Lawson said. “It’s one of the reasons she wears fabric gloves rather than leather. When she goes on a trip she’ll have two or three or four pairs because she’s shaking all these hands.”“是的,她坚持要能水洗的,”劳森说。“这是她戴织物手套而非皮手套的一个原因。她在旅行中要准备两双、三双或四双手套,因为她要和很多人握手。”The product that emerges from this bucolic country workshop can’t compete in sheer numbers with the mass production coming out of Asia, but Mr. Lawson says the brand has a distinctive appeal, even in a country like China.单从价格角度讲,这些来自乡村田园作坊的产品肯定拼不过亚洲大批量生产的产品,但是劳森说,这个品牌具有独特的魅力,甚至对中国这样的国家也有吸引力。“We’re never going to compete on price, so we try to do better on quality and integrity of the design,” he said. “In particular, the Chinese are coming to realize more and more that fashion is not just about the big brands that everybody’s got.”“在价格方面,我们永远没有优势,所以我们努力在品质和设计方面做得更好,”他说。“尤其是,中国人越来越意识到,高级时装不只是指人人都能买到的大品牌。”“To them we are their best-kept secret — ‘only I know about Cornelia James and I want to keep it to myself’ — which is nice in some ways, but obviously we’d like for hundreds of millions of Chinese people to be buying our gloves,” he said with a chuckle.“我们是他们保守得最严密的秘密—— ‘只有我知道科妮莉亚·詹姆斯,我想守住这个秘密’——从某种角度讲,这挺好的,但我们当然希望数以亿计的中国人都来买我们的手套,”他轻声笑道。The brand sells “very well in Japan,” Ms. James said, “because we tick all the boxes there: They love the heritage, they love the story, they like a really beautifully made, small product with detail. Japan is our most important customer.”詹姆斯说,这个品牌“在日本”卖得“很好”,“因为我们符合他们的所有偏好:他们喜欢传统,喜欢我们的品牌故事,喜欢做得非常漂亮、具有精致细节的小巧物品。日本是我们最重要的市场。”“Where we’d really like to sell in is the States,” she added. But the changing structure of the retail sector, which is turning many of the once-grand department stores into boutique concession stands, has made it more difficult to interest American store buyers in smaller-margin luxury gloves, she said.她补充说,“我们真的特别希望销往美国”,但是零售业的结构在发生变化,很多宏伟的商场变成了精品专卖店,所以更难让美国的店铺买家们对利润更小的奢侈手套产生兴趣。Meanwhile, the value of the royal warrant has been incalculable.与此同时,英国皇室供货认的价值是不可估量的。“It’s a real door opener,” Mr. Lawson said. “Everyone knows it stands for excellence and quality in what you are doing. And you can’t buy it at any price. It has to be given to you.”“它真的是打开了一扇大门,”劳森说,“所有人都知道它代表着优秀和品质。它是金钱买不到的,只能通过授予的形式获得。”And while the company does make flashy lime-green-and-fuschia items for stage shows like “Mamma Mia,” many of its products are simply, subtly beautiful.虽然这家公司也为《妈妈咪呀》(Mamma Mia)等舞台剧制作黄绿色和梅红色的花哨手套,但它的很多产品是简洁、精妙的美丽物件。It’s a mark of their class that all but the ski gloves, for example, have no external label or logo.除了滑雪手套,这个品牌的手套上没有外部标签或标识——这是档次的标志。“We have a lot of customers who don’t want the branding, who don’t want the showiness,” Mr. Lawson said. “They just want a nice pair of gloves.”“很多顾客不想要商标,她们不想炫耀,”劳森说,“她们只是想要一双漂亮的手套。” /201412/346222。
  • MOSCOW — After a law went into effect last summer banning obscenities in public performances, the playwright and director Ivan Vyrypaev excised the curse words from one of his plays, “The Drunks,” for its Russian debut at the prestigious Moscow Art Theater. Some actors played the new version straight, he said, while others winked to make clear what was cut.莫斯科——去年夏天,俄罗斯开始实施一项禁止公共表演中出现脏话的法律。为了自己的剧作《酒鬼》(The Drunks)能在著名的莫斯科艺术剧院举行俄罗斯首演,编剧兼导演伊万·维里帕夫(Ivan Vyrypaev)也删除了剧中的脏话。他说,新版本上演时,有些演员不动声色,也有些演员在脏话被删除的地方挤眼示意。A quiet man of 40, Mr. Vyrypaev was circumspect about the law. “Of course my plays lost something, but my artistic life hasn’t been ruined,” he said in an interview, adding that he also had to pull three plays by other playwrights from the Praktika Theater here, where he is artistic director.40岁的维里帕夫生性温和,他对这项法律极为慎重。“当然,我的剧本失去了某种味道,但我的艺术生命还没被毁掉,”他在采访中说。维里帕夫是莫斯科普拉克提卡剧院(Praktika Theater)的艺术总监。他补充说,他还不得不撤掉该剧院其他编剧创作的三部话剧。Later, Mr. Vyrypaev said, Praktika presented other plays with curse words after President Vladimir V. Putin said in a meeting with writers that while Tolstoy and Chekhov didn’t need cursing, “You, the writers, know best.”维里帕夫说,弗拉基米尔·V·普京总统(Vladimir V. Putin)在一次与编剧的座谈会上说,托尔斯泰和契诃夫不需要使用脏话,“你们这些编剧最了解这一点”。不过,在那之后,普拉克提卡剧院还是上演了其他一些含有脏话的剧目。The advance and retreat was telling. Cultural figures in Russia today describe a climate of confusion and anxiety in which the law banning obscenities, as well as a 2013 law that criminalizes acts offending religious believers, are often ignored unless someone wants them applied. Critics say the new laws are stifling free expression and pulling the country backward.这种时进时退的做法很说明问题。俄罗斯的文化名人们认为当前的文化气候令人困惑和忧虑。2013年,俄罗斯一项法律宣布冒犯宗教信徒的行为属于违法,然而这项法律以及这项禁止使用脏话的法律经常被民众忽视,除非有人想要执行。批评者认为,这些新法律扼杀自由言论,导致国家走向倒退。During Soviet times, “At least we knew the rules,” said Irina Prokhorova, a publisher and vocal critic of the government. “This is a little bit different, because there are no rules, no official censorship.” Ms. Prokhorova likened the climate to the 1930s, when the Nazis labeled art degenerate. “This is aesthetic fundamentalism,” she said. The law on religious believers is particularly slippery. “Who are those believers? What do they believe in? No one talks about this,” she added.出版人伊琳娜·普罗霍罗娃(Irina Prokhorova)经常直言不讳地批评政府。她说,在苏联时期,“至少我们知道有哪些规定”,“现在这种情况有点不同,因为没有规定,没有官方审查”。普罗霍罗娃把目前的文化气候比作20世纪30年代,当时纳粹认为艺术是堕落的。“这是审美上的原教旨主义,”她说。她补充说,关于宗教信徒的那项法律尤其模糊。“那些信徒是谁?他们信奉的是什么?没人说明这些。”This week, a debate has been raging after it emerged on Sunday that Russia’s culture minister had ousted the director of a state-run theater in Siberia on the grounds that a production of Wagner’s “Tannh#228;user,” with a backdrop in which an image of Christ was placed in the crotch of a naked woman, had run afoul of the law against offending religious believers — even after a judge last month dropped the case as groundless.周日,俄罗斯文化部长罢黜了西伯利亚一个国营剧院的经理,理由是该剧院排演的瓦格纳(Wagner)作品《唐怀瑟》(Tannh#228;user)的布景将耶稣形象放在一个裸体女人的胯部。文化部长认为这冒犯了宗教信徒,触犯了法律。不过上个月,一位法官判定该案理由不足。该案引发热烈争论。Russia has a thriving theater scene and a constitution that bans top-down, Soviet-style censorship. But in a time of economic turmoil and growing nationalism, with society polarized in unpredictable and emotional ways over the new laws and the war in Ukraine, cultural figures say the message from the government is clear: Fall in line with the emphasis on family and religious values, or lose funding, or worse.俄罗斯的舞台艺术蓬勃发展,宪法禁止自上而下的苏联式审查制度。但是如今俄罗斯经济动荡,民族主义情绪高涨。面对新法律和乌克兰战争,整个社会出现不可预料的分化情绪。文化名人们说,政府的信号很明确:文化界要与政府强调家庭和宗教价值观的政策保持一致,否则会失去资金持,甚至遇到更糟的状况。“It’s about betrayal — those who betray are put in the Ninth Circle of Hell, like in Dante,” Kirill Serebrennikov, a prominent theater and film director and the director of the Gogol Center, a cornerstone of Moscow’s theater scene, said in a recent interview here. The result, he said, was to put writers and directors “between Scylla and Charybdis — between censorship or self-censorship.”“这其实是在惩罚背叛,就像但丁(Dante)的《神曲》那样,背叛者被打入第九层地狱,”著名戏剧和电影导演、果戈里中心(Gogol Center)主管、莫斯科戏剧界巨擘基里尔·谢列布连尼科夫(Kirill Serebrennikov)前不久在莫斯科接受采访时说。他说,结果是将剧作家和导演们置于“腹背受敌的境地,既要接受审查,又要自我审查”。That day, Mr. Serebrennikov was puzzling over a report in Izvestia, a newspaper seen as close to the Kremlin, that scholars from a research institute were evaluating whether recent theater productions had “distorted” classic Russian texts. They included his production of Gogol’s “Dead Souls” at the Gogol Center and productions of “Boris Godunov” and “The Karamazovs,” based on the Dostoyevsky novel, both mounted by the popular director Konstantin Bogomolov at other theaters.接受采访当天,谢列布连尼科夫正为《消息报》(Izvestia,该报被认为与政府关系密切)上的一则报道感到迷惑:一家研究机构的学者们正在评估近期的上演的戏剧是否“歪曲”了俄罗斯经典文学著作。遭到评估的作品包括谢列布连尼科夫在果戈里中心排演的果戈里《死魂灵》(Dead Souls),以及著名导演康斯坦丁·戈莫洛夫(Konstantin Bogomolov在其他剧院排演的《鲍里斯·戈杜诺夫》(Boris Godunov)和根据陀思妥耶夫斯基(Dostoyevsky)的同名小说改编的《卡拉马佐夫兄弟》(The Karamazovs) 。“The goal is to show us that we can’t interpret classical Russian literature at all, or to say that it’s not Russian literature, it’s Kirill Serebrennikov’s fantasy,” Mr. Serebrennikov said. He added that if theaters were to lose public funding, they would be unlikely to find it from private sources.“这项研究的目的是向我们表明,我们完全不能阐释经典俄罗斯文学,或者是说这些作品不是俄罗斯文学,而是基里尔·谢列布连尼科夫的幻想,”谢列布连尼科夫说。他补充说,如果剧院失去公共资金持,也不可能得到私人资助。In an interview last month in his office here, Vladimir Medinsky, Russia’s culture minister, said it was the prerogative of experts at the research institute to look into Russian culture, such as the plays in question. “Maybe, that’s their right to do this,” Mr. Medinsky said. But he said the academics’ findings wouldn’t have repercussions for the theaters.上个月,俄罗斯文化部长弗拉基米尔·梅金斯基(Vladimir Medinsky)在自己的办公室接受采访时说,那所研究院的专家们有天然的权利研究俄罗斯文化,包括大家讨论的这些戏剧。“也许那是他们的权利,”梅金斯基说。不过,他说学者们的发现不会对剧院造成影响。Holding a mobile phone whose case had a picture of Mr. Putin in sunglasses and a camouflage parka above the pop song lyrics “they can’t catch us,” Mr. Medinsky dismissed criticism that the ministry was effectively stifling free expression by funding only projects that it believes meet family- and religious-values standards or that portray Putin’s Russia in a positive light.当时梅金斯基手上拿着一部手机,外壳上印有普京戴墨镜、穿迷大衣的照片,下面还有一句流行歌曲歌词“他们抓不到我们”。有人批评说,文化部只资助那些它认为符合家庭和宗教价值观标准、或者正面歌颂普京统治下的俄罗斯的项目,因此严重扼制了自由言论。梅金斯基否定了这种批评。“The less they spend their life on Facebook, the less garbage they will have in their heads,” he said of government critics. (Anti-government dissent has been concentrated on social media after the Duma passed a law in 2012 restricting public rallies.)“他们在Facebook上花的时间越少,头脑中的垃圾就越少,”在提到政府批评者时,他这样说(从2012年俄议会下院杜马通过了限制公开集会的法律后,反政府异见主要集中出现在社交媒体上)。In the interview, which took place before he ousted the Siberian theater director, Mr. Medinsky was aly highly critical of the “Tannh#228;user” production. It played four performances to sold-out houses of 1,700 at the Novosibirsk State Academic Opera and Ballet Theater before representatives of the local Russian Orthodox Church complained in February.接受采访时,梅金斯基尚未罢黜西伯利亚剧院经理,不过对《唐怀瑟》演出非常不满。该剧在新西伯利亚国家学术剧院(Novosibirsk State Academic Opera)和芭蕾舞剧院(Ballet Theater)共演出四场,场场满座,共有1700名观众观看了演出。2月份,当地的俄罗斯东正教教会代表提出抗议。This week, Mr. Medinsky replaced the theater’s director with a loyalist, Vladimir Kekhman, who said he would remove “Tannh#228;user” from the repertory. (Before becoming the director of a theater he renovated in St. Petersburg, Mr. Kekhman was a business magnate who imported bananas to Russia.)本周,梅金斯基任命忠于政府的弗拉基米尔·凯科曼(Vladimir Kekhman)担任西伯利亚剧院的新主管。凯科曼称,他将把《唐怀瑟》从演出剧目中除去(凯科曼曾在圣彼得堡修复一家剧院,担任主管,之前是往俄罗斯香蕉进口行业的巨头)。While that case has resonated, with supporters rallying around the theater and critics rallying in support of the Russian Orthodox Church, the law banning obscenities has had a more concrete effect on theater and film. Introduced by a group of lawmakers including Stanislav Govorukhin, a member of Parliament and a popular film and television director during the Soviet period, the law sets fines and 90-day suspensions for violations.这起事件引起了很大反响,该剧的持者在剧院外集会,而该剧的批评者们也集会持俄罗斯东正教教会。不过,禁止脏话的法律对剧院和电影业有更切实的影响。这项法律规定,违反者将受到处罚并被勒令停业90天。提出这项法律的立法者包括下议院议员斯坦尼斯拉夫·戈沃鲁欣(Stanislav Govorukhin)。他是苏联时期的著名电影和电视导演。In the interview, Mr. Medinsky defended the law and said there were no plans to revise or revoke it.在采访中,梅金斯基维护了这项法律,称没有计划修改或废除它。Unlike the average English-language expletive thrown into everyday conversation, in Russian, cursing resonates as extremely crude; it has its own grammar and is never used in polite conversation. It is not uncommon for some older theatergoers to gasp when curses are uttered onstage.不像英语,脏话在俄语日常对话中极少出现,被认为极其粗鲁。脏话有自己的语法,在礼貌的交谈中从不出现。当舞台上出现脏话时,年长观众感到惊讶的情况并不罕见。Some directors see the anti-obscenity law as a distraction from far more worrisome issues. “Imagine Tony Soprano ruling the country, and Tony Soprano issues a law against obscenities,” said Alexander Zeldovich, the director of the critically acclaimed 2011 dystopian film “Target.”有些导演认为,禁止脏话的法律是在转移人们对其他严重问题的关注。“想像一下,如果是托尼·索普拉诺(Tony Soprano)统治这个国家,而他颁布法律禁止说脏话会是什么情形,”导演亚历山大·泽利多维奇(Alexander Zeldovich)说。他2011年的反乌托邦影片《标靶》(Target)广受好评。But film professionals are divided. The director Valeria Gai Germanika, 31, known for her coming-of-age films, said she didn’t mind cutting the cursing from her 2014 film “Yes and Yes.”但是电影专业人士对此意见不一。31岁的导演瓦列里娅·加伊·(Valeria Gai Germanika)以成长电影闻名。她说,她不介意去除她2014年影片《是的是的》(Yes and Yes)中的脏话。“We dubbed it again, and I actually think it became even better,” she said in a telephone interview. Asked if such choices should be made by artists themselves or the government, Ms. Gai Germanika said: “There’s a law, and I’m not going to fight against it. Actually, all those great films made in the Soviet era had no swearing, and people learned about the country through them.”“我们重新配音,实际上我觉得修改之后反而变得更好了,”她在电话采访中说。当被问及这样的选择应该由艺术家还是政府做出时,她说,“有这样的法律,我不打算对抗法律。实际上,苏联时期所有精的电影都没有脏话,人们通过那些电影去了解那个时代。”Some theaters say they’re simply ignoring the law. “We don’t abide by it, because we think it’s anti-constitutional,” said Yelena Gremina, a co-founder of Moscow’s scrappy Teatr.doc, known for its politically charged productions inspired by real-life events.有些剧院称,他们不理会这项法律。“我们不遵守它,因为我们认为它违反宪法,”敢作敢为的莫斯科Teatr.doc剧团的联合创始人叶连娜·格里米娜(Yelena Gremina)说。该剧团以上演受真实事件启发创作的政治剧目闻名。But there is genuine concern, especially after members of the performance group Pussy Riot were jailed in 2012 on charges of hooliganism after singing an anti-Putin song in a Moscow church.不过,人们的确感到忧虑,尤其是在2012年表演团队Pussy Riot在莫斯科一座教堂演唱反普京歌曲被判处流氓罪入狱之后。“After Pussy Riot, everything is serious; they put those girls in jail for two years,” said Alexander Rodnyansky, a leading film producer, most recently of the Oscar-nominated “Leviathan,” which Mr. Medinsky had criticized for its negative portrayal of Putin’s Russia. (Before it was shown last fall, the film was redubbed to remove the curses.)“在Pussy Riot事件之后,一切都变得很严肃。他们判那些女孩入狱两年,”著名电影制片人亚历山大·罗德尼扬斯基(Alexander Rodnyansky)说。他最新制作的影片《利维坦》(Leviathan)获得了奥斯卡提名。梅金斯基批评该片对普京统治下的俄罗斯的描绘过于负面(去年秋季该片上映前,重新配音,去除了脏话)。Creative artists say they are deeply worried about the direction of the country, but they find no shortage of material.创意艺术家们说,他们为俄罗斯的未来感到极为担忧,但他们绝不缺乏素材。“Putin is a process,” said Mr. Vyrypaev, the director. “I treat him like hydrogen sulfide. If you breathe too much, you’ll die. But it’s still part of nature.”“普京是一个过程,”导演维里帕夫说,“我把他看做硫化氢。吸入过多硫化氢,人会死。但它是大自然的一部分。” /201504/370013。
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