抚顺市人民医院治疗包皮包茎哪家医院最好乐视时讯

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年10月24日 03:51:11
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One slips on so-so earnings – only bn in quarterly profits. The other jumps 3 per cent on a deal that will hurt its bottom line. It isn’t hard to see that the latter, Lenovo, has more market momentum than Samsung Electronics. Both make consumer electronics and tech hardware, from Lenovo’s new server business to Samsung’s chips. Might Lenovo become the next Samsung?一只股票因企业盈利表现一般而下滑——季度利润只有70亿美元。另一只股票则因一笔将会损害公司利润的交易而上涨3%。不难看出,后者——联想(Lenovo)比三星电子(Samsung Electronics)的市场势头更强劲。从联想的新务器业务,到三星的芯片业务,两家公司都生产消费者电子产品和科技硬件。联想会成为下一个三星吗?On a size basis, the comparison is still a bit ridiculous. Samsung’s market capitalisation is 0bn; Lenovo’s, bn. Samsung’s profits last quarter were 10 times Lenovo’s for the past year. Still, Lenovo’s deal this week to buy IBM’s X86 server business demonstrates that it still has the ambition it showed when it bought Big Blue’s PC business in 2004.从规模上看,这样的比较仍有些可笑。三星的市值是1600亿美元;联想则是140亿美元。三星在最近一个季度的利润是联想过去一年利润的10倍。不过,联想近日收购IBM x86务器业务的交易表明,它仍具备其2004年收购“蓝色巨人”个人电脑业务时所展现的雄心壮志。The relatively low price paid – half of sales – reflects the IBM unit’s swing into loss last year. The business will knock about 5 per cent off Lenovo’s full-year earnings per share, including the slight dilution from the shares issued to IBM. The shares’ rise suggests that investors think it can use its lower cost structure to lift profits.相对低廉的收购价格(相当于销售额的一半),反映了IBM该项业务去年陷入亏损。该业务将令联想的全年每股盈利削减5%,包括向IBM发行股票后造成的轻微稀释。股价上涨表明,投资者认为联想能以相对较低的成本结构来提高利润。Investors like bold tech stories. Samsung’s success was not born of timidity either. It has never bought in growth as Lenovo has, but has taken risks to move up the value chain. One of the reasons for its unexpectedly poor earnings in the latest quarter was a Won800bn (8m) bonus paid to employees to mark the 20th anniversary of a strategy. Back then its chairman made a bonfire of 150,000 mobile phones – worth m – to make the point he wanted better. Now Samsung is trying to push into software – a challenge for a company staffed by hardware engineers.投资者喜欢大胆的科技企业故事。三星的成功也并非来自怯懦。它从没有像联想那样通过收购来实现增长,但它曾冒风险向价值链上游转移。三星在最近一个季度意料之外的利润下滑,其中一个原因是它向员工付了8000亿韩元(合7.38亿美元)的奖金,以庆祝其20年前实施的一项战略。当时三星主席将15万部手机(总值5000万美元)付之一炬,以此表达他期望打造更好产品的决心。现在三星正试图打入软件领域——对一家由硬件工程师组成的公司来说是个挑战。Samsung’s shares have risen 20 per cent a year, compounded, for the past two decades. Should Lenovo follow suit, it will take it a little over a decade to reach Samsung’s present size.过去20年里,三星股价年均复合上涨20%。联想若能实现同样的成就,它将需要10年多一点的时间达到三星目前的规模。Lenovo has momentum on its side. But can it sustain profit growth on a foundation of low-cost manufacture of commodity hardware? Samsung invested aggressively to acquire an enduring competitive advantage – scale – in chips, and from there built a hugely profitable premium phone business. Lenovo needs to find a similar edge.势头对联想有利,但它能否以低成本制造平价商品化的硬件为基础,维持利润增长?三星通过大举投资,获得了芯片领域的持久竞争优势——规模,在此基础上建立了一个利润丰厚的高端手机业务。联想需要找到类似的竞争优势。 /201401/274448Researchers in South Korea may soon have a natural, portable answer -- a "Kiss Apple" tiny enough to be stashed in a pocket or purse for quick eating prior to locking lips.Apples help freshen breath naturally and remove pieces of food stuck in the teeth, but the ping-pong ball-sized apple would be easier to carry around, and far less filling to gulp at a critical moment."We can mass produce the species with stronger functions that control food odors in as few as two years," Hwang added.韩国农业发展部的 Hwang Hye-sung 研究人员欲培养一种新品种的苹果(kiss apple),它的特点是小巧、切有治疗口臭的作用。据说这种苹果将只有乒乓球大小,便于携带,你可以随时随地的拿出来咬一口,它就像口香糖一样具有清新口气的作用。当然,同时也可拥有苹果的营养价值。Hwang Hye-sung 说该苹果可以帮助口气清新自然,同时还可以移除牙缝的残渣。目前计划这种苹果在2年内批量上市。 /201105/135415

Behind the hellish Ebola epidemic ravaging West Africa lies an agent that fittingly embodies the mad contradictions of a nightmare. It is alive yet dead, simple yet complex, mindless yet prophetic, seemingly able to anticipate our every move.在埃拉疫情侵袭西非的背后有一个恰好能体现一场噩梦矛盾之处的载体。它活着但已经死了,简单而又复杂,盲目而又具先知性,似乎能够预见我们的每一个举动。For scientists who study the evolution and behavior of viruses, the Ebola pathogen is performing true to its vast, ancient and staggeringly diverse kind. By all evidence, researchers say, viruses have been parasitizing living cells since the first cells arose on earth nearly four billion years ago.对于研究病毒演变及行为的科学家来说,埃拉病原体的本质与数量庞大、历史悠久、形态各异的各种病毒并无不同。研究人员称,所有的据都显示,自大约40亿年前地球上出现第一批细胞开始,病毒就一直寄生在活细胞当中。Some researchers go so far as to suggest that viruses predate their hosts. That they essentially invented cells as a reliable and renewable resource they could then exploit for the sake of making new viral particles.一些研究人员甚至表示,病毒先于宿主出现。它们基本上创造了细胞,并将其当做可靠的、可延续的资源,日后可以用来产生新病毒。It was the primordial viral ;collective,; said Luis P. Villarreal, director of the Center for Virus Research at the University of California, Irvine, ;that originated the capacity for life to be self-sustaining.;加州大学欧文分校(University of California, Irvine)病毒研究中心(Center for Virus Research)主任路易斯·维拉里尔(Luis P. Villarreal)说,“生命的自我维持能力源于”原始的病毒“团体”。;Viruses are not just these threatening or annoying parasitic agents,; he added. ;They#39;re the creative front of biology, where things get figured out, and they always have been.;“病毒不仅仅是危险的、令人讨厌的寄生体,”他还说。“它们还处于生物学的创新前沿,为问题的解决做着贡献,它们也一直都是这样的。”Researchers are deeply impressed by the depth and bth of the viral universe, or virome. Viruses have managed to infiltrate the cells of every life form known to science. They infect animals, plants, bacteria, slime mold, even larger viruses. They replicate in their host cells so prodigiously and stream out into their surroundings so continuously that if you collected all the viral flotsam afloat in the world#39;s oceans, the combined tonnage would outweigh that of all the blue whales.病毒世界的深度与广度给研究人员留下了深刻的印象。病毒已成功侵入科学界已知的每一种生命形式的细胞中。它们会感染动物、植物、细菌、粘液菌,甚至是较大的病毒。它们在宿主细胞中大量复制,不断涌入周围环境。如果将全球海洋里漂浮的所有病毒性物质收集起来,总重会超过所有蓝鲸的重量。Not that viruses want to float freely. As so-called obligate parasites entirely dependent on host cells to replicate their tiny genomes and fabricate their protein packages newborn viruses, or virions, must find their way to fresh hosts or they will quickly fall apart, especially when exposed to sun, air or salt.病毒并非想要四处漂泊。由于所谓的专性寄生物完全依赖宿主细胞复制它们极小的基因组及合成蛋白,因此新产生的病毒或病毒粒子必须找到新宿主,否则它们就会迅速崩溃,特别是暴露在太阳、空气或盐中的时候。;Drying out is a death knell for viral particles,; said Lynn W. Enquist, a virologist at Princeton.普林斯顿大学(Princeton University)病毒学家林恩·W·恩奎斯特(Lynn W. Enquist)说,“对于病毒粒子来说,干燥的环境意味着死亡。”How long shed virions can persist if kept moist and unbuffeted — for example, in soil or in body excretions like blood or vomit — is not always clear but may be up to a week or two. That is why the sheets and clothing of Ebola patients must be treated as hazardous waste and surfaces hosed down with bleach.目前并不是十分清楚,如果保持潮湿且不受打击,例如在土壤或血液、呕吐物等人体排出的物质中,分离的病毒粒子能够维持多长时间,但可能最多是一两周。因此,埃拉患者的床单和衣必须被当作危险废物处理,表面都得用漂白剂冲洗。Viruses are masters at making their way from host to host and cell to cell, using every possible channel. Whenever biologists discover a new way that body cells communicate with one another, sure enough, there#39;s a virus aly tapping into exactly that circuit in its search for new meat.病毒善于通过一切可能的途径,从一个宿主进入另一个宿主,从一个细胞进入另一个细胞。每当生物学家发现身体细胞交换信息的新方式后,果然就已经有病毒在利用这个通道,寻找新目标。Reporting recently in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Karla Kirkegaard, a professor of microbiology and genetics at Stanford University School of Medicine, and her colleagues described a kind of ;unconventional secretion; pathway based on so-called autophagy, or self-eating, in which cells digest small parts of themselves and release the pieces into their surroundings as signaling molecules targeted at other cells — telling them, for example, that it#39;s time for a new round of tissue growth.最近,斯坦福大学医学院(Stanford University School of Medicine)微生物学及基因学教授卡拉·柯克加德(Karla Kirkegaard)和同事在《国家科学院院刊》(Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)发表文章描述了一种基于所谓的自噬的“非传统分泌”途径,即细胞消化一部分自身细胞质,然后将它们释放到周围的环境中,充当针对其他细胞的信号分子,比如,告诉它们,现在是进行新一轮组织生长的时候了。The researchers determined that the poliovirus can exploit the autophagy conduit to cunning effect. Whereas it was long believed that new polio particles could exit their natal cell only by bursting it open and then seeking new cells to infect, the researchers found that the virions could piggyback to freedom along the autophagy pathway.研究人员断定,小儿麻痹症病毒能够非常巧妙地利用这条自噬途径来达成目的。从前,人们一直以为,新的小儿麻痹症病毒粒子脱离产生这些病毒的细胞的唯一方式就是冲破细胞,寻找并感染新细胞,而研究人员发现病毒粒子能够在自噬的过程中搭便车,从而获得自由。In that way, the virus could expand its infectious empire without destroying perfectly good viral factories en route. The researchers suspect that other so-called naked or nonenveloped viruses (like the cold virus and the enteroviruses that have lately plagued children in this country and Asia) could likewise sp through unconventional secretion pathways.如此一来,病毒可以在不破坏完美的病毒工厂的情况下扩大传染范围。研究人员推测,其他所谓的裸病毒或无包膜病毒(比如最近困扰美国及亚洲儿童的感冒病毒和肠道病毒)同样能够通过非传统分泌途径传播。For their part, viruses like Ebola have figured out how to slip in and out of cells without kicking up a fuss by cloaking themselves in a layer of greasy lipids stolen from the host cell membrane, rather as you might foist a pill down a pet#39;s throat by smearing it in butter.埃拉等病毒已经知道如何在从宿主细胞的细胞膜中盗取的一层脂质的掩护下悄悄进入、脱离细胞,就像你用抹上黄油的药片去喂食宠物一样。According to Eric O. Freed, the head of the virus-cell interaction section at the National Cancer Institute, several recent technological breakthroughs have revolutionized the study of viruses.美国国家癌症研究所(National Cancer Institute)病毒与细胞互动部门的主管埃里克·O·弗里德(Eric O. Freed)表示,最近几项技术突破使病毒研究发生了巨大变革。Advances in electron microscopy and super-resolved fluorescence microscopy — the subject of this year#39;s Nobel Prize in Chemistry — allow scientists to track the movement of viral particles in and between cells, and to explore the fine atomic structure of a virus embraced by an antibody, or a virus clasped onto the protein lock of a cell.电子显微镜和超高分辨率荧光显微镜的发展使得科学家能够追踪病毒粒子在细胞内及细胞间的活动,了解被抗体包围的病毒或细胞蛋白结合位上的病毒的精细原子结构。今年的诺贝尔化学奖就颁发给了对超高分辨率荧光显微镜发展做出贡献的科学家。Through ultrafast gene sequencing and targeted gene silencing techniques, researchers have identified genes critical to viral infection and drug resistance. ;We#39;ve discovered viruses we didn#39;t even know existed,; Dr. Freed said. And that could prove important to detecting the emergence of a new lethal strain.研究人员已经通过快速基因测序及靶基因沉默技术,确定了对病毒感染及抗药性至关重要的基因。弗里德士说,“我们发现了之前不知道的病毒。”事实可能会明,这对新的致命病毒的探测非常重要。Viruses are also notable for what they lack. They have no ribosomes, the cellular components that fabricate the proteins that do all the work of keeping cells alive.病毒还有一个显著特点,它们缺少一些东西。它们没有核糖体——合成蛋白的细胞器,而蛋白是维持细胞存活的物质。Instead, viruses carry instructions for co-opting the ribosomes of their host, and repurposing them to the job of churning out capsid and other viral proteins. Other host components are enlisted to help copy the instructions for building new viruses, in the form of DNA or RNA, and to install those concise nucleic texts in the newly constructed capsids.但病毒会携带利用其宿主核糖体的指令,改变它们的用途,使它们合成大量衣壳及其他病毒蛋白。宿主细胞的其他部分则被用于帮助复制发展新病毒的指令——其形式表现为DNA或RNA,并将这些简单的核素安置在新合成的衣壳中。;Viruses are almost miraculously devious,; Dr. Freed said. ;They#39;re just bundles of protein and nucleic acid, and they#39;re able to get into cells and run the show.;“病毒极其狡诈,”弗里德士说。“虽然它们只不过是一堆蛋白和核酸,它们却能侵入细胞,控制细胞。”;On the one hand, they#39;re quite simple,; Dr. Enquist said. ;On the other hand, they may be the most highly evolved form of genetic information on the planet.;“一方面,它们非常简单,;恩奎斯特士说。“另一方面,它们可能是地球上进化程度最高的遗传信息形式。;Viruses also work tirelessly to evade the immune system that seeks to destroy them. One of the deadliest features of the Ebola virus is its capacity to cripple the body#39;s first line of defense against a new pathogen, by blocking the release of interferon.病毒还坚持不懈地躲避着试图摧毁它们的免疫系统。埃拉病毒能够阻碍干扰素的释放,突破人体防御新病菌的第一道防线,这也是该病毒最致命的特征之一。;That gives the virus a big advantage to grow and sp,; said Christopher F. Basler, a professor of microbiology at Mount Sinai School of Medicine.西奈山医学院(Mount Sinai School of Medicine)微生物学教授克里斯托弗·F·巴斯勒(Christopher F. Basler)说,“这给了这种病毒巨大的优势,有助于它的增长和传播。”At the same time, said Aftab Ansari of Emory University School of Medicine, the virus disables the body#39;s coagulation system, leading to uncontrolled bleeding. By the time the body can rally its second line of defense, the adaptive immune system, it is often too late.埃默里大学医学院的(Emory University School of Medicine)的阿夫塔卜·安萨里(Aftab Ansari)表示,与此同时,病毒破坏了人体凝血系统,导致人体不可控制地出血。等到人体筑起第二道防线——适应性免疫系统时,通常为时已晚。Yet the real lethality of Ebola, Dr. Ansari said, stems from a case of mistaken location, a zoonotic jump from wild animal to human being. The normal host for Ebola virus is the fruit bat, in which the virus replicates at a moderate pace without killing or noticeably sickening the bat.但安萨里士表示,埃拉病毒真正的杀伤力源于错放了位置,从野生动物跨物种感染了人类。埃拉病毒的宿主通常是果蝠,病毒在不使果蝠死亡或明显患病的情况下稳步复制。;A perfect parasite is able to replicate and not kill its host,; Dr. Ansari said. ;The Ebola virus is the perfect parasite for a bat.;“完美的寄生生物能够复制,且不杀死宿主,”安萨里说。“埃拉病毒是蝙蝠身上的完美寄生物。” /201410/338773

  

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  Geminid meteor shower peaks December 14. 双子座流星雨昨夜大爆发。While the Gemini meteor shower is scheduled to happen between December 12th and the 16th, tonight the cosmic event will peak allowing viewers to watch shooting stars throughout the night sky. 双子座流星雨的预计出现时间为12月13日至16日,今夜这一宇宙盛事将迎来大爆发,观测者们今夜可以大饱眼福,看到流星陨落的美景。Bill Cooke of the NASA Meteoroid Environment Office said, ;Observers with clear skies could see as many as 40 Geminids per hour. Our all-sky network of meteor cameras has captured several early Geminid fireballs. They were so bright, we could see them despite the moonlight.;来自NASA流星体环境研究所的Bill Cooke表示:;如果天气晴好,观测者每小时能看到40颗双子座流星。我们的全天候流星照相机捕捉到一些早到的双子座流星,它们非常明亮,就算是在月光下也可以看清。;People who want to see it should look up between 9pm and sunrise tomorrow morning. The Gemini meteor shower is an annual event that happens when ;earth runs through a trail of dusty debris that litters the orbit of 3200 Phaethon.; Although, this meteor shower and the reason behind it remains a bit of an enigma. NASA reports, ;Comets vaporizing in hot sunlight naturally produce such debris trails, but rocky asteroids like 3200 Phaethon do not. At least they#39;re not supposed to. The incongruity has baffled researchers since 1983 when 3200 Phaethon was discovered by NASA#39;s IRAS satellite.;等待双子座流星雨的观测者可以从今晚的9点到明天凌晨持续关注。双子座流星雨是每年都会出现的三大流星雨之一(另外分别是象限仪座流星雨和英仙座流星雨)。当地球遇到小行星3200法厄同的星尘;尾巴;时,就形成了双子座流星雨(双子座也是唯一母体非彗星的流星雨)。不过双子座形成的原因至今还有一些谜团未解开。根据美国宇航局NASA的报道:;彗星在炽热的太阳光线的照射下会自然蒸发出一些星尘轨迹,但如3200法厄同这样的岩石小行星却不会,所以情况本不该如此。自1983年这种IRAS卫星发现3200法厄同行星以来,这种不协调的现象让科学家们大惑不解。; It#39;s a good thing the science doesn#39;t have to totally make sense to appreciate the beauty in the sky tonight. So, have a cup of coffee with dinner, and stretch your neck for some perfect star gazing tonight. 科学无法解释这种美景也许是件好事,就让我们今晚在夜空中静静欣赏吧。所以就在今夜,泡杯咖啡,伸长脖子,凝望夜空中的完美流星表演吧。词汇点津: NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration)美国国家航空和宇宙航行局 /201112/164533

  Stephen Hawking, who spent his career decoding the universe and even experienced weightlessness, is urging the continuation of space exploration — for humanity’s sake.The 71-year-old Hawking said he did not think humans would survive another 1,000 years “without escaping beyond our fragile planet.”The British cosmologist made the remarks Tuesday before an audience of doctors, nurses and employees at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, where he toured a stem cell laboratory that’s focused on trying to slow the progression of Lou Gehrig’s disease.Hawking was diagnosed with the neurological disorder 50 years ago while a student at Cambridge University. He recalled how he became depressed and initially didn’t see a point in finishing his doctorate. But he continued to delve into his studies.“If you understand how the universe operates, you control it in a way,” he said.Renowned for his work on black holes and the origins of the cosmos, Hawking is famous for bringing esoteric physics concepts to the masses through his best-selling books, including “A Brief History of Time,” which sold more than 10 million copies worldwide. Hawking titled his hourlong lecture to Cedars-Sinai employees “A Brief History of Mine.”Hawking has survived longer than most people with Lou Gehrig’s disease, also known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. ALS attacks nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that control the muscles. People gradually have more and more trouble breathing and moving as muscles weaken and waste away. There’s no cure and no way to reverse the disease’s progression. Few people with ALS live longer than a decade.Hawking receives around-the-clock care, can only communicate by twitching his cheek, and relies on a computer mounted to his wheelchair to convey his thoughts in a distinctive robotic monotone.Despite his diagnosis, Hawking has remained active. In 2007, he floated like an astronaut on an aircraft that creates weightlessness by making parabolic dives.Hawking rattled off nuggets of advice: Look up at the stars and not down at your feet. Be curious.“However difficult life may seem, there is always something you can do and succeed at,” he said.Dr. Robert Baloh, director of Cedars-Sinai’s ALS program who invited Hawking, said he had no explanation for the physicist’s longevity.Baloh said he has treated patients who lived for 10 years or more.“But 50 years is unusual, to say the least,” he said.In 2009, President Barack Obama awarded Hawking the Presidential Medal of Freedom for his work.史蒂芬·霍金这位究其一生破译宇宙奥秘、甚至体验过失重状态的英国科学家,正敦促人类为了自身利益继续进行太空探索。今年71岁的霍金4月9日表示,人类若“不逃离我们脆弱的星球”将难以再活1000年。霍金本周二在西达斯西奈医学中心作出上述表示,在场的有医护人员和其他职员。他参观了这家医疗中心一个专门致力于延缓“渐冻人”病的干细胞实验室。50年前,霍金还在剑桥大学读书时被诊断出患上“渐冻人”病。他回忆起自己变得抑郁的过程,最初甚至想放弃士学位,但他最终继续投身研究。“如果你明白了宇宙的运转方式,在某种程度上你就能控制它。”他说。黑洞及宇宙起源理论让霍金享誉全球,他更以能将晦涩难懂的物理概念写成大众畅销书而闻名,其中《时间简史》的全球发行量达到了1000万册。在这家医疗中心,霍金当众发表了长达一小时的演讲,名为《我的简史》。霍金比其他同病患者活得更长,“渐动人”疾病也称为肌萎缩侧索硬化症,这种疾病会攻击人体中控制肌肉运动的大脑和脊髓的神经细胞。患者将因肌肉逐渐松弛衰弱变得呼吸困难,行动缓慢。目前尚无治愈良方。很少有人患病后能活过十年。霍金需要日夜照看,只能通过抽动脸颊来进行交流,依靠装在轮椅上的电脑发出特别的机器人声表达思想。虽然身患重病,但霍金依旧活跃。2007年,他乘坐飞机在空中像宇航员一样体验了失重之感。霍金说出金玉良言:仰望星空,保持好奇心。“不管生活看起来多么困难,总有可做并且成功之事。”该中心“渐冻人”疾病项目主管罗伯特-巴隆医生称其长寿无法解释。也正是巴隆医生邀请霍金前来。巴隆表示他的患者中曾有活过10年或10年以上的。“但至少可以说,活过50年的患者非常少见。”2009年,奥巴马总统授予霍金总统自由勋章以表彰其工作。

  So you want to become a web developer?你想成为一名web开发者吗?Well then it’s time to put down that “Learn Super Duper Language v8.3 in 24 hours” book. Instead, make it a habit to ask yourself these 10 questions every day.那么,现在是时候放下《24小时学会超级骗子语言v8.3》书,相反,你应当养成每天反问自己以下10个问题的习惯。Is there a pattern here?是否有一种模式存在?Looking for patterns in what works and what doesn’t work leads to discovering the underlying principles that drive seemingly unrelated concepts and behaviours. To get a deeper understanding of the work that you do make it a habit of asking yourself “Is there a pattern here?”.找寻模式中的可行与不可行将发现其中看似无关的想法或基本原则。要对工作达到深入的理解,你必须养成反问自己“是否有一种模式存在?”的习惯。This applies to more than just your code. Is there a pattern in the types of changes requested by business? Is there a pattern in the way technologies evolve? Are you seeing the same types of bugs popping up again and again?它不仅仅适用于你的代码。是否有适应各类型商业变化的模式吗?是否有一种适用于技术发展的模式?你有没有看到同类型的错误如雨后春笋般冒出来?To understand is to perceive patterns#8202;—#8202;Isaiah Berlin理解就是理解模式 -- 以赛亚·伯林How can I make this simpler?怎么让它变得更简单?Often as web developers we want to produce complex and scalable solutions. Making something tremendously complex makes you feel like the master of your universe. The problem is that you will never be able to predict how your product and business is going to change in the future.开发者经常想得到复杂的和可扩展的解决方案。做一些极为复杂的东西,觉得自己就是自己宇宙的主宰。问题是将来你永远无法预知产品和业务会如何改变。“Architecture” and coding is much more like gardening than architecture. You need to be able to adapt to an ever changing environment. The more complex your solution the more difficult this becomes.“架构”和代码更像是园艺而不是建筑。你必须要有能力去适应不断变化的环境。越复杂的解决方案越难做。Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication.#8202;—#8202;Leonardo da Vinci简洁是终极的复杂 -- #8202;列昂纳多·达·芬奇Why does it work like that?东西为什么像那样运作?Knowing that something works and knowing why it works that way are two very different things. If you know why something behaves the way it does you are able to make significantly better decisions.知道东西像那样运作和知道为什么会像那样运作是两个完全不同的事。如果你知道事情为什么会那样,那么你就能够做出更好的决策。The difference between a great coder and somebody who knows a programming language is the depth of understanding that comes from understanding why.一个伟大的程序员和知道有某种编程语言的人来说,差别在于理解为什么的深度。The same principle applies when fixing an issue. “Just restart the service.” “Have you tried rebooting it?” We have all said something along those lines when a problem pops up. Every time you say something like that you lose a golden opportunity to learn.同样的原理也适用于问题修正。“重启一下务。” “你试过重启吗?” 当有问题发生时,我们经常会想到这些话。每次你这样说时,你就失去了一个学习的黄金机会。Understanding why something broke allows you to fix the root cause and eliminate this class of issues permanently. At the very least you won’t make the same mistake again.理解为什么出现这样的错误,将修正根本原因,避免出现治标不治本。最起码,你以后不要再犯同样的错误。Has somebody done this before?之前有没有人做过?Whenever you find yourself inventing a complex algorithm you are probably on the wrong track. Unless you are busy researching a PHD thesis chances are extremely good that somebody else has aly solved this problem.无论何时,你发现自己发明了一个复杂的算法,你很可能走在了错误的轨道上。除非你搜索到一份别人正好解决了这个问题士论文。Need to write an algorithm to add a label to the item closest to a users mouse? Have a look at Voronoi Tesselations. Want to find the shortest path for a delivery truck? Look at Dijkstra. Want to find tags similar to the one the user just entered, how about figuring out it’s Levenschtein distance.需要编写一个向用户鼠标旁的item添加标签的算法?看看Voronoi Tesselations. 想要找到卡车送货的最短路径?看看Dijkstra. 想要找到用户输入内容的最接近的标记?应该是找到它的Levenschtein distance.Those are just a few examples but trust me, they are everywhere.这只是几个简单示例,相信我,它们无处不在。If I have seen further it is by standing on ye sholders of Giants.#8202;—#8202;Isaac Newton如果我看得更远,那是因为我站在巨人的肩上 -- 艾萨克·牛顿Who said it first?谁最先提到它?So you think you know REST right?你认为你知道REST吗?Have you Roy Fielding’s original paper describing REST and do you understand it’s intended purpose? That blog post by that guy who has 5 minutes more experience than you using the REST API generation wizard in Super cool IDE v7 doesn’t count.你有读过Roy Fielding描述REST的论文原文吗?你真的明白它的最初用意吗?那种在IDE v7工具中比你多用REST API生成向导5分钟的家伙写出来的客可不算数的。Do yourself a favour and always try the original source of a concept or theory. Then by all means go the latest developments by industry thought leaders but if you don’t know where they started how can you follow where they are going?帮自己一个忙,试图去读概念或原理的原始文档,然后通过各种手段去了解行业领袖的最新发展动态。如果你不知道他们是从哪些开始的,那就紧跟他们的步伐吧?(不知道他们从哪来,就跟着他们到哪去吧!)Do I love what I’m doing?我喜欢现在所做的吗?Lets face it programming is hard.请面对编程其实是很难的。Besides being hard programming is constantly evolving. The state of the art framework from 2 years ago is a clunky dinosaur by todays standards. To stay at the top of your game you will need to commit to a lifelong process of learning and research.除了很难以外,编程还是发展很快的。Art框架从2年前的“笨重恐龙”已经发展到今天的标准。为了站到你“游戏”的顶端,你必须树立一个终生学习和研究的信念。If you don’t love what you are doing you don’t have a hope in hell of keeping up with the guys who do. So find out what kind of coding gets you fired up. Don’t decide to become a security specialist because there is a gap in the market or because it pays well, don’t become a UX expert just because an article just came out in WIRED saying that UX is the hottest job in tech.如果你不喜欢你所做的,那么你就没有跟上其他家伙(喜欢自己所做的)的可能。所以找到让你燃烧的编程类型!不要因为市场缺口或者收入不菲而决定成为一名安全专家,不要因为一篇文章说UX是最热门的职业而决定成为一名UX专家。I’ll say it again, do what you love.再说一次,做你喜欢的。Do what you love and the necessary resources will follow.#8202;—#8202;Peter McWilliams做你喜欢的,所需的资源将随之而来的 -- 彼得·麦克威廉斯Where else could I use this?其他地方还可以使用吗?One of the biggest limits I see web developers placing on themselves is a failure of imagination.我看到web开发者最大的一个限制就是,自己失败的想象力。If we learn something in a specific context or see a technique used to solve a specific problem we assume that’s the only place it applies. This is almost always wrong. Every time you learn something new ask yourself: “Where else could I use this?”.如果我们学习到一个适应于特定环境的东西,或者看到解决某个特定问题的技术时,我们认为这就它唯一适用的地方。这是完全错误的。每当学到新东西时,反问自己:“其他地方还可以使用吗?”Found great new positioning methods to place nodes on a graph, how about applying that same technique to find interesting data points in a dataset that has 2 dimensions? Found a cool way to send data over websockets from the client to the server? How would this apply in making a scalable set of backend services? Sometimes you will be wrong, but sometimes you will be right.当发现了在图表上定位节点的新的伟大的方法时,是不是可以将它应用于二维数据集中感兴趣数据的定位呢?当发现通过websockets从客户端发送数据到务器端的新方法时,它怎么才能应用到可扩展的后台务上呢?有时是错误的,但有时也是正确的。Which brings us to our next question…这给我们带来了下一个问题......Logic will get you from A to Z; imagination will get you everywhere.#8202;—#8202;Albert Einstein逻辑只能带你从A到Z,想像力去可以带你到任何地方 --- 阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦What did I fail at today?今天有什么做错的吗?One of the easiest ways to increase innovation is to lower the cost of failure.增加创收的最简单方法是降低错误的损失。The game developing company Valve has embraced this like few others. The same applies to your progression along the path to becoming a web developer, if you are afraid to fail you will never make those big breakthroughs.游戏开发公司Valve和其他几个公司很认为这个观点。这同样适用你成为web开发者的进步过程。如果你害怕失败,你就不会有大的突破。Be brave, try something, fail, learn and try again.勇敢、尝试、失败、学习然后再来。Do not fear mistakes. You will know failure. Continue to reach out.#8202;—#8202;Benjamin Franklin不要害怕错误,认识失败,然后重新来过。--- 本杰明·富兰克林How can we make this possible?怎么使它变成可能?In the world we live in there really is very little that is impossible (with a few exceptions).我们生活在世界上很小的一个地方是不可能的(除了少数例外)。Start from the assumption that whatever you want to do is possible and then work your way back. You might find that what you wanted to do is impractical for the time being but with the pace of change in todays world, it might become practical sooner than you think.假设不管你做的什么事情都是可行的,然后采用向后的方向回推回去。你可能会发现,你想做的暂时是不切实际的,但它足以改变世界,可能变成现实的速度比你想像的还要快。It always seems impossible until its done.#8202;—#8202;Nelson Mandela直到完成前,似乎都还是不可能的 --- 纳尔逊曼德拉Who can I learn from?我可以向谁学习?You should never work anywhere where you are the smartest person in the room.永远不要在你是最聪明的地方工作。Pick jobs and companies where you can work with people who inspire you and challenge you to be better. It doesn’t have to be coding related, there is a world outside your text editor and the command line. Learn things from other fields and find ways to apply it in your job.挑选拥有可以启发你、激励你做得更多的同事的工作和公司。不要与编程扯上关系,在文本编辑器和命令行外面还有一个完整的世界存在。从其他领域学习,设法应用到你的工作中。Being competent isn’t good enough anymore.不管怎么样,比称职更好! /201410/337015

  The value of Yahoo#39;s core business is officially getting closer to zero.雅虎(Yahoo)核心业务的价值正趋近于零。Yahoo#39;s stake in Alibaba is worth about billion, according to the Chinese e-commerce giant#39;s IPO filing on Tuesday. Alibaba said it valued its shares in April at , and Yahoo owns 523.6 million shares.根据中国电商巨头阿里巴巴(Alibaba)周二提交的首次公开募股(IPO)申请文件,雅虎持有的阿里巴巴股份价值约260亿美元。阿里巴巴表示,该公司4月份对自身的估值为每股50美元,雅虎持有该公司5.236亿股股票。The valuation gives credence to analysts#39; long-mentioned estimate that Yahoo#39;s business is worthless, at least to shareholders, after backing out its stakes in Alibaba and Yahoo Japan, another Asian asset where it has a stake estimated at billion.这一估值印了分析师长久以来的猜测:在剔除雅虎持有的阿里巴巴、雅虎日本(Yahoo Japan)股份后,至少对股东来说,雅虎的核心业务几乎一文不值。雅虎在雅虎日本持有的股份估值为90亿美元。Together, those stakes are worth about billion, just under Yahoo#39;s current market capitalization of .7 billion.雅虎持有的阿里巴巴和雅虎日本的股份总价值约为350亿美元,仅略低于雅虎目前367亿美元的市值。Of course, Alibaba#39;s valuation doesn#39;t include the amount of shares it will sell in the IPO, expected in the fall, and the share price could go well above , meaning Yahoo#39;s core business will indeed be worth less than zero.当然,阿里巴巴的估值并不包括今年秋天预计发售的IPO股份,也没有考虑阿里巴巴股价远高于50美元的情况,这意味着雅虎核心业务的价值甚至将变成负值。Yahoo paid billion for a 24% stake in Alibaba in 2005 and in 2012 Alibaba agreed to repurchased .6 billion in shares. Yahoo now owns 22.6%, according to Alibaba, and is required to sell 208 million shares in the IPO, worth .4 billion based on the most recent fair value.雅虎2005年斥资10亿美元收购了阿里巴巴24%的股权。2012年,阿里巴巴同意回购价值76亿美元的股票。阿里巴巴称,目前雅虎持有该公司22.6%的股权,须在IPO过程中出售2.08亿股股票,根据最新的公允价值,这部分即将出售的股权价值104亿美元。Alibaba paid Yahoo 1 million in 2012 to license its intellectual property, the filing said. Alibaba is not required to pay licensing fees to Yahoo following the IPO. Last year, the Chinese company also bought patents from Yahoo for million.阿里巴巴在IPO申请文件中称,该公司2012年向雅虎付了5.61亿美元的知识产权费。IPO之后,阿里巴巴无需再向雅虎付知识产权费。去年,阿里巴巴还斥资7,000万美元从雅虎购买专利。 /201405/295030

  China has overtaken Europe by building hundreds of thousands of masts to carry superfast 4G mobile signals and western executives are warning that the country will pull further ahead with plans to more than double construction this year.中国4G移动基站的建设已超过欧洲,该国正在建设数十万座承载超高速4G移动信号的基站。西方移动行业高管警告称,中国今年计划将基站建设扩大一倍以上,其领先优势将进一步扩大。While the take-up of 4G services in China lags behind the rollout of base stations – given services only became commercially available last month – the scale of the infrastructure building underlines the country’s ambitions for the future.尽管中国4G务的普及落后于基站部署(4G商用务上月才开启),但4G基础设施的建设规模凸显出中国对未来的雄心。China Mobile became the country’s first 4G operator in December last year and it built about 200,000 base stations before the launch. This is aly more than are deployed across all of Europe, according to analysts at HS and CCS Insight. China Mobile’s network covers as many as 500m people across the major cities on the country’s east coast.中国移动(China Mobile)去年12月成为中国首家4G运营商。在推出4G务前,中国移动建了约20万座基站。汇丰(HS)和CCS Insight的分析师表示,这个数量已超过全欧洲现有的基站数量。中国移动的网络覆盖了中国东部沿海主要城市,覆盖人口多达5亿人。China Telecom and China Unicom are also building smaller 4G networks. Up to 1m 4G masts could be built in China by the end of 2014, according to equipment makers.中国电信(China Telecom)和中国联通(China Unicom)也在建设规模较小的4G网络。电信设备制造商们表示,到2014年底,中国可能建成多达100万座4G基站。At last month’s annual Mobile World Congress in Barcelona, executives from European mobile operators expressed worries that the combination of regulatory constraints and sluggish economic growth would curtail construction of 4G networks in the continent.在上月的年度巴塞罗那世界移动通信大会(Mobile World Congress)上,欧洲移动运营商的高管们称,他们担心监管限制和经济增长疲软会抑制欧洲4G网络的建设。Also in Barcelona, Wei Zaisheng, finance director for ZTE, the Chinese state-owned equipment maker, said that there could be as many as 1m 4G base stations in China by the end of the year, from close to 300,000 today, as groups “speeded up construction”. China represented about 60 per cent of the market for new 4G masts, he said. “China is leading 4G compared to Europe.”中国国有电信设备制造商中兴通讯(ZTE)的财务总监韦在胜也出席了巴塞罗那的大会。他表示,随着运营商“加快建设速度”,到今年年底,中国4G基站数量可能会由目前的近30万座增至多达100万。他说,中国占新建4G基站市场的约六成,“领先于欧洲”。Three industry executives said they were expecting a second tender from China Mobile for about 500,000 base stations this year. Equipment-maker executives predicted that China Telecom would order up to 250,000 masts this year.三位业内高管表示,他们预计中国移动今年将展开第二轮招标,建设大约50万座基站。设备制造商的高管们预计,中国电信今年订购的基站将多达25万座。Neelie Kroes, Europe’s digital commissioner, has also emphasised the need to accelerate 4G rollout, and has recently shifted the focus to developing the next stage of mobile networks with so-called “5G” technology.欧盟数字议程专员内莉#8226;克勒斯(Neelie Kroes)也强调需要加快4G的部署,并在最近将关注点转向了开发下一代移动网络,即所谓的“5G”技术。Only a third of Chinese households have broadband connections, say brokerage CLSA data.券商里昂券(CLSA)的数据显示,只有三分之一的中国家庭有宽带连接。 /201403/278032。

  President Barack Obama called yesterday for the Muslim world to embark on a “generational task” of confronting the “cancer of violent extremism” in a sharply worded speech at the UN.美国总统巴拉克#8226;奥巴马(Barack Obama)昨日在联合国(UN)发表措辞严厉的讲话,呼吁穆斯林世界承担起一项“一代人的任务”,对抗“暴力极端主义之癌”。Speaking two days after he ordered the first US air strikes against Islamist militants in Syria, Mr Obama challenged other countries in the Middle East – including US allies – to do more to dismantle the extremist group Isis’s “network of death”.两天前,奥巴马下令美国对叙利亚境内的伊斯兰主义武装分子发动首波空袭。奥巴马在昨日讲话中要求中东其他国家——包括美国的盟友——采取更多措施,摧毁极端团体ISIS的“死亡之网”。Mr Obama framed the struggle against the Isis in the stark moral terms that he has often been reluctant to use. “There can be no reasoning – no negotiation – with this brand of evil,” he said at the UN general assembly. “The only language understood by killers like this is the language of force.”在框定打击ISIS的斗争时,奥巴马使用了他往往不愿使用的态度鲜明的道德措辞。他在联合国大会上表示:“对于这种邪恶势力不可能有说理的余地,不可能有谈判的余地。这样的杀人犯能够理解的唯一语言是‘武力’。”The warlike rhetoric represented a stark change for a president who was elected to end the conflict in Iraq and who only last year claimed at the UN that America was “shifting away from a perpetual war footing”.这种宣战式的措辞表明奥巴马的态度发生了极大转变。当初他竞选总统的承诺之一就是要结束伊拉克冲突。就在去年,奥巴马还曾在联合国声称,美国要“退出永久战备的状态”。Mr Obama was speaking after the US launched a second night of attacks targeting Isis positions in Syria.奥巴马讲话之前,美国对叙利亚境内的ISIS目标发起第二晚的空中打击。While the Obama administration has celebrated that five regional allies took part in air strikes , Mr Obama appeared to criticise some of those same countries that have backed extremist elements in Syria.尽管奥巴马政府欢呼5个中东盟国参与空袭,但奥巴马似乎还是批评了其中某些国家对叙利亚境内极端分子的持。He insisted that all countries needed to “cut off the funding that fuels this hate”. In words that seemed aimed at some of America’s Gulf allies, he added: “It’s time to end the hypocrisy of those who accumulate wealth through the global economy, and then siphon funds to those who teach children to tear it down.”他坚称,所有国家必须“切断助燃这种仇恨的资金流”。他似乎针对美国在海湾地区的某些盟友补充道:“有些人通过全球经济积累了财富,到头来却拿钱资助那些教孩子们破坏全球体制的人。是时候结束这种伪善了。” /201409/332249

  KEEPING drugs, and particularly vaccines, potent in tropical climes is a challenge. Heat tends to damage them. Such medicines have therefore to be moved from one refrigerator to another, along what is referred to as a cold chain, until they arrive at the clinics where they are to be administered. Fridges, however, are expensive. They also require electricity, which is not always available-or is available only unreliably-in the poorer parts of the world. As a consequence, breaks in cold chains are estimated by the World Health Organisation to destroy almost half of the vaccines produced around the world.由于高温容易导致药效降低,因此,如何在炎热的气候中保持药品(尤其是疫苗)的药效一直是一个难题。为了保药效,人们不得不沿着一条“低温链”把药品从一个冰箱转移到另一个冰箱,直至送抵相应的诊所。然而,使用冰箱一方面成本太高,另一方面,在一些贫困地区常常没有电力供应。(有些地区虽然有电,但是电力不稳定)。世界卫生组织预计,若低温链断裂,全世界近一半的疫苗都将彻底失效。Some vaccines can be freeze-dried, which helps. But even when treated in this way, their lifetime out of the fridge is limited. Ways of keeping drugs and vaccines stable at tropical temperatures would therefore be welcome. And David Kaplan of Tufts University, in Massachusetts, thinks he has found one. Put simply, he and his colleagues have worked out how to pack medicines into tiny silk pouches, in a manner that makes them almost indifferent to heat.一些疫苗能通过冷冻干燥的方式进行保存,但尽管如此,如果没有冰箱,这些疫苗的存活时间也非常有限。因而,人们一直希望能够发明出能在高温天气中保存药物和疫苗的方法。马萨诸塞州塔夫茨大学的David Kaplan认为他已经找到了一个解决办法。简单地来说,David Kaplan和他的同事研究出了一种将药物包裹在蚕丝小袋中的方法,通过这种方法,能将药物与热量几乎完全隔绝开来。Dr Kaplan and his team describe their technique in a recent issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. They start with silkworm cocoons-the raw material for almost all silk production. They boil the cocoons in a solution of sodium carbonate to separate a protein called fibroin, which is the one they want, from another, called sericin, which they do not. They treat the fibroin with salt, then mix it with the substance to be preserved and sp the result out as films, before freeze-drying it. The resulting films consist of a fibroin matrix filled with tiny pockets a few hundred nanometres (billionths of a metre) across. These pockets contain the medicine.Kaplan士和他的小组在最近一期美国《国家科学研究院学报》中介绍了他们的技术方法。他们使用的原料是人们制作几乎任何丝绸产品都要用到的东西——蚕茧。他们们将蚕茧放入煮沸的碳酸钠溶液中加热,从而分离出他们想要的物质——一种称作丝心蛋白的蛋白质,而剩下的丝胶则被去除。他们将丝心蛋白用盐处理后,与需要保存的药物进行混合,之后将混合物平铺成薄膜,最后将其冻干。制作完成的薄膜以丝心蛋白为基质,上面布满了直径只有几百纳米(十亿分之一米)的小袋,而药物就储存在这些小袋里。Packaging delicate medicines in this way does, indeed, help preserve them. It immobilises the molecules, preventing them from unfolding and thus losing their potency. It also minimises residual moisture even better than normal freeze-drying. Dr Kaplan and his team demonstrated the effectiveness of their new technique by trying it out on the MMR (measles, mumps and rubella) vaccine.这种新的方法确实能有效的保存那些易变质的药物——由于药物中的分子被固定,无法展开,因而药效就得以保持。同时,和普通的冷冻干燥法相比,这种方法方法也能更有效的减少药物中残存水分。Kaplan士和他的小组在MMR疫苗(麻疹、腮腺炎和风疹的联合疫苗)上实验了他们的方法,结果明,该方法十分有效。Prolonged storage at just 25°C will cause even the freeze-dried version of MMR to break down. After six months it retains only 60-75% of its potency. If kept for that length of time at 45°C (extreme, but not unknown in the tropics) it is practically worthless. When stored using Dr Kaplan’s silk sheets, however, it was still about 85% potent after six months, regardless of temperature.在25℃的环境中,当储存时间过长时,即使已使用冷冻干燥法处理过的MMR疫苗也会分解。在此环境中保存6个月后,疫苗药效降低至原来的60%到75%。将疫苗放在45℃的环境中(该温度并不常见,但在热带地区仍然存在)保存同样的时间后,疫苗已完全失效。然而使用Kaplan的方法进行保存的疫苗在六个月后依然保持了约85%药效,且丝毫不受温度的影响。When the researchers tried the same trick with tetracycline, a commonly prescribed antibiotic, they got similar results. Tetracycline stored at body temperature lost 80% of its potency after four weeks in ordinary solution, but lost none when stored in silk films. The new technique also worked with penicillin. Moreover, fibroin is harmless to people-silk is, after all, often used in sutures-so there is little risk of adverse side-effects. It probably does not matter if some silk gets into a vaccine when it is dissolved in water prior to inoculation.研究者们又在人们经常使用的四环素和盘尼西林上进行了同样的实验,结果也不出意料。将四环素保存在普通溶液中并置于体温环境,四个星期后药效已损失80%,但用蚕丝薄膜进行保存的四环素未收任何影响。不仅如此,,由于丝心蛋白对人体不会产生伤害(蚕丝常被用于伤口的缝合),因此不用担心会产生不良的副作用。在接种疫苗时,只需将蚕丝小袋放入水中溶解,即可取出疫苗,即使有少量蚕丝混入疫苗中也不必担心。That said, the vaccines and antibiotics stored in this new way have yet to be tested on people. That is the next step. But if they work, this new trick will help save lives being needlessly lost in some of the poorest parts of the world.虽然用新方法保存的疫苗和抗生素还未在人体中进行过试验(人体试验将是研究者们下一步的计划),但如果药物能够起效,这种新的储存方法将在许多极度贫困的地区发挥巨大作用,减少不必要的死亡。 /201209/198536

  

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