明星资讯腾讯娱乐2020年01月18日 12:48:31
RrUB]l].OUa08jLZCJs5X[Q|;CGIbE0rqiIn Japan, most schools have uniforms for their students. The distinctive, traditional outfits were originally inspired by military designs, but since the 1980s, new styles have emerged.日本的初中和高中几乎都有校,有的学生甚至按照自己的制喜好决定升学的学校,最近类似校的便装也很流行Q0NM5N6qp*G~t@WjS。C6N-#o1cMi0wBk#W_mF!RL*AMilitary Styles男生穿“学生”,女生穿“水手”A boy#39;s uniform with stand-up collar.一个穿学生(立领)的男生i5a7Ug~]r*bv3r468P2(Z%;z*)HfA9#Traditional Japanese school uniforms show the influence of old European military uniforms. In this style, boys typically wear black or navy blue pants and jackets with stand-up collars. The first institute to introduce this kind of uniform was the Imperial University (now the University of Tokyo) in 1886. They are now worn principally by boys at junior high and high schools.在日本,说到校一般是指学生和水手KhjjWukw,DUaP。学生是男生的校,立领上衣加西装长裤,颜色为黑色或藏青色@B(PkCoNgRKN。据说这个款式源自于1886年帝国大学(现东京大学)制定的校式样,现在主要由初中和高中采用zoH)EXgGctpCj^iO^mWz。The distinctive sailor outfits for junior high and high school girls, with their large naval-style collars, are said to have first been used at St. Agnes#39; University (Heian Jogakuin) in Kyoto in 1920. The uniform features in the popular manga and anime Sailor Moon, in which it is worn by the magical schoolgirl heroines. At some schools, students wear different ribbons in different grades, switching from red to blue to white, for example, as they move up each year.水手是女生穿的校,其特点是带有一个很大且形状独特的“水手领”GSJ~zi5VB74~5J。日本的人气漫画《美少女战士》,描绘的就是身穿水手的美少女战士们的故事I%aSz.0Yix9c。据说1920年,京都的平安女学院首次采用了水手作为校,现在主要是初中和高中采用这个款式eYr.CY5MSBjc25kZs。有些学校还规定不同学年系不同颜色的领巾(或领结),例如一年级是红色,二年级是蓝色,三年级是白色等wE^p-Mm6sT0fle。1R)~Ut,R3yg(#bfU^b0Rz-Ex[w3,pAm3Z^L(DG /201506/382045BEIJING — China is spending hundreds of billions of dollars annually in an effort to become a leader in biomedical research, building scores of laboratories and training thousands of scientists.北京——为了成为生物医学研究领域的领军者,中国正在每年投入数以亿计的资金,用来建设上百座的实验室,培养成千上万的科学家。But the rush to the front ranks of science may come at a price: Some experts worry that medical researchers in China are stepping over ethical boundaries long accepted in the West.但是,这种急于跻身科学界前列的做法,可能会带来一些问题:一些专家担心,中国的医学研究人员正在跨越西方长期遵循的伦理界限。Scientists around the world were shocked in April when a team led by Huang Junjiu, 34, at Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, published the results of an experiment in editing the genes of human embryos.今年4月,34岁的黄军就在广州中山大学领导的一个科研团队发表了修改人类胚胎基因的实验结果,震惊了世界各地的科学家。The technology, called Crispr-Cas9, may one day be used to eradicate inheritable illnesses. But in theory, it also could be used to change such traits as eye color or intelligence, and to ensure that the changes are passed on to future generations.这项技术名为CRISPR-Cas9,有朝一日或许可以会被用于根除遗传疾病。但在理论上,它也可以用来改变眼睛颜色和智商这样的遗传特征,并让这种变异传递到后代身上。Dr. Huang and his colleagues tried to modify a gene that causes a blood disorder called beta-thalassemia. The experiment failed in 85 embryos. Even so, to many in global science, it was a line that should not have been crossed.黄军及其同事试图修改导致血液疾病β-地中海贫血的一个基因。在85个胚胎上,实验都失败了。即便如此,在全球科学界的很多人看来,这条界限不应该被跨越。Scientists in the West generally abjure this sort of research on the grounds that it amounts to genetic engineering of humans. In any event, the technology is still in the earliest stages of development.西方科学家普遍止步于这一类研究的门外,理由是它相当于开展人类基因工程。无论如何,这项技术仍处于发展的最早期阶段。“The consensus among the scientific community is, ‘not for now,’ ” said Huso Yi, the director of research at the Chinese University of Hong Kong Centre for Bioethics.“科学界的共识是,‘现在不要做,’”香港中文大学生命伦理中心研究总监李湖树表示。Yet Chinese scientists seem in no mood to wait.然而,中国的科学家似乎无心等待。“I don’t think China wants to take a moratorium,” Mr. Yi said. “People are saying they can’t stop the train of mainland Chinese genetics because it’s going too fast.”“我认为中国不会想要中止行动,”李湖树说。“大家在说中国大陆遗传学的滚滚车轮无法阻止,因为跑得太快了。”China is quickly building infrastructure for scientific research.中国正在快速推进科研基础设施的建设。In 2013, the last year for which statistics are available, the state invested more than 1.18 trillion renminbi, or 0 billion, which is more than 2 percent of its gross domestic product, in “the development of scientific research and experimentation,” according to China’s National Bureau of Statistics.现已公布的最新统计数据来自2013年。中国国家统计局的资料显示,中国在“科学研发和实验”上投入了逾1.18万亿元人民币,超过国内生产总值的2%。In 2011, the state invested about 0 billion, or 1.84 percent of its G.D.P., the bureau said.国家统计局的资料还显示,2011年,中国在这方面的投入为8680亿元,相当于国内生产总值的1.84%。“The gap between China’s new bioscience technologies and that of the West is closing,” said Zhao Xiaomei, a member of the country’s National Medical Ethical Committee and a professor at Peking Union Medical College.“在新的生物科学技术上,中国跟发达国家的差距,是日益在缩小,”中国医学伦理委员会成员、北京协和医科大学教授翟晓梅说。But the research juggernaut is gathering momentum in a country where training in ethics for scientists was introduced, under pressure from the West, only a dozen years ago.不过在中国,这股宏大的科研力量正在不断向前推进。仅仅从十几年前开始,中国才在西方的压力下对科学家进行伦理教育。“The ‘red line’ in the West and in China are not too similar,” Deng Rui, a medical ethicist at Shanxi Medical University, said in a telephone interview. “Ethics are a question of culture, and that is about tradition, especially where it touches on human life.”“西方国家和中国的“红线”不太一样,”山西医科大学医学伦理学专家邓蕊接受电话采访时表示。“伦理是文化问题,与传统有关,特别是在人类生命方面。”“Confucian thinking says that someone becomes a person after they are born. That is different from the ed States or other countries with a Christian influence, where because of religion they may feel research on embryos is not O.K.”“儒家思想认为生而为人。这与美国或其他受基督教影响的国家不同。由于宗教的关系,这些国家可能感觉做胚胎研究是不可行的。”The state does set limits, Ms. Deng said: “Our ‘red line’ here is that you can only experiment on embryos that are younger than 14 days old.”邓蕊表示,国家确实设定了限制,“我们的‘红线’是只有14天以内的人类胚胎可以用于实验研究。”The proscription is contained in a document issued by the health and science ministries in 2003. It now urgently needs updating, she said.卫生部和科技部2003年联合颁布的一份文件下达了上述禁令。邓蕊表示,这一规定现在亟需更新。Chinese scientists adhere to globally accepted ethical and scientific norms, said Ms. Zhai Xiaomei, a member of the country’s National Medical Ethical Committee and a professor at Peking Union Medical College.翟晓梅教授称,中国科学家遵从国际认可的伦理和科学规范。But many scientists experience pressure not to do so, she acknowledged.但她承认,很多科学家承受着要他们不这么做的压力。“Inside China, there are people who are opposed to international standards, citing cultural differences,” Ms. Zhai said. “This force is actually quite powerful sometimes.”“我们国内有一些人以文化差异背景不同为由来反对国际准则,”翟晓梅说。“国内这个势力有的时候挺强大的。”“For example, they say we should use our homegrown Confucian thoughts to solve problems, as those international standards are from the West while we have our Eastern culture. But we absolutely disagree with this point of view.”“比如说我们要用儒家的思想,可以解决很多东西,要用我们本土的,国际准则是西方的东西,我们是东方的文化。但我们是坚决不同意这个观点的。”In the case of Dr. Huang’s experiment, the national committee decided that it was ethically acceptable because it “was not for reproductive purposes,” Ms. Zhai said, a stance that surprised some overseas scientists.翟晓梅表示,对于黄军就的实验,中国医学伦理委员会判定这在伦理上是可以接受的,因为它“并不是以生殖为目的”。这种立场出乎了一些外国科学家的意料。“They chose to use embryos that would soon be destroyed. So far, we have been regarding it as a very fundamental research, instead of interventions in or editing of germ cells,” Ms. Zhai said.“他们选择的是马上就要毁掉的胚胎。所以到目前为止我们把它看作是非常非常基础的一个研究,而没有把它看作是对生殖细胞的干预,或者叫‘编辑’,” 翟晓梅说。But she struck a warning note: “If you want to edit genes in germ cells with the intention of using this right away, it’s absolutely not O.K., because the technology has yet to become mature.”但她也发出了警告,“如果你要做生殖细胞的编辑,而且要马上把它用上,那绝对是不行的,因为你现在技术是不成熟的。”Disturbed by the recent study, Rao Yi, a professor of biology and director of the four-year-old Center of Life Sciences at Peking University, run jointly with Tsinghua University, warned that scientific research in China urgently needed more effective ethical oversight.最近的这项研究让北京大学-清华大学生命科学联合中心主任、生物学教授饶毅备受困扰。他警告称,中国的科学研究亟需更加有效的伦理监督。该联合中心成立了四年。“The more technology we have, the more dangerous we are to ourselves and entire humankind,” Mr. Rao said.“我们掌握的技术越多,我们对自己和整个人类来说就越危险,”饶毅说。Chinese scientists are generally poorly paid, he said, but may receive a bonus of up to ,000 per article from the state for publishing in international scientific journals, providing financial incentives for pushing the boundaries.他表示,中国科学家通常收入较低,但如果在国际科学期刊发表文章,可能会收到国家发放的奖金,最多可达每篇20万元。这为推动他们突破限制提供了资金激励。“Do first, talk later” is the attitude of many, Mr. Rao and two colleagues wrote recently on iScientist, an online community for Chinese researchers.饶毅和另外两名华人科学家为面向中国科研人员的微信公众号“赛先生”担任主编。他们近期在上面写道,很多人抱有“先做了再说”的态度。A global medical ethics body run by the World Health Organization or the ed Nations should be set up to regulate scientific experimentation, Mr. Rao said.饶毅认为,世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)或联合国应该成立一家全球性的医学伦理监督机构,对科学实验加以规范。More unpleasant scientific surprises are looming, several scientists said. “Right now, human gene editing is the main thing,” Mr. Yi said. Geneticists in China “don’t want to be guided by Western people.”一些科学家表示,即将出现更多令人不快的科学新发现。“目前,人类基因编辑是焦点所在,”李湖树说。中国的遗传学家“不想受西方人的领导”。The mind-set among Chinese researchers, according to Mr. Yi: “ ‘We’re going to do it, then see what’s wrong, then fix it. But the conceptual discussion may be missing.’ ”李湖树称,中国研究人员的想法是,“我们先去做,然后看看有什么问题,再解决问题。但这中间可能缺少对观念的讨论。” /201507/383693

When you starting dating someone new, the possibility always exists that your budding relationship could lead to a permanent commitment. Given this possibility, you want to leave nothing to chance about your future or that of your family if you and the girl you have begun dating get married or have children together. As you contemplate whether or not to ask her out, you should know these 10 things about a girl before dating her.当你与某人开始约会时,初识的怦然心动渐至日久情深,最终你可能就这么被拖进了婚姻的坟墓。鉴于这一可能性,如果你与这个女孩可以修成正果从此走上人生巅峰,那么你一定不想在未来的某个日子里突然“被小三”或者“喜当爹”。所以,在考虑要不要约她出去前,请务必了解以下10件关于这个女孩的事情。10.Relationship Status10.男女关系情况This tip may seem rather obvious; however, some ladies may not be upfront with you about their real relationship status. They could be wanting to start an illicit affair behind their partner or spouse#39;s back. They also may be on a relationship hiatus, but not fully available for a long-term commitment because of the possibility that their former boyfriend or spouse wanting to get back together. Either way, taking the time to pose this question to a girl that you are interested in dating can save you future heartache and emotional turmoil later. You should not assume that this girl will want to be with you exclusively even if she is in a romance with someone else.这则贴士的含义显而易见,然而,有些女人可能不会对你坦白她真实的感情状况。她们可能只是想背着配偶来段婚外恋,或是正处于感情空窗期,还抱有前男友或前夫会回头的幻想,想来段不以结婚为目的的恋爱。不管是哪种情况,你都有必要花点时间跟你的意中人聊聊这些问题,这样可以避免日后出现令人头疼的局面或感情的变数。如果你的意中人正跟别人热恋,那你就别幻想着她有朝一日能死心塌地跟你在一起啦。In fact, as silly as it may seem, you would fare well to ask a girl that you want to ask out if she is seeing or dating anyone exclusively. If she answers that she is seeing someone else, but open to dating you, you may proceed with caution and gauge your time with her accordingly to avoid any romantic complications. If she answers that she is not in a relationship with anyone, you can then proceed as you normally would in a new dating situation. When you have this information upfront, you can can figure out if asking her out is worth your time and effort.事实上,询问你想勾搭的女生是否名花有主似乎是一件很愚蠢的事情。如果她回答说自己正和别人谈着,但也可以给你个机会,那么你就得谨慎行事,并合计一下你们可以约会的时间。若是她表示现在还是单身,那么你就可以照常开展一段新的恋情。在正式开始约会前了解这些信息,你就知道该不该为了这段恋情付出时间和精力了。It can be difficult to know if someone is available for dating exclusively or not if you are not friends with this person or in that individual#39;s same circle of acquaintances. In this situation, you should trust your gut instincts and look for signs that this person may be dating someone else in addition to you. Further, if you both are new to each other, you should proceed slowly and get to know that person very well before taking your romance to the next level.如果你不是她的朋友,或只是与她的朋友圈有所交集,要了解她是否有恋人其实是一件很难的事情。在这种情况下,你应该相信自己的直觉,寻找她与别人约会的蛛丝马迹。长远的来说,在你俩还不熟的时候,别陷进这段感情,不妨先放慢进度,相识相知方可水到渠成。9.Age9.年龄Good manners dictate that a man should never ask a woman about her age. However, if you are unsure whether or not she is a minor, it is always best to err on the side of good judgment instead of good manners. Each state has different age of consent laws, which puts you at risk of committing a felony if you become seriously involved with someone who is underage. If the girl you want to ask out looks like she could be under the age of consent in your state, you should ask how old she is to protect yourself legally.有教养的男人是永远不会向女士询问年龄的。然而如果你不确定她是否已成年,比起保持风度矜持不问,还是“失礼”地坚守自己理性的判断较为明智。各州的法律对年龄的规定都不尽相同,这就导致你若是与未到法定年龄的女孩纠缠不清,会面临触犯重罪的危险。如果你想约的女孩看上去很“嫩”,即有可能未达到你所在州的法定年龄,为了避开“雷区”,你还是问一下女孩的年龄吧。Again, you can get this information from outside sources if you and she belong to the same circle of friends or acquaintances. However, if you are both unknown to each other, it would not be out of place to explain to her your concerns and gently insist that you be assured of her age before asking her out. If she refuses, you can chalk up her denial of your request as her loss rather than yours. If she agrees and shows you an identification card or some other proof of her age, you can take it as a sign that she is perhaps flattered and willing to go out with you after all.同理,你和她有共同好友或是朋友圈有交集的话,也可以从这些外来资源中获取你想要的信息。当然啦,你俩之前没有交集的话,那就得向她说明你的担忧并委婉地坚持一下自己的立场:为了保险起见,还是得先问清年龄再考虑约会的事。如果她拒绝回答,那么你要坚信她拒绝你的请求就是她的损失。如果她同意回答并给你看了身份或任何可以明她年龄的据,这就表明她在讨好你,也很乐意跟你约会。It is well known in today#39;s media that young girls lie about their ages all the time to get the attention of older teenage boys and men. Rather than get into a legal mess that could alter your future in devastating ways, you should make it a point to make sure that the girl you want to date is truly above that age of consent mark in your state. If she works with you or goes to college, for example, you can safely assume that she is of legal age. However, if you both are unknown to each other and meet by a chance encounter, you must use other tactics to ensure that this girl is genuinely and legally available for dating.众所周知,在现今的传媒生活中,小姑娘们为了吸引心智成熟的男性,总是会谎报自己的年龄。你应该时刻牢记,确保你想约的女孩的真实年龄超过所在州规定的年龄,如若不然,你将陷入一场法律纠纷,自毁前程。如果她是你同事或是校友,那就不必担心她的年龄问题了。但是你们俩若是意外邂逅的关系的话,那你还是得旁敲侧击,确保这个女孩达到法定年龄。8.Criminal History8.犯罪史Your legal future may not solely be tied up in whether or not the girl you are interested in is above the age of consent. It also may depend on what kind of criminal history she has. In the perfect scenario, the girl you want to date would have a clean criminal record and not even the slightest traffic infraction on it. However, statistics show that more people than ever have at least one arrest on their record, giving way to the chances that the girl you want to ask out has some sort of criminal past.未来你想没有麻烦也许不仅仅和你约会的女孩年龄相关,也取决于她有什么样的犯罪史。最好是你想约会的那个女孩很清白,甚至连交通违章都没有过。然而,数据表明,比以前更多的人都至少有一条被捕记录,所以你想要约会的女孩如果有犯罪记录,还是给她个机会吧。If the infraction was minor, such as speeding or littering, it more than likely will have little bearing on your possible future with her. However, if she has previously been arrested for drug possession, DUI, identity theft, assault, or some other serious charge, she may compromise your future significantly if you and she forge ahead with a relationship. Many people who have arrest records find it difficult to get a job, secure housing, and live a normal life after they have been released from jail or probation. Her inability to get a job or even approved for an apartment could leave you with the security you need to build a life with her.如果是小违章的话,比如超速或者乱扔垃圾,对你的未来不会有什么影响。然而,如果她之前因为藏毒被捕,酒后驾车,身份盗窃,人身攻击或者其他一些严重的指控,如果你执意要和她发展下去,可能会严重影响你的未来。大多有过逮捕记录的人出狱后或在缓刑期间很难找到工作,住房得不到保障,无法过上正常的生活。她想给你安全感,却连工作都没有,房子也没有,你还怎么和她生活下去呢。Further, depending on the nature of her crime and how well she has been rehabilitated, the possibility always exists that she could reoffend. You could inadvertently be putting yourself at risk of being an accomplice to her crimes or at least having knowledge about her behavior. You may be questioned by the police and cast in a suspicious light, which puts the burden on you to prove your own innocence. Before you ask out the girl you are interested in, you should verify if she has a criminal background. You can do this by researching online or checking the county court records in your city.此外,根据她犯罪的性质以及她洗心革面的程度,她再犯的可能性是一直存在的。你可能面临成为她犯罪同伙的危险或者至少你该她的行为有所认知。你会被警察传讯,并一直在警方怀疑之列,想明自己是清白的就难了。在你想约感兴趣的女孩之前,你应该查清她是否有犯罪记录。可以通过网上调查或查询你所在城市的地方法院记录。审校:小飞侠 编辑:Freya然 校对:丸子 /201507/386143

  I will arise and go now. …我就要动身走了……Surprisingly often, when I get up from a chair to leave a room, those six melodramatic words will unfurl in my mind. Somehow William Butler Yeats’s poem “The Lake Isle of Innisfree,” which, like millions of other people, I first in college, stays rooted in me:每当我从椅子上站起来,准备离开房间时,这几个字常会格外频繁地浮现在我的脑海中。不知怎么地,威廉·巴特勒·叶芝(William Butler Yeats)的诗作《茵纳斯弗利岛》(The Lake Isle of Innisfree)就像在我脑子里生了根一样,和其他数以百万计的人一样,我第一次读到这首诗是在念大学的时候:I will arise and go now, and go to Innisfree. …我就要动身走了,去茵纳斯弗利岛……And I’m off, not to the dentist or the shopping mall but, mentally, striding emerald slopes, making for a place of myth.然后我便真的走了,并不是去牙医诊所或者商场,而是我的思绪,大步跨越着翠绿的山坡,走向一处神话之地。Yeats named the poem after an actual place, an island in the middle of Lough Gill, a lake that sps itself languidly across five miles of furiously green landscape in County Sligo in northwest Ireland. A few years ago, I found myself in Dublin and decided to do it for real: go to Innisfree. It would be a four-hour detour from the research I was doing for an article, but I had not the slightest doubt the journey would be worthwhile.在这首诗篇中,叶芝以一处真实存在的地点,一座位于吉尔湖中央的岛屿为题。这片湖泊懒洋洋地卧在北爱尔兰斯莱戈郡的苍翠之地上,纵情延绵五英里。几年前的时候,我恰好人在都柏林,便决定化心动为行动:前往茵湖岛。从我当时为写作取材的地方到那里,足足需要绕道四个小时,但这趟旅程一定值得这番奔波,对此我毫无半分犹疑。Thanks to the popularity of the poem (voted by ers of The Irish Times in 1999 as their all-time favorite work of Irish poetry), “Innisfree” is a bit of a brand. There are Innisfree cosmetics, an Innisfree Eau de Parfum, an Innisfree Bamp;B, an Innisfree Hotel and a Rose of Innisfree tour boat that does the lake.得益于这首诗的流行(在1999年时被《爱尔兰时报》(Irish Times)的读者票选为他们素来喜爱的爱尔兰诗作),“茵湖岛”多少形成了某种品牌效应。有以此为名的护肤品品牌“悦诗风吟”,有以此为名的淡香水,有以此为名的早餐旅馆,有以此为名的酒店,还有巡游于吉尔湖上的游船“茵湖岛玫瑰号”(Rose of Innisfree)。But I know these things only from Google. Thankfully, none of it was evident on my drive. I didn’t use a GPS; I just relied on a couple of tiny handmade-looking road signs that popped up as I entered the region, which pointed the way to “Lake Isle of Innisfree.” The last stage of the journey involved no tourism bric-a-brac, only small, twisty, increasingly difficult to navigate roads, mossy tree trunks, wind, willows, heather, cloud knuckles and gray rock.但是我对这些事物的认知,全部来自于谷歌搜索的结果。幸好,它们一个都没有在我的自驾之旅中出现。我当时并没有使用全球定位系统(GPS),只是凭借我驶入当地后所看到的几处路标行驶,这些指示着前往“茵湖岛”道路的路标小得可怜,看上去似乎出自手工制作。这段旅程的最后一段看不到任何旅游纪念品商店,只有又小又绕越来越难分辨方向的小路、长满苔藓的树干、一路上的大风、袅然的杨柳、丛生的石南花、天空中的云脊和灰色的岩石。When I reached the lakeshore, I found the opposite of a tourist site. I could barely make my way out to the water to get a view, so thick was the shoreline with trees and brush. A farmhouse with a couple of S.U.V.s parked outside stood nearby, and there was a little concrete dock jutting out into the lake, pointed almost directly at Innisfree a few hundred yards away. I got out on the dock, sat cross-legged facing the island, and let the wind say what it had to say. For decades, this place had reverberated in my mind; now I was actually there.当我抵达湖岸时,发现自己完全不像是到了旅游景点。湖畔沿岸种满了密集的树木与灌木,我很难有办法穿过它们走近湖水,纵览全湖风光。附近矗立着一座农庄,门外停着几辆SUV,还有几座小型的混凝土船坞探入湖中,几乎直指着就在几百码开外的茵湖岛。我走到船坞外侧,面朝着茵湖岛盘腿坐下,任由清风自在倾诉。几十年来,这处地方一直在我的脑海中萦绕;而此刻,我终于真真切切地置身于此。Yeats, born in 1865, the son of an artist, was a childlike intellectual. He would forget to eat, or put food in the oven and let it burn. He was devoted to mysticism and séances. He spent decades in love with the Irish nationalist and proto-feminist Maud Gonne; after she rejected his marriage proposal for a final time, he shifted his attention to her daughter.叶芝生于1865年,乃是艺术家之子,他自己则是一名天真烂漫的知识分子。他会忘记吃东西,或是忘记已把食物放进炉子里,任其糊掉。他投身于神秘主义和降神会。他爱慕着爱尔兰独立运动成员、原始的女性主义者茅德·冈(Maud Gonne),数十年如一日;在她最后一次拒绝了他的求婚后,他便将自己的心力转移到了她的女儿身上。A few weeks after she, in turn, spurned his marriage offer, he proposed to another woman, Georgie Hyde-Lees, who, despite knowing where she ranked, became his devoted life partner. As she essentially said after his death, she saw the shimmer of his soul. “For him, every day he lived was a new adventure,” she once told the Yeats scholar Curtis B. Bradford. “He woke every morning certain that in the new day before him something would happen that had never happened before.”他的求婚一次次地遭到了她的唾弃,于是数周后,他转而向另一名女性乔吉·海德―李斯(Georgie Hyde-Lees)求了婚。她明知自己在他心目中并非首选,却依然成为了对他满怀深情的终身伴侣。就像她在叶芝去世后的精辟之言,她看到了他灵魂中的闪光点。“在他而言,他所过的每一天都是一趟新的历险,”她曾经如此对叶芝学者柯蒂斯·布拉德福德(Curtis B. Bradford)讲述道,“他每天早上醒来时,内心都十分确信,自己面前这新的一天里,一定会发生一些以前没有发生过的事。”Yeats was in his 50s when he married. “The Lake Isle of Innisfree” is a young man’s poem, written when he was 23. It is filled with a romantic longing for the past: the Irish past, the mythic past and also Yeats’s own. He had spent his childhood in County Sligo before moving to Dublin and then London. This countryside, the lake and its islands, this composition of greens and grays and blues, was fused within him.叶芝结婚时已50多岁。《茵纳斯弗利岛》则是一首青年的诗篇,是他在23岁的时候写就。诗中充满了对过去的浪漫向往――爱尔兰的过去,神秘的过去,还有叶芝自己的过去。他在斯莱戈郡度过了童年时期,其后迁往了都柏林,后来又去了伦敦。这处乡郊,这片湖泊和湖中的岛屿,这道由绿色、灰色、蓝色共同组成的风景,全部牢牢地烙印在他的血脉中。When he was a boy, his father had him Thoreau’s “Walden,” and its pastoral message resonated with the landscape of his childhood. As a young man living in London, trying to make a go of it amid the industrial throb, Yeats reached back to his youth and crafted the poem. The first line signals the self-consciously antiquated style he chose. (Even back in 1888, when the poem was written, people didn’t “arise.”) He filled it with rhyme, pumped it with unapologetically forceful rhythm. He made it, for all its romance, compact, athletic. This is the entire poem.在他年纪尚幼时,他的父亲曾经为他念过梭罗(Thoreau)的《瓦尔登湖》(Walden),其中所描绘的田园风光与他童年所看到的这道风景交相辉映。作为一名在伦敦生活,努力想要在工业浪潮中出人头地的青年,叶芝对自己的童年念念不忘,于是创作出了这首诗篇。诗文的第一行便昭示出,叶芝有意识地选择了一种旧派的表达手法。(即使是在该诗成文的1888年,也没有人是“动身”的。)他在整首诗中大量押韵,并在其中注入了一种不容置辩的有力节奏。他在尽情挥洒浪漫的同时,也保持着诗章的简短和动感。以下便是完整的全诗:I will arise and go now, and go to Innisfree,我就要动身走了,去茵纳斯弗利岛,And a small cabin build there, of clay and wattles made:搭起一个小屋子,筑起泥笆房;Nine bean-rows will I have there, a hive for the honey-bee;起九行云豆架,一排蜜蜂巢,And live alone in the bee-loud glade.独个儿住着,荫阴下听蜂群歌唱。And I shall have some peace there, for peace comes dropping slow,我就会得到安宁,它徐徐下降,Dropping from the veils of the morning to where the cricket sings;从朝雾落到蟋蟀歌唱的地方;There midnight’s all a glimmer, and noon a purple glow,午夜是一片闪亮,正午是一片紫光,And evening full of the linnet’s wings.傍晚到处飞舞着红雀的翅膀。I will arise and go now, for always night and day我就要动身走了,因为我听到I hear lake water lapping with low sounds by the shore;那水声日日夜夜轻拍着湖滨;While I stand on the roadway, or on the pavements grey,不管我站在车行道或灰暗的人行道,I hear it in the deep heart’s core.都在我心灵的深处听见这声音。Of course, as I approached the lake, the poem was reverberating in my mind, and at first the imagery seemed to live up to it. The lake is five miles long, fringed with greenery; moody hills rise on the opposite shore. The furrowed water was dotted with little islands, some of them very atmospheric. As it happens, though, Innisfree is not one of the atmospheric ones. It’s tiny, and looks like a bur, a bristling seed pod, almost angrily sprouting trees and brush from its humpy back.不消说,当我一步步地接近吉尔湖时,这首诗也在我脑海中不断回荡,诗中所传达的意象,第一次在我的眼前鲜活了起来。吉尔湖全长5英里,沿岸一篇郁葱;起伏不定的山丘在对岸拔地而起。湖有波纹,其间点缀着几处小岛,其中几座别有一番朦胧的美感。只是茵湖岛偏巧不是当中很有氛围的一座。它面积很小,看上去就像一根钻头,一只竖立的豆荚,在它隆起的岛脊上,树木与灌木的长势冲天。Some have speculated that Yeats chose it because of the poetry in the syllables of its name, and the last syllable’s suggestion of freedom. You’d have a hard time building a cabin on it, and it’s too lumpen for a glade.曾经有人猜测,叶芝之所以选择这里,全因其岛名发音中的诗意,最后一个音节“free”更是象征着“自由”之意。要想在这座岛上建一间小屋实属难事,而若以林间空地的标准而言,这岛又嫌太过破败。But to leave it at that — to say that Yeats picked a dud — would be like declaring that you had no music in your soul. The whole landscape echoes the poem. You realize, sitting there, identifying the sound of the lake water with the deep heart’s core, that the Yeats who wrote the poem does not actually intend to retreat from the world and move to this spot. He is reaching for something. He is aware, at 23, of death and the inexorability of change. He is searching, trying to find his balance, his center. He knows he left it somewhere in his past, as we all have done.但若是在这个话题上就此打住――承认叶芝就是选了一处不毛之地――又好像宣告着,自己的灵魂中没有乐章流淌一样。整道风景都在应和着这首诗歌。你坐在那里,在心灵的深处分辨着湖水的声音,便会领悟到,写下这首诗的叶芝,并不是真的想要搬到这座小岛,避世隐居。他是在求索某样东西。他在年仅23岁的年纪,就意识到了死亡和世事变迁的无情。他在寻找,试图找到自己的平衡,自己的中心点。他知道自己将这种平衡遗落在了过去的某处,就像我们所有人一样。The poem is a mental exercise, a meditation. You could perform the exercise in a parking garage. It isn’t meant to be enacted.这首诗就是一次脑力游戏,一次神游。你可以在停车场里玩玩这个游戏。它并不需要受到任何限制。Then I realized that my meditation was different from Yeats’s. If he was using his mind to find his center, I was using him — using history, poetry, travel — to get to the same place.然后我意识到,我的神游与叶芝的并不相同。如果他是在利用自己的思想定位自己的中心,那么我就是在利用他――利用历史、诗歌与旅行――来达到同样的目的。And there I was. All of County Sligo is “Yeats Country.” He mined it, traced its contours, translated them to verse: “black wind,” “wet winds,” “noisy clouds,” “thorn-trees,” “the clinging air.” He did it so thoroughly, it’s almost as if the craggy loveliness of the countryside were carved to suit his poetry, rather than the other way around.而且我确实做到了。整个斯莱戈郡都是“叶芝郡”。是他发掘了它,勾勒出了它的轮廓,将它们一一化为了诗句:“黑色的风”,“潮湿的风”,“嘈杂的云”,“荆棘树”,“粘滞的空气”。他将一切做得如此彻底,简直仿若这处乡郊令人神往的重峦叠嶂本就是为了成就他的诗作而生,而不是他的诗在应和这些风景。“Where the wandering water gushes / From the hills above Glen-Car,” from Yeats’s poem “The Stolen Child,” describes a misty waterfall to the north that seems like something out of Peter Jackson’s “Hobbit.”叶芝另一首诗《被偷走的孩子》(The Stolen Child)中有一句“那儿,溪流曲折/从葛兰卡的山坡上坠泻”,描绘的是一处流向北方、雾气缭绕的飞瀑,看上去很有彼得·杰克逊(Peter Jackson)执导的电影《霍比特人》(Hobbit)中的世界的感觉。A few miles away from the lake, the stupendous mountain slab called Ben Bulben rises like a natural acropolis, the home of some ancient race of Irish gods, a height whose purpose can only be to evoke awe. It became another geographic touchstone for Yeats — so much so that in his poem “Under Ben Bulben,” he eerily directs the er to his own grave, in the nearby cemetery of Drumcliffe. Actually it’s the grave of another Yeats he refers to, an ancestor. But after his own death, in France, his body was transferred there, as if people treated his poem as a last will and testament.距离吉尔湖几英里开外的地方,一座体型庞大的厚片状山丘有如一道天然屏障般矗立于此,它名唤本布尔本山(Ben Bulben),是爱尔兰上古时期某些神祇的家园,那般高耸的身姿唯一的作用必定就是唤起人们的敬畏之心。它成了叶芝的另一处试金石地标――在他的诗作《本布尔本山下》(Under Ben Bulben)中,他很诡异地引导着读者造访了他自己的墓地,就在此山附近的鼓崖公墓(cemetery of Drumcliffe)内。实际上,此处乃是他提到的另一位叶芝,一位先祖的墓穴所在。但是在他本人于法国过世后,他的遗体也被转送到了这里,就好像人们将他的这首诗作视为了他的遗愿,他的遗嘱。It’s only a four-mile drive from the shore of Lough Gill to Sligo town, and civilization. Sligo is an ancient and lively enough little center, dominated by its cathedral and ringed with pubs where there’s nonstop rugby and soccer on the telly and you can order not just Irish stew and Guinness, but also chicken curry and New Zealand sauvignon blanc. For a tourist, it’s the practical base. But pleasant as this is, it was the antithesis of why I had come. Yeats’s meditations weren’t urban, and neither was mine.吉尔湖畔距离斯莱戈郡以及文明世界,仅有四英里的车程。斯莱戈郡是一处历史悠久、生机盎然的中心小郡,受本地的大教堂管辖,四周遍布着大小酒馆,里面没有没完没了地播着橄榄球和足球节目的电视,而你可以点的菜品和酒水不仅有爱尔兰炖菜和健力士黑啤酒(Guinness),还有咖喱鸡和新西兰白苏维翁葡萄酒。对于游客而言,这里就是你的活动基地。不过尽管这一切令人心生愉悦,却与我造访此地的用意截然相反。叶芝的神游无关都市,我的也不是。I am told that there are enormous salmon lurking beneath the waters of Lough Gill, and that otters make the lake their home, and that the lush forest along the banks called Slish Wood, which Yeats in “The Stolen Child” calls Sleuth Wood, harbors rare orchids, ivies and thistles, and that, yes, the evening can be full of the linnet’s wings. I saw none of these remarkable things.有人告诉我说,在吉尔湖的水面之下,潜伏着大量的鲑鱼;也有人说,水獭们也在吉尔湖安了家;还有人说,湖畔沿岸那片名唤斯利什森林(Slish Wood),但在叶芝的诗作《被偷走的孩子》中被写成斯留斯森林(Sleuth Wood)的茂密树丛里,生长着珍稀的兰花、常春藤和蒺藜;更有人说,没错,这里的黄昏时刻真的会有红雀羽翼四处拍打。可这些壮观的美景,我一样也没有见着。But I saw others.但是我看到了另一番风景。(文中所涉叶芝诗作译文出自袁可嘉译本) /201505/376840


  Sometimes in the thick of a messy and awkward prenuptial agreement negotiation, Laura A. Wasser, a Los Angeles-based family lawyer, reminds her clients: “This is not someone you got into a fender bender with. This is someone you want to spend your life with.” So be nice, for starters. Wasser pushes clients to sign all the paperwork at least a month before the wedding, but she suggests broaching the subject much earlier. “Sit down to talk with a good bottle of wine, but don’t drink so much that you end up drunk and fighting,” she says. “Bring it up when things are good, not when you’re bickering.”有时,在一场混乱而尴尬的婚前协议谈判进行到最激烈的阶段,洛杉矶的家庭事务律师劳拉·A·瓦塞尔(Laura A. Wasser)会提醒客户:“对方不是与你发生车祸纠纷的人,而是你想要共度一生的人。”所以,首先要友善。瓦塞尔强烈建议客户在婚礼的至少一个月之前签署所有的文件,而开始讨论这个话题的时间更应早得多。“坐下来伴着一瓶上好的葡萄酒来谈,但别喝太多,免得最后喝醉了争吵起来,”她说。“在气氛愉快的时候提出这个话题,不要在发生口角的时候提。”If the idea of a prenup does not go over well, blame someone else: your parents or, if you have lawyers and business managers, your advisers. Before you hire a lawyer, though, learn about your state’s marriage and divorce laws. “It is amazing how many people go into the contract of marriage — and it is a contract — without knowing the terms,” she says.如果婚前协议的想法没有得到良好反馈,就把责任怪到别人头上:你的父母,或者,如果你有律师或业务经理人的话,也可以推到他们这些顾问身上。不过,在聘请律师之前,首先要了解你所在州的婚姻和离婚方面的法律。“有太多人不了解条款就缔结了婚姻的契约——这的确就是一份契约——这可真让人不可思议。”Keep your proposed arrangement simple. “You hear about prenups that say, ‘If you don’t lose the baby weight, I get to divorce you,’ or, ‘If you cheat on me, I get this much money,’#8201;” says Wasser, whose clients have included Angelina Jolie and Britney Spears. Her firm refuses to include so-called lifestyle clauses — curtailing visits from in-laws or how often you have sex — because they are largely unenforceable in court.让你提出的条件简单明了。“有的婚前协议甚至会说,‘如果你不减掉婴儿肥,我就跟你离婚,’或者‘如果你对我不忠,我就会获得多少钱,’”瓦瑟尔说。她的客户包括安吉丽娜·朱莉(Angelina Jolie)和布兰妮·斯皮尔斯(Britney Spears)。瓦瑟尔的律所拒绝在协议中纳入所谓的“生活方式条款”——比如限制亲家串门次数或是规定做爱的频率——因为这些在法庭上基本无法执行。Even if you and your betrothed are penniless or view prenuptial agreements as a sordid elevation of capital over love, all couples should make the time to talk about the big questions that prenups answer up front. “Who is paying for what? How much do you save? Are you going to go back to work after you have children? What happens when one of us dies?”即使你和未婚夫或未婚妻穷得身无分文,或者认为婚前协议是把金钱置于爱情之上的丑陋之举,所有的情侣也都应该花时间谈论婚前协议会直接解答的那些重要问题:“谁来负担哪些开销?存多少钱?女方生完孩子要继续工作吗?一方离世了该怎么办?” /201503/366456

  Half the people on the street are dressed to kill. Every second woman on the avenue and every second man on the town and every other kid on the jungle gym has his or her back clad in army green. Challenging the ubiquity of black outerwear in the cities and lending a flavor of the PX to the suburban shopping center, the color has conquered the national wardrobe. The history of getting dressed is in large part a story of borrowing combat garb — cravat and cardigan, bomber jacket and pea coat — but the proliferation of the army green jacket is different in kind and in degree.街上一半的人穿得好像要去杀人。街上一半的女人、城里一半的男人以及攀爬架上一半的孩子穿着军绿色。这种颜色正在挑战城市里无所不在的黑色外衣,给郊区购物中心增添一份不同的色——它征了美国人的衣橱。着装史在很大程度上是借鉴战斗装的过程,比如领巾和羊毛衫、短夹克和双排扣海军短大衣,但是这一次,军绿外套的大量出现在种类和程度上都不同于以往。The most symbolically resonant of this year’s models evoke the M-65 field jacket worn by ed States troops in Vietnam. The ideal color — the one approved by the Army Uniform Board — is “Army Green Shade 44,” but a variety of hues and cuts speak in the same idiom, likewise breathing military jargon into the general American vocabulary of dress.今年最有代表性的款式让人想起越战时美军穿的M-65野战短外套。最理想的颜色是曾被美国军装委员会(Army Uniform Board)批准的“44号军绿色”,不过各种颜色和剪裁都传达着同一个意思——把军事元素注入美国装语汇里。Proving immune to the seasonal cycles of designer fashion, retaining currency with elites despite its presence in bargain bins, losing no prestige with youth even as their elders try the same look, the army soldier’s green jacket has developed a status on par with that of the gold miner’s bluejeans with which it pairs so well.绿色军装夹克明自己不像名牌时装那样受季节限制,即使出现在特价区也依然受精英青睐,就算长辈们穿同样款式也不影响它在年轻人中的声望,它的地位已和淘金者的蓝色牛仔裤旗鼓相当——还真别说,它们是绝配。The green now regarded as a quintessentially American tradition emerged only recently. In the early 1800s, imperial armies kitted themselves out in similar shades, like the rifle green of the British and the Russian green of the czar, but Gen. George Washington had preferred the blue coat and buff breeches ordained by one of his old Virginia military companies and immortalized in the Charles Willson Peale portrait. Though Washington ordered the Continental Army into dark blue coats in 1779, the color did not become official nationwide until 1821. Nonetheless, the uniform’s details changed to suit new styles worn by European cavalry and on the streets of the new republic. In contrast to the rigidity of the French or the British or, for that matter, the U.S. Navy, the U.S. Army maintained a uniform tradition that was ad hoc and improvisatory — haphazard at worst but dashingly Whitmanesque at its finest.绿色如今已被认为是典型的美国传统,其实它兴起的时间并不长。19世纪早期,皇家军队穿着类似颜色的装,比如英国的来福绿和沙皇的俄罗斯绿,但是乔治·华盛顿将军(George Washington)更喜欢他的弗吉尼亚老雇佣军公司制定的蓝色外套和浅黄色马裤,他的这个造型在查尔斯·威尔森·皮尔(Charles Willson Peale)的画笔下永垂不朽。1779年,华盛顿下令将大陆军的军上衣改为深蓝色,但是直到1821年,那种颜色才成为全国美军的官方颜色。不过,这种制的细节也做了些改动,以适应欧洲骑兵的新着装风格以及新共和国的街头风格。与法军、英军或美国海军的刻板相比,美国陆军的制传统独特而随性——最糟的时候,显得太过随便;最好的时候,具有帅气的惠特曼风格。When the tactics of the Spanish-American War showed the wisdom of some semblance of camouflage, blue gave way to khaki and eventually to the olive-brown tones of Dwight Eisenhower’s famous short jacket. The standard-issue olive drabs, or “O.D.s,” were openly derided. “It was a shade that might have reminded an imaginative observer of the color of vomit or even excrement,” the cultural critic Paul Fussell wrote in his 2002 book, “Uniforms.” After V-J Day, it became existentially necessary for the Army to address its image problem. Olive drab was a drag on morale and a handicap to recruitment, and the mass entry of army clothes to the civilian life, as worn by veterans to tend their lawns or to pump a customer’s gas, further eroded its prestige.在美西战争中,迷色展现出自己的优势,蓝色让位给卡其色,最终演变为德怀特·艾森豪威尔(Dwight Eisenhower)著名短夹克的橄榄绿棕色。标准的橄榄绿土褐色被公开嘲笑。“这种颜色可能会让人想起呕吐物甚至粪便的颜色,”文化批评家保罗·富塞尔(Paul Fussell)在他2002年出版的《制》(Uniforms)一书中写道。“二战”结束后,军队实在是需要考虑自己的形象问题了。橄榄绿土褐色挫败士气,影响征兵,而且军装开始大量进入平民生活,退伍军人穿着它打理草坪或者给顾客加油,军装的声望进一步遭到损害。In 1949, the Office of the Quartermaster General set about stabilizing the army uniform, and its search for a new color may have represented the most extensive development and market-testing process in the history of both apparel and bureaucracy. An advisory committee ruled that a neutral gray-green would be “flattering to the greatest range of people,” according to a later technical report. A team from the Quartermaster Corps proposed army uniforms to about 15,000 troops in 24 cities; quantified the relative enthusiasm of recruits, veterans and officers’ wives; and tested the new uniform on the ceremonial troop companies of the Third Infantry Regiment, a majority of which felt that officers and enlisted men should wear the same clothes.1949年,美国军需总办公室(Office of the Quartermaster General)开始着手将军颜色固定下来,它寻找军新颜色的过程可能是装和官僚史上最广泛的研发和市场测试过程。根据后来的一份技术报告,一个咨询委员会裁定,中性灰绿色会是“最讨人喜欢的颜色”。美国军需部(Quartermaster Corps)的一个小组向24个城市的约1.5个军队展示了多套军装;量化评估新兵、老兵和军官妻子对这些军装的热情程度;在第三步兵团(Third Infantry Regiment)的仪仗队公司测试新制,大部分公司认为军官和士兵应该穿同一种颜色。Phased in between the mid-’50s and early ’60s, the army green field uniform projected “the confidence and iness of an authoritative military force,” the historian Shelby Stanton wrote in “U.S. Army Uniforms of the Cold War, 1948-1973.” “Army green,” Stanton felt, “complemented the U.S. desire to project the most professional soldiering image toward its Cold War adversaries.” The M-65 is named for the year of its debut.史学家谢尔比·斯坦顿(Shelby Stanton)在《冷战时期的美军制》(U.S. Army Uniforms of the Cold War, 1948-1973)中写道,军绿色野战在50年代中期至60年代初被逐步采用,它表现出“官方军事力量的信心和备战状态”。斯坦顿感觉,“军绿色”“帮助美国向冷战对手塑造出最职业的士兵形象”。But only a few years later, as a youth revolt emerged around the world, anti-authoritarians pressed the army jacket into subversive service. Country Joe at Woodstock, John Lennon at Madison Square Garden and Jane Fonda on the Free the Army road show all treated costume as commentary. The counterculture kid in Army gear could razz the warmongering machine that had endowed the jacket with symbolic power, and he could honor boys destined to die in their boots, and he could also effectively affect a bohemian pose.但是,仅仅几年之后,随着青年造反运动在世界各地兴起,反威权主义者把军装用于颠覆活动。乡下佬乔乐队(Country Joe)在伍德斯托克音乐节(Woodstock)上、约翰·列侬(John Lennon)在麦迪逊广场花园、简·方达(Jane Fonda)在“解放军队”(Free the Army)巡回演出中,纷纷通过装来表达观点。反主流文化的青年通过穿军装来嘲笑美国这台好战机器赋予军装一种象征性权力,纪念那些注定在战场上死去的少年,与此同时还为为自己带来一种波希米亚的姿态。In 1971, having returned from the Vietnam War and committed to protest against it, Navy Lt. John Kerry wore an army green field jacket to meet the press and the public. Alison Lurie decoded the message of every protester’s surplus-store get-up in her 1981 book “The Language of Clothes,” writing that “the longhaired kid in the Confederate tunic or the Eisenhower jacket was not some kind of coward or sissy; that he was not against all wars — just against the cruel and unnecessary one he was in danger of being drafted into.”1971年,海军上尉约翰·克里(John Kerry)从越南战场回国,决心抗议越战,他见媒体和公众时总是身穿军绿色野战。艾莉森·卢里(Alison Lurie)在她1981年出版的《装的语言》(The Language of Clothes)中,解读了每位抗议者的军队剩品店装扮想要传达的意思。她写道,“身穿盟军束腰上衣或艾森豪威尔夹克的长发男孩不是懦夫或胆小鬼,他不是反对所有的战争,只是反对自己可能被征召参加的那场残酷而没有必要的战争。”Having evolved into a uniform for dissenters, the army green jacket could variously represent the shell of a loner (Robert De Niro in “Taxi Driver”) and the skin of a neurotic (Woody Allen in “Annie Hall”), the badge of the last honest man (Al Pacino in “Serpico”) and the sign of a rebel’s toughness (the guys smoking cigarettes in your high-school parking lots).军绿上衣已经发展为异见者的制,它可以是孤独者的保护壳(《出租车司机》[Taxi Driver]中的罗伯特·德尼罗[Robert De Niro])、神经过敏者的外衣(《安妮·霍尔[Annie Hall]中的伍迪·艾伦[Woody Allen])、最后一个正直的人的徽章(《冲突》[Serpico]中的阿尔·帕西诺[Al Pacino]),或者反叛者强硬态度的标志(那些在高中停车场上抽烟的家伙)。The March 10, 1996, edition of The Times carried a report on ballistic-missile tests off Taiwan, an analysis of President Clinton’s difficulty articulating a foreign policy absent “the organizing principle of the Soviet threat” and an inquiry into “Fashion’s Military Fascination,” wherein the critic Suzy Menkes observed an increased number of fashion designers trafficking in the visual rhetoric of the battlefield. The escalation made her uneasy. Gucci epaulets, a Versace battle blouse, a trim-fit Prada trench coat tailored to a fascist aesthetic: These references collectively seemed crass, given the gravity of the referent. Moreover, they seemed like poor business. “Military looks on the runway are often badly received,” Menkes wrote, citing clients’ rejection of Valentino camouflage print in 1994, “just when the ed Nations peacekeeping force was in Rwanda.” Why did designers persist? Menkes diagnosed a romance for old uniforms of all stripes: “Wartime images tend to be absorbed into fashion when the clothing no longer serves its original function.” This was the advance guard of the current moment’s military formation.1996年3月10日,《纽约时报》报道了台湾的弹道导弹试验,分析了克林顿总统在缺乏“苏联威胁时期的组织原则”情况下,表达外交政策时遇到的困难,此外还调查了“时装对军装的痴迷”。在最后这篇文章中,家苏西·门克斯(Suzy Menkes)观察发现,越来越多的时装设计师在借用战场的视觉修辞。这种增长态势让她感到不安。古驰(Gucci)肩饰、范思哲(Versace)军装上衣、裁剪风格符合法西斯审美的普拉达(Prada)修身双排扣战壕风衣:这些单品被放在一起讨论显得有点愚蠢,因为每件单品都很严肃。而且,它们似乎卖得不好。“秀台上的军装造型通常不被接受,”门克斯写道。她以1994年客户们对华伦天奴(Valentino)迷印花的排斥为,“当时联合国维和部队恰好在卢旺达”。设计师们为什么还要坚持呢?门克斯认为,那是因为设计师们对所有类型的旧制仍怀有浪漫感情:“当装不再为它的原始功能务时,时装界就会引入战时造型。”这是目前军装盛行的前兆。It is tempting to say that the army green jacket could not properly begin its ride to the fore until the 20th century was put to bed and the 21st woke to a need for nostalgia. The first sign of broad public acceptance of the army green jacket came in the spring of 2001, with the first Marc by Marc Jacobs collection, which emblematically featured a green jacket with epaulets adjacent to the cute puffs of its gathered sleeves. Vogue assistants threw them on to counter the girlishness of floral-print dresses, and fashion followed, high and low.直到人们送别20世纪、在21世纪初感到自己需要怀旧时,军绿上衣才正式出人头地。公众广泛接受军绿上衣的第一个征兆在2001年春天出现,马克·雅可布之马克(Marc by Marc Jacobs)的第一个系列象征性地推出了一件带肩饰和可爱泡泡袖的绿色上衣。《Vogue》的助理们将它们归为印花连衣裙的女孩子气装一类,高端和低端时装界都开始追随它。Why not? As engineered by the government, army green has mass appeal. Egalitarian in its origins and its effects, the color is in the key of the enlightened manners of the day. Not so much androgynous as unisex, it implies perfectly correct gender politics. The army jacket retains suggestions of smart iness and swaggering utility. It seems to have been scrubbed clean of most other connotations.为什么不呢?军绿色是经过政府精心调研的,它很受大众欢迎。这种颜色在起源和效果上都是平等主义的,集中体现了当今的开明态度。它不是雌雄同体,而是男女皆宜,蕴含着完全正确的性别政治。这种军装上衣仍代表着胸有成竹的潇洒和高视阔步的实用性。它似乎已排除了大多数其他涵义。Wrapped around a hippie in 1968, army green blared a clear contradiction: The wearer was at sartorial war with the program of power. Worn to brunch in 2015, it still communicates a conflict, but there has been a paradigm shift. The person most likely to own a fur-trimmed Saint Laurent army coat is most unlikely to have a yellow ribbon tied around her oak tree.1968年,嬉皮士裹着军绿色上衣,显示出明显的矛盾:穿着者正在与权力进行装方面的斗争。2015年,你穿着军绿上衣去吃早午餐,也传达出一种矛盾,但是社会模式发生了变化。最可能拥有圣罗兰(Saint Laurent)毛边军装外衣的人最不可能在自家橡树上系着黄丝带。The jacket, shifting symbolic shape, now belongs to a consumer culture that pays tribute to the chic of a uniform worn by veterans who are currently begging for change. Thoroughly disconnected from the military-industrial complex and the wearer’s place in it, the garment announces allegiance to only a broad conception of contemporary style. To wear an army green jacket while remaining innocent of the consequences of donning the genuine article for its dedicated purpose is the definition of luxury.这种上衣的象征意义发生了变化,现在它属于一种消费文化,它向退伍老兵制的风尚致敬,而退伍军人目前正渴望有所改变。这种装与军事产业的复杂以及穿着者在其中的位置毫无关系,它只是忠于当代时尚的宽泛观念。身穿军绿上衣,同时对穿着真正制去执行专门使命的后果完全不了解——这正是奢侈的定义。In John Knowles’s prep-school novel “A Separate Peace,” set during World War II, his narrator describes olive drab as the “prevailing color of life in America. That color is always respectable and always important. Most other colors risk being unpatriotic.” Does army green inspire any sense of national pride in 2015? Even as it has come to epitomize a certain kind of urbane civilian cool, green field jackets have given way to camouflage prints in the U.S. Army, and the top brass decided to retire the green service uniform as well. The phaseout was completed last year. Dress blues are the new green.约翰·诺尔斯(John Knowles)的预科学校小说《另一种和平》(A Separate Peace)以“二战”为背景,叙述者将橄榄绿土褐色描述为“美国生活最普遍的颜色。那种颜色总是受人尊敬,非常重要。大部分其他颜色都可能被认为是不爱国”。2015年,军绿色也激起某种国家自豪感吗?尽管它已成为某种城市平民时尚的酷风尚,但是军绿野战已让位给美国军队的迷印花,军队高层也已决定淘汰绿色军。淘汰过程已于去年完成。深蓝是新的绿色。 /201503/364165

  A gorgeous woman with long wavy brown hair graces the cover of the forthcoming July issue of glossy magazine Vanity Fair. Meet Caitlyn Jenner, 65, a US Olympic athlete and TV personality formerly known as Bruce Jenner. Jenner, US reality television star Kim Kardashian’s stepmother and former stepfather, is one of the stars in reality TV show Keeping Up With the Kardashians. But this was the first time she has been photographed as a woman since she came out as transgender in April.她一头棕色长卷发,性感动人,令(美国)时尚杂志《名利场》7月的封面变得熠熠夺目;她就是今年65岁的凯特琳#8226;詹纳,原名布鲁斯#8226;詹纳,美国前奥运冠军、电视名人;他还是美国真人秀(《与卡戴珊同行》)明星金#8226;卡戴珊的继父,不过现在应该称为“继母”。 自今年4月完成变性手术后,这是她首次以女性的身份参与拍摄工作。Jenner’s coming-out is a big moment in US pop culture history. As Western countries like the US have become more socially liberal, transgender people have become less marginalized. So how can you talk about transgender people and related issues without being offensive? GLAAD, a US organization aiming to improve representation of those who identify as LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender) in the media, offers guidelines.詹纳的出现是美国流行文化史上的一个重要时刻。随着美国等西方国家社会自由度的不断提高,跨性别者(变性人)越来越少受到排斥。当谈论到跨性别者或与其相关的话题时,如何表达才能不冒犯到他人?美国一家致力于为LGBT(同性恋、双性恋与跨性别者)人群发声的组织GLAAD给出了如下建议:Basic concepts基本概念Gender Identity性别认同One’s deeply held sense of one’s gender. For transgender people, their own gender identity does not match their sex. Most people have a gender identity of male or female. For some people, gender identity does not fit neatly into these two choices.性别认同指每个人对自己性别根深蒂固的认识。跨性别者即自我性别认同与生理性别不匹配。大部分人的性别认同不是男性就是女性,但也有一些人对自己的性别认同超出了男女的范围。Gender Expression性别表达External manifestations of gender expressed through one’s name, pronouns, clothing, haircut, behavior, voice, or body characteristics. Society identifies these cues as masculine and feminine. Typically, transgender people seek to make their gender expression align with their gender identity, rather than the sex they were born as.外在的性别表达包括:姓名、称呼、穿着、发型、行为举止、声音以及身体特征。而社会(性别)身份则分为男性化或女性化。而跨性别者则力图让性别表达与性别认同,而非生理性别相一致。Sexual Orientation性取向Describes a person’s enduring physical and romantic attraction to another person. Gender identity and sexual orientation are not the same. Transgender people may be straight, lesbian, gay, or bisexual. For example, a person who transits from male to female and is attracted solely to men would identify as a straight woman.性取向指一个人在情感与生理上对他人的持久的吸引。性取向与性别认同并不完全相同。跨性别者可能是异性恋、同性恋或双性恋。比如,一个人从男性变为女性,但依旧对男性情有独钟,那么她就是女性异性恋者。Transgender跨性别者An umbrella term for people whose gender identity and/or gender expression differs from what is typically associated with the sex they were born as. Some undergo medical procedures or surgery to change their bodies. But not all transgender people can or will take those steps, and a transgender identity is not dependent upon medical procedures.跨性别者是对性别认同与性别表达中至少有一项与天生生理性别不一致人群的统称。有些人通过药物或手术治疗改变生理性别,但并非所有的跨性别者都能够或愿意接受这一改变。同时,跨性别认同并不取决于是否接受变性治疗。Transgender man变性人(女变男)People who are born female but identify and live as a man may use this term to describe themselves. They may shorten it to “trans man”. Some may also use FTM, an abbreviation for female-to-male. Some may prefer to simply be called men, without any modifier. It is best to ask which term an individual prefers. The term’s exact opposite is “transgender woman” or “trans woman”. But take note that transgender women are not cross-dressers or drag queens. Drag queens are men, typically gay men, who dress like women for the purpose of entertainment. Do not use the word “transvestite” at all, unless someone specifically self-identifies that way.变性人(女变男)指生为女性,但性别认同为男性,并以男性身份生活的人们,英文也可缩写为“trans man”,或FTM(女变男)。有些人更希望人们直接称呼他们“男人”,不加任何修饰语。当然,称呼前最好询问一下他们的个人偏好。与这个词相对的则是“(男变女)变性人”,英文简称“trans woman”。不过,一定要注意将他们和“异装者”或“变装皇后”区别开。后者指为了效果,扮女装的男性(尤其是男同性恋者)。同时,也要避免使用“异装癖”这个词,除非被称呼者本人也如此认为。 /201506/380860






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