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宜昌医院预约武汉长航医院治疗睾丸炎多少钱武汉医院外科 网民年轻化 上网化Most of the country's Internetusers go online to chat or seek entertainment rather than look for jobs or conduct business.According to a report released by China InternetNetwork Information (CNNIC) yesterday, China's Internet users totaled 162 million in the first six months of this year. The country reported 137 million users last year.The rapid growth could be translated into almost 100 new users per minute in the past six months.At this rate of increase, China is expected to overtake the ed States, the world's leader, by the end of next year. The US had 211 million Internet users at the end of last month.Although the number of China's Internet users has been on the rise since 1994, when first introduced to the country, the research showed most users were interested in chat rooms and entertainment, and not job searches, education, and e-banking.About 75 percent online news and used search engines for information.More than 60 percent regarded online music and s as an important source of entertainment.Only 21 percent used e-banking services, and 3.9 percent booked tickets through the Internet.Wang Enhai, an official with CNNIC, and an author of the report, said the phenomenon is due to China's Internet infancy and the fact most users were young people."China's Internet market is just emerging and there are still a lot of things to be done before a mature online business environment can be established," Wang said.According to CNNIC, the number of China's Internet users under 24 years old was 58 million, about 35.8 percent of the country's total Internet population.This segment of the population, comprising mostly students, spends a lot of time playing online games, listening to music and watching s. 我国大多数互联网用户上网进行的主要活动是聊天和,而不是找工作或从事商务活动。中国互联网络信息中心昨天发布的一份报告显示,今年上半年,中国的网民总数达到1.62亿人。去年这一数字为1.37亿。在过去六个月中,中国网民的数量以每分钟近一百人的速度激增。按照这一增速,中国有望于明年年底超过美国,成为全世界网民规模最大的国家。截至上月底,美国的网民数量达到2.11亿人。尽管自1994年互联网引入中国以来,网民数量一直增长,但调查显示,大多数网民对网上聊天和较感兴趣,而不是网上求职、网络教育和网上。约75%的网民在网上浏览新闻以及使用搜索引擎搜索信息。超过60%的人将在线音乐和在线视频视为生活的重要组成部分。仅有21%的人使用过网上务,3.9%的人曾在网上订票。中国互联网络信息中心官员、调查报告的撰写者之一王恩海说,这一现象的主要原因是中国的互联网尚处于起步阶段,而且大多数互联网用户都是年轻人。他说:“中国的互联网市场才刚刚兴起,建立一个成熟的在线商务环境仍有很多事情要做。”据中国互联网络信息中心数据,中国24岁以下的网民达到5800万,占网民总数的35.8%。而且其中的大多数人是学生,他们经常在网上打游戏、听音乐、看视频。 /200803/31205武汉华夏包皮手术费用

武汉包皮切除手术多钱The advance of the self-driving car may be the most important technological breakthrough of the coming decades.自动驾驶汽车领域的进展可能是未来几十年最重要的科技突破。Even generally well-informed people I meet regard driverless vehicles as being still pretty “out there”. And I doubt that the hundreds of millions of people who steer vehicles for a living will start giving it much thought until too late.即使我遇到的一些消息灵通人士也认为,无人驾驶汽车仍然是“很遥远的事情”。我也怀疑,为了谋生而开车的亿万人会及时开始深入考虑这一问题。But major car companies are vying to get consumer-y autonomous cars on the market by around 2020. Professionals, from economists to town planners to traffic engineers to legislators to insurers, are starting to grapple with the massive changes this will bring.但各大车企正致力于在2020年左右把面向消费者的自动驾驶汽车推向市场。从经济学家到城市规划者,从交通工程师到立法者和保险业者,专业人士正着手应对它将带来的巨大变化。What, then, might a smart lawyer make of the legal implications of the coming transport revolution?那么,对于这场即将到来的运输革命,一位聪明的律师会怎样看待其潜在法律影响呢?I have been to Cambridge to meet Stephen Hamilton, a partner in the UK law firm, Mills amp; Reeve, which is positioning itself as an authority on driverless vehicle law.我到剑桥(Cambridge)拜访了英国律所Mills amp; Reeve合伙人史蒂芬?汉密尔顿(Stephen Hamilton);该律所正定位于无人驾驶车辆法律的权威。Mr Hamilton specialises in helping companies raise funds from the capital markets, but he has spent three years researching and building expertise on autonomous vehicles.汉密尔顿专长于帮助企业从资本市场筹集资金,但他花了三年时间研究自动驾驶汽车,积累起相关专业知识。“The internet is all about moving text, voice and pictures around digitally,” he says, as we look out over university buildings where scientists from Isaac Newton to Charles Darwin to Stephen Hawking have worked.他说:“互联网的本质就是以数字方式来传送文字、语音和图片。”我们望着校内一栋栋建筑,这里是艾萨克?牛顿(Isaac Newton)、查尔斯?达尔文(Charles Darwin)和斯蒂芬?霍金(Stephen Hawking)曾工作过的地方。“The disruption the internet caused was massive. But if we get there on self-driving mobility, and we’re moving people and things around a network digitally, we ain’t seen nothing yet in terms of disruption.”“互联网造成的颠覆是巨大的。但如果我们实现无人驾驶,利用数字手段在一个网络内运输人和物件,就颠覆而言,大幕才刚拉开。”The legal question around self-driving cars that has attracted most attention, however, is not about the great shifts in the way we might live, but the “who to kill” dilemma: a child runs out in front of an autonomous car, should it be programmed to swerve to avoid the child, even if that means hitting an oncoming car or people at a bus stop?围绕自动驾驶汽车的法律问题引起了极大关注,但人们关注的并不是我们的生活方式可能发生的巨大转变,而是“该杀谁”的两难困境:一个孩子突然出现在一辆自动驾驶汽车前方,汽车应不应该从编程上急转弯以避开孩子,哪怕这意味着与迎面而来的汽车相撞,或撞到在公交车站等车的人?In Mr Hamilton’s view, this ethical question has been overplayed.在汉密尔顿看来,这个伦理问题被过度夸大了。“The solution is that when a vehicle meets an obstruction, it can do only a limited number of things — steer left or right to overtake or get round it, or brake, or accelerate. The last is unlikely to be applicable, so it’s really a three-way choice.“解决办法是,当车辆遇到障碍物时,它能采取的行动是有限的:从左方或右方超车或绕过去,或者刹车,或者加速。最后一个不太可能适用,所以这实际上就是一个三项选择题。”“What we would suggest is that if you can’t get round it, the only choice is to brake and avoid or mitigate the damage. There’s no ethical choice in that for an algorithm or decision tree to act on. It’s an obstruction that’s moved into your path that shouldn’t have been there, just like somebody falling or jumping in front of a train.”“我们的建议是,如果你不能绕过去,唯一的选择就是刹车,避免或减轻伤害。这里不存在需要算法或决策树伤脑筋的道德选择。你前方的路上出现了一个不该在那里的障碍,就像有人摔倒或者跳到火车前方。”You can “war game” anomalies, he explains, but each time, the only answer is to brake and hope for the least damage to the child. Anyway, autonomous cars will always be driving more safely than humans do, and will always react faster than even a rational, alert and sober human.他解释说,你可以把异常状况搞得像“战争游戏”,但每一次的只有一个:刹车,并希望对孩子的伤害降到最小。无论如何,自动驾驶汽车总会比人类驾驶员更安全,总会比哪怕是理性、警觉、清醒的人类驾驶员反应更快。Another ethical issue Mr Hamilton flagged up is the potential mighty fuss over unfit drivers taking to the road again in a self-driving car. Could or should society stop a banned driver from buying a self-driving car and regaining full mobility?汉密尔顿提出的另一个伦理问题是,已被吊销驾照的驾驶者开着自动驾驶汽车再次驶上道路,潜在可能引起极大的争议。社会可以(或者应该)阻止被吊销驾照的司机购买自动驾驶汽车和重获完全机动能力吗?Then there is a boring-but-important legislative issue. Road traffic law throughout the developed world is based on two international treaties, the Geneva Convention of 1949 and the Vienna Convention.还有一个枯燥但重要的立法问题。发达国家的公路交通法律基于两项国际公约:1949年《日内瓦道路交通公约》(Geneva Convention on Road Traffic),以及1968年《维也纳道路交通公约》(Vienna Convention on Road Traffic)。Both specify that control of a vehicle must at all times be with the driver, so they will need to be adapted before fully self-driving cars are legal. Far from a small matter.二者都规定任何时候车辆都必须由驾驶员控制,因此在全自动驾驶汽车合法之前,先得修改这条规定。这绝不是件小事。China, which has signed neither convention, is in a position to put autonomous cars on its roads. Chinese manufacturers are still grappling with the technology, but rest of the world, you have been warned.并未签署这两项公约的中国,可以让自动驾驶汽车上路。中国的制造商仍在攻克无人驾驶技术,但全球其他地方应该关注这个法律问题。Another thing. What about free will? If my car is behind an older gentleman’s ancient vehicle doing a steady 20mph, can I programme mine to overtake, possibly breaking the speed limit as it does so?此外就是自由意志的问题。如果我的车跟在一位年长绅士的老爷车后面,该车以20英里的时速慢吞吞地行驶,我可以给自己的车编程超车吗?哪怕它可能在超车时违反限速规定?The answer, Mr Hamilton believes, is that there is unlikely to be an “accept moderately risky driving” option in your autonomous car’s presets.哈密尔顿认为,是,自动驾驶汽车的预设选项中不太可能出现“接受适度风险驾驶”这一选项。“But anyway,” he adds a little drily, “I suspect that the car won’t get bored or fed up”, like human drivers do. Instead, it “will know that at the end of the journey, the overtake will have saved about seven seconds [so it] will apply ruthless logic and not do it”.“但无论如何,”他带着一丝冷幽默说,“我估计汽车不会(像人类驾驶员那样)感到无聊或厌烦”。相反,它“会知道最终而言,这次超车可以节省大约7秒钟,因此它会运用不带感情的逻辑分析,决定不超车。”Hacking your car’s software to do so, he added, will be illegal. The same software will also refuse to drive you anywhere but the garage if the car needs a service or a system update.他补充说,黑进汽车软件这么干是非法的。软件将拒绝把你载到任何地方,唯独汽车修理厂除外——如果汽车需要保养,或者进行系统更新。It is not insignificant that last year’s registrations of new (human driven) cars in the UK hit a high of 2.69m. Neither is it to be overlooked that the CEO of the Toyota Research Institute said at the Consumer Electronics Show just last week that the car industry is “not even close” to fully autonomous cars.值得一提的是,去年英国(人类驾驶的)新车注册量高达269万辆。还有一件事也不可忽视,丰田研究院(Toyota Research Institute)首席执行官近日在消费电子展(CES)上表示,汽车行业离全自动驾驶汽车的“边儿都不挨着”。Yet I came away from my meeting with Mr Hamilton pretty sure that not long from now, the notion of humans steering vehicles will, as he believes, seem as anachronistic and undesirable as jousting or duelling.不过当我与汉密尔顿告别时,我十分确信一点:不久以后,就像汉密尔顿所认为的那样,人类驾驶汽车将像骑马比武或决斗一样,成为一个过时的、不可取的概念。 /201701/489251武汉怎样才是包皮过长 武汉华夏

武汉阴茎开始流浓怎么办 A lot of big claims are made about the transformative power of artificial intelligence. But it is worth listening to some of the big warnings too. Last month, Kate Crawford, principal researcher at Microsoft Research, warned that the increasing power of AI could result in a “fascist’s dream” if the technology were misused by authoritarian regimes.关于人工智能的变革威力,人们提出了很多大胆的设想。但我们也有必要听听一些严重警告。上月,微软研究院(Microsoft Research)首席研究员凯特?克劳福德(Kate Crawford)警告称,如果被威权政府滥用,威力与日俱增的人工智能可能会酿成一场“法西斯梦”。“Just as we are seeing a step function increase in the speed of AI, something else is happening: the rise of ultra-nationalism, rightwing authoritarianism and fascism,” Ms Crawford told the SXSW tech conference.克劳福德在SXSW科技大会上表示:“就在我们看到人工智能的发展速度呈阶梯型上升时,其他一些事情也在发生:极端民族主义、右翼威权主义和法西斯主义崛起。”The creation of vast data registries, the targeting of population groups, the abuse of predictive policing and the manipulation of political beliefs could all be enabled by AI, she said.她表示,人工智能可能带来庞大的数据登记册、针对特定人口群体、滥用预测型警务以及操纵政治信仰。Ms Crawford is not alone in expressing concern about the misapplication of powerful new technologies, sometimes in unintentional ways. Sir Mark Walport, the British government’s chief scientific adviser, warned that the unthinking use of AI in areas such as the medicine and the law, involving nuanced human judgment, could produce damaging results and erode public trust in the technology.克劳福德并不是唯一对强大的新技术被错误使用(有时以意想不到的方式)感到担忧的人。英国政府首席科学顾问马克?沃尔波特(Mark Walport)警告称,在医学和法律等涉及细腻人类判断的领域不假思索地使用人工智能,可能带来破坏性结果,并侵蚀公众对这项技术的信任。Although AI had the potential to enhance human judgment, it also risked baking in harmful prejudices and giving them a spurious sense of objectivity. “Machine learning could internalise all the implicit biases contained within the history of sentencing or medical treatment — and externalise these through their algorithms,” he wrote in an article in Wired.尽管人工智能有增强人类判断的潜力,但它也可能带来有害的偏见,并产生一种错误的客观感觉。他在《连线》(Wired)杂志的一篇文章中写道:“机器学习可能会内部化在量刑或医疗历史中存在的所有隐性偏见,并通过它们的算法外部化。”As ever, the dangers are a lot easier to identify than they are to fix. Unscrupulous regimes are never going to observe regulations constraining the use of AI. But even in functioning law-based democracies it will be tricky to frame an appropriate response. Maximising the positive contributions that AI can make while minimising its harmful consequences will be one of the toughest public policy challenges of our times.就像一直以来的情况那样,识别危险仍然要比化解危险容易得多。没有底线的政权永远不会遵守限制人工智能使用的规定。然而,即便在正常运转的基于法律的民主国家,框定适当的回应也很棘手。将人工智能可以做出的积极贡献最大化,同时将其有害后果降至最低,将是我们这个时代最艰巨的公共政策挑战之一。For starters, the technology is difficult to understand and its use is often surreptitious. It is also becoming increasingly hard to find independent experts, who have not been captured by the industry or are not otherwise conflicted.首先,人工智能技术很难理解,其用途往往带有神秘色。找到尚未被行业挖走、且不存在其他利益冲突的独立专家也变得越来越难。Driven by something approaching a commercial arms race in the field, the big tech companies have been snapping up many of the smartest academic experts in AI. Much cutting-edge research is therefore in the private rather than public domain.受到该领域类似商业军备竞赛的竞争的推动,大型科技公司一直在争夺人工智能领域很多最优秀的学术专家。因此,很多领先研究位于私营部门,而非公共部门。To their credit, some leading tech companies have acknowledged the need for transparency, albeit belatedly. There has been a flurry of initiatives to encourage more policy research and public debate about AI.值得肯定的是,一些领先科技公司认识到了透明的必要性,尽管有些姗姗来迟。还有一连串倡议鼓励对人工智能展开更多政策研究和公开辩论。Elon Musk, founder of Tesla Motors, has helped set up OpenAI, a non-profit research company pursuing safe ways to develop AI.特斯拉汽车(Tesla Motors)创始人埃隆?马斯克(Elon Musk)帮助创建了非盈利研究机构OpenAI,致力于以安全方式开发人工智能。Amazon, Facebook, Google DeepMind, IBM, Microsoft and Apple have also come together in Partnership on AI to initiate more public discussion about the real-world applications of the technology.亚马逊(Amazon)、Facebook、谷歌(Google) DeepMind、IBM、微软(Microsoft)和苹果(Apple)也联合发起Partnership on AI,以启动更多有关该技术实际应用的公开讨论。Mustafa Suleyman, co-founder of Google DeepMind and a co-chair of the Partnership, says AI can play a transformative role in addressing some of the biggest challenges of our age. But he accepts that the rate of progress in AI is outstripping our collective ability to understand and control these systems. Leading AI companies must therefore become far more innovative and proactive in holding themselves to account. To that end, the London-based company is experimenting with verifiable data audits and will soon announce the composition of an ethics board to scrutinise all the company’s activities.谷歌DeepMind联合创始人、Partnership on AI联合主席穆斯塔法?苏莱曼(Mustafa Suleyman)表示,人工智能可以在应对我们这个时代一些最大挑战方面发挥变革性作用。但他认为,人工智能的发展速度超过我们理解和控制这些系统的集体能力。因此,领先人工智能公司必须在对自己问责方面发挥更具创新和更主动的作用。为此,这家总部位于伦敦的公司正在尝试可验的数据审计,并将很快宣布一个道德委员会的构成,该委员会将审查该公司的所有活动。But Mr Suleyman suggests our societies will also have to devise better frameworks for directing these technologies for the collective good. “We have to be able to control these systems so they do what we want when we want and they don’t run ahead of us,” he says in an interview for the FT Tech Tonic podcast.但苏莱曼指出,我们的社会还必须设计更好的框架,指导这些技术为集体利益务。他在接受英国《金融时报》Tech Tonic播客的采访时表示:“我们必须能够控制这些系统,使他们在我们希望的时间做我们想做的事,而不会自说自话。”Some observers say the best way to achieve that is to adapt our legal regimes to ensure that AI systems are “explainable” to the public. That sounds simple in principle, but may prove fiendishly complex in practice.一些观察人士表示,做到这点的最佳方法是调整我们的法律制度,确保人工智能系统可以向公众“解释”。从原则上说,这听上去很简单,但实际做起来可能极为复杂。Mireille Hildebrandt, professor of law and technology at the Free University of Brussels, says one of the dangers of AI is that we become overly reliant on “mindless minds” that we do not fully comprehend. She argues that the purpose and effect of these algorithms must therefore be testable and contestable in a courtroom. “If you cannot meaningfully explain your system’s decisions then you cannot make them,” she says.布鲁塞尔自由大学(Free University of Brussels)法律和科技学教授米雷列?希尔德布兰特(Mireille Hildebrandt)表示,人工智能的危险之一是我们变得过度依赖我们并不完全理解的“不用脑子的智慧”。她认为,这些算法的目的和影响必须是可测试而且在法庭上是可争论的。她表示:“如果你无法有意义地解释你的系统的决定,那么你就不能制造它们。”We are going to need a lot more human intelligence to address the challenges of AI.我们将需要更多的人类智慧来应对人工智能挑战。 /201704/505680武汉华夏医院男科怎么样武汉治疗男人早泄的医院

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