时间:2019年07月23日 11:55:26

Eastern Zhou Dynasty came into being in 770 B. C. , when King Ping of Zhou moved the capital eastward to Luoyi, and ended in 256 B.C., when conquered by the Qin, lasting 514 years under the reign of 25 kings.周自公元前770年周平王东迁洛邑,到公元前256年被秦所灭,共传二十五王,前后经历了514年。It is traditionally to be divided into two phases : the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period. The Spring and Autumn Period was from about 770 to 476 B. C. The name for this period derives from the Spring and Autumn Annals , a history record of the state Lu (a fiefdoms of the Zhou Dynasty) adapted by Confucius. The second half, the Warring States Period, began in 475 B. C. and stretched down to 221B.C..我国习惯上把这段历史分为两个时期,公元前770年至前476年,为春秋时期,因孔子改编的鲁史《春秋》而得名;另一半,从 韩、赵、魏“三家分晋”(公元前475年)至秦始皇统一六国(公元前221年),为战国时期。The Spring and Autumn period was not only a changing period, but the interim as well, during which the social economy experienced rapid transformation, the political situation became complicated, warfares emerged endlessly, academic study and culture were extraordinarily splendid, and the ancient Chinese civilization was evolving to the middle age.春秋时期,是中国历史上社会经济急剧变化、政治局面错综复杂、军事斗争层出不穷、学术文化异纷呈的一个变革时期,是中华古代文明逐渐发展为中世纪文渡时期。Internal power struggles and invasions of Rong tribe forced King Ping to abandon Haojing and with the help of such states as Jin and Zheng moved to Luoyi in 771 B.C.在内乱和戎族入侵的交织打击之下,公元前770年,周平王被迫放弃镐京,依仗晋、郑等诸侯的力量迁都洛邑。Hence, relying on the support from some powerful vassals both in politics and in economy, the imperial court began to decline, and times when Zhou king controlled the country had gone forever.从此王室开始衰弱,在政治上和经济上都依靠一些比较强大的诸侯的持,周天子号令天下的时代一去不复返。In 707 B. C.,King Huan launched a puni-five expedition against the unruly state of Zheng, he was not only defeated, but also wounded by an arrow.公元前707年,桓王出兵伐桀骜不驯的郑国,不仅为郑师所败,还被射伤。Hereon,the king of Zhou existed in name only.从此,周天子名存实亡。According to history records, there were 128 vassal states during the Spring and Autumn Period, while the important ones were ten or more.春秋时期,见于史书的诸侯国名有128个,但比较重要的不过十几个。Resorting on the military strength, they launched wars constantly, annexing small states, expanding the domain, and a situation of vassals contending for hegemony came into being.这些比较大的诸侯国凭借其实力,不断发动战争兼并小国,扩充领土,形成了诸侯争霸的局面。The Five Hegemons are also called the Five Counts. There are different versions about their identities. The traditional definition is that Duke of Huan of Qi, Duke Wen of Jin, Duke Wu of Qin, Duke Xiang of Song, and King Zhuang of Chu ; the other is Duke Huan of Qi, Duke Wen of Jin, King Zhuang of Chu, King Helu of Wu and King Goujian of Yue.春秋时期的“五霸”,历史上有不同的说法:一说是指齐桓公、宋襄公、晋文公、 秦穆公和楚庄王;另一说是指齐桓公、晋文公、楚庄王、吴王阖闾和越王勾践。Duke Huan of Qi (in the throne from 685 B.C.-643 B.C.) was the first over-lord.最早称霸的是齐桓公(公元前685 ~公元前643在位)。In the east, the state of Qi had rich natural resources. Kings through the ages were engaged in the rectification of politics and the development of economy, so its national strength grew gradually.齐国在东方,自然资源丰富,历代君主致力于整顿政治,发展生产,国力逐渐发展起来。When he was in the throne, he designated a statesman named Guan Zhong as his prime minister to carry out reforms, and Qi became powerful rapidly.齐桓公继位后,以管仲为相,改革内政,使齐国迅速强大。Duke Huan of Qi succeeded in uniting the vassal lords by invoking the slogan of “loyalty to the King of Zhou”,defeated Northern Rong tribe and deterred invasions of Di tribe, due to which he was widely supported by vassals and his prestige rose greatly.后以“尊王攘夷”为名,联合个诸侯国打败了北戎,制止了狄人的侵扰。齐桓公救患扶危的行为,得到一些诸侯的拥护,威信大增。In 656 B.C. , Duke Huan led an alliance of eight vassal states to attack Chu, and finally concluded a covenant at Zhaoling (the present-day Yancheng in Henan). Qi,s supremacy reached its apex.公元前656年,齐桓公带领8个诸侯国的联军攻楚,订立了召陵(今河南偃城)之盟,其霸业发展到顶峰。In 651 B. C., Qi organized a meeting at Kuiqiu (now Northeast of Minquan County in Henan) with the participation of the monarchs of Lu, Song, Wei, Zheng, Xu and Cao participating in. Even the Zhou King sent his representative.公元前651年,齐桓公在葵丘(今河南民权县东 北)大会诸侯,参加会盟的有齐、鲁、宋、卫、郑、许、曹等国的国君,周天子也派代表参加。这次会盟史称“葵丘之会”。The meeting decided that states creating a friendly alliance should never attack each other, and that they had to assist each other if one partner should be attacked by an enemy.葵丘之会规定各国和睦相处,互不侵犯。任何成员国受到外敌攻击,其他各国均应救援。Duke Huan thus became the hegemon of the alliance, namely the overlord, and controlled the king of Zhou, acting as the highest judicial person.齐桓公为盟主,就是霸主,得以挟天子以令诸侯。When Duke Huan died,the intense contention for succession occurred and the power of Qi was weakened.齐桓公死后,齐国出现争夺君权的内乱,力量削弱。Chu took this opportunity to enhance its force, devastating several small states in the north successively, and then directing the spearhead at the central plain again.楚国乘机发展势力,先后灭了楚国北边的几个小国,重新把矛头指向中原。Figuring for the position of overlord, Duke Xiang of Song had a contest with Chu.宋襄公为谋取霸主地位,展开了与楚国的较量。The two armies met at Hongshui in 638 B. C. Conseuently, Song was defeated, and Duke Xiang was wounded, and died.公元前638年,两军在泓水相遇,宋军大败,宋襄公受了箭伤,不久便死去了。The state of Song lost its last chance to rise to political and military significance.宋就此失去了在经济、军事上称雄的机会。As Chu was ruling the central plain, Jin in the west was rising up quietly.正当楚国称雄中原的时候,西部的晋国悄然兴起。Duke Wen of Jin ascended to the enthronement after 19 years of hard exile.晋文公重耳在外流亡19年后继位。Duke Wen of Jin carried out political reform, and strengthened the national economy and thus he gained high prestige among lords.他改革政治,发展经济,在诸侯中威信很高。In 635 B. C. ,the King Xiang of Zhou escaped from inner disturbances to Zheng.公元前635年,周襄王为了避内乱逃到了郑国。Duke Wen of Jin saw his chance. Raising the banner of “ loyalty to the king of Zhou”,and allying other lords, he conquered Wang Zidai, rescued the king and accompanied him back to the royal domain, highly rewarded by the King.晋文公以为是取威定霸的好机会,便打着“尊王”的旗号,打垮王子带,把襄王送回王都。The next step for the Duke should be to challenge the power of Chu.接下来,晋文公就要与楚国一决雌雄。In 633 B. C. , the state of Chu led an alliance with Chen, Cai, Zheng and Xu, and then attacked Song.公元前633年, 楚与陈、蔡、郑、许结盟,攻打宋国都城。In response, Jin led the force of Song, Qi and Qin to rescue Song, and crashed the alliance of Chu at the battle of Chengpu (Linpuji in the Southwest of modern Juancheng in Shandong).次年初,晋文公率齐秦联军兵救宋,在城襥 (现山东鄄城西南临濮集)大败楚军。Duke Wen of Jin established a new friendly alliance during the meeting at Jiantu (Southwest of present Yuanyang County, Henan) and became the new overlord.战后,晋文公在践土(河南原阳县西南)会盟诸侯,成为中原霸主。However, the contention between Jin and Chu for supremacy lasted for many years.然而,楚晋之争并未就此结束,战争延续多年。Qin used to be a small country in the west of modern Shaanxi.秦国原是活动在陕西西部的一个小国。During the reign of Duke Mu, Bai Lixi was appointed as Dafu (a high official), rectifying civil affairs and encouraging production, therefore, the state was gradually rich and strong, its territory was expanded eastward, and bordered with the state of Jin.秦穆公时,任用百里奚为大夫,整顿内政,奖励生产,国家逐渐富强,疆土向东扩展,与晋国相接。Qin launched a war against Jin in 645 B. C.-, not only defeated Jin utterly at the battle of Hanyuan (the modern Ruicheng in Shanxi), and captured Duke Hui of Jin as well.公元前645年,秦伐晋,大破晋军于韩原(今山西芮城),生俘晋惠公。In 627 B.C. , Duke Mu launched a surprise attack on Zheng, but was intercepted at Xiao (in the northwest of modern Luoning in Henan) by Jin; all his three generals were captured, and the whole army was annihilated.公元前627年,秦又袭郑,在回军至殽(今河南洛宁西北)时,遭晋军截击,秦军的三个将军被俘,全军覆没。史称“殽之战”。From then on,the military confrontation between Qin and Jin went on constantly, and each side had victories and losses.此后,秦、晋屡有战争,互有胜负。Since Jin blocked the gate for Qin to the Central Plain and Qin could but expand its territory to the west. After annexing some Rong Di tribes, Qin began to dominate the area of Western Rong.秦国为晋所阻,不得向东发展,转而向西,吞并了一些戎狄部族,称霸西戎。Chu was a barbarian state in the basins of Jiang and Han.楚是江、汉流域的一个蛮族国家。During the reign of King Zhuang of Chu, Sun Shuao was designated as prime minister. With his help, the internal affairs were regulated, irrigation system was constructed, and the state became powerful and prosperous.楚庄王时,孙叔敖为宰相,整饬内政,兴修水利,国势更加强盛。In 606 B. C. King Zhuang headed troops arriving at the outskirts of Luoyi, and King Ding of Zhou was forced to hold ritual of consolation for him.公元前606年,楚庄王率军至雒邑的郊外,周定王被迫派人为他举行慰劳欢迎之礼。In 598B. C. King Zhuang besieged the state of Zheng, and Jin sent army to rescue it.公元前598年,楚围郑,晋救郑。Then at the battle of Bi (in the east of modern Zhengzhou in Henan) the army of the former hegemonial state of Jin was defeated.次年,晋、楚军战于郷(今河南郑州市东),晋军大败。史称“郧之战”。In 594 B. C. ,Chu defeated the state of Song and obtained the hegemonship over the Central Plain.公元前594年,楚又败宋,楚庄王成为中原的霸主。When the contention in the central plain came to an end, states Wu and Yue in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River rose to prominence.当中原诸侯争霸接近尾声时,地处长江下游的吴、越发展起来。In 506 B. C. , appointed Wu Zixu as general, King Helu of Wu launched an punitive expedition a-gainst Chu, and captured the capital of Chu, Ying.周敬王十四年 (公元前506),吴王阖闾以伍员(伍子胥)为大将,统兵伐楚,攻进楚都。In 496 B. C. , King of the Wu state commanded the army to march south and attack the state of Yue.周敬王二十四年(公元前496)又挥师南进伐越。King Gou-jian of Yue led the army to fight back and King Helu suffered an injury which led to his death.越王勾践率兵迎战,越大夫灵姑浮一戈击中阖闾,阖闾因伤逝世。In 494 B. C. , King Fuchai of the Wu state, the son of Helu, attacked Yue to seek revenge. Yue was defeated. King Goujian sued for peace, sending jewels and Xishi (a great beauty in Chinese history) to the Wu king, and leading the horse for Fuchai himself.周敬王二十六年(公元前494),吴王夫差为父报仇,兴兵败越,越王勾践求和,送给吴王珍宝美女西施,自己亲自为夫差牵马。Degrading himself as a Wu subject, Goujian prepared to restore his state.勾践自贱为吴民,志在复国。Exploiting the victory, King Wu launched an attack northward and defeated Qi, attempting to seize hegemony.吴王乘胜向北进击,大败齐军,成为小霸。After ten years of sleeping on brushwood and tasting gall, Goujian finally annihilated Wu. Ashamed and resentful, Fuchai committed suicide.越王勾践卧薪尝胆,十年生聚,十年生息,终于在周元王三年(公元前473)消 灭吴国,夫差羞愤自杀。Goujian went to the north to confer with Qi and Jin at Xu, and became the last hegemon.勾践北上与齐晋会盟于徐,成为最后一个霸主。 /201511/407430

A Turkish word for melancholy is huzun, and Orhan Pamuk’s writing soaks in it. Certain jazz musicians excepted, few artists conjure sweet sadness as unremittingly.帕慕克的行文中总是浸透着一个格外伤感的土耳其字眼:“呼愁”(huzun)。除了少数几个爵士乐手,几乎没有任何艺术家能够创作出这样绵绵不绝的甜蜜忧伤之情。Mr. Pamuk, who won the Nobel Prize in literature in 2006, sought to tap into “the huzun of an entire city” in his nonfiction book “Istanbul: Memories and the City” (2005). His sprawling new novel is after something similar.帕慕克是2006年诺贝尔文学奖得主,在他2005年的非虚构文集《伊斯坦布尔:一座城市的记忆》(Istanbul: Memories and the City)一书中努力写出了这种“整个城市笼罩的呼愁”。他最新一部篇幅铺漫的小说也是在追寻类似的东西。“A Strangeness in My Mind,” Mr. Pamuk’s first novel since “The Museum of Innocence” (2009), is a minor-key epic about life in Istanbul over the past half-century. It floats on a cushion of huzun, the way an air-hockey puck hovers above the game table.《我意识里的怪癖》(A Strangeness in My Mind)是帕慕克自2009年的《纯真物馆》(The Museum of Innocence)后的首部小说。它如同一曲小调史诗,吟咏伊斯坦布尔在过去半个世纪里的生活。它漂浮在一层呼愁之上,就像桌面冰球在球桌上方悬浮。The first thing to know about “A Strangeness in My Mind” is that it ranks with “A Confederacy of Dunces” as a major street-food vendor novel. Its primary character is Mevlut Karatas, who walks Istanbul’s neighborhoods at night calling out: “Booo-zaaaaa. Goooood boozaaaaa.”关于《我意识里的怪癖》,你要知道的第一件事就是它和《笨蛋联盟》(A Confederacy of Dunces)一样,堪称一本经典的路边食摊小贩小说。它的主角名叫梅弗卢特·卡拉塔斯(Mevlut Karatas),一到夜里就在伊斯坦布尔沿街叫卖:“卜——茶——,好喝的——卜茶——”Boza is an ancient fermented beverage, made in Turkey from wheat. It’s yellowish and thick and often topped with cinnamon and roasted chickpeas. Boza has a low alcohol content — so low that, as one character comments, it is “just something someone invented so Muslims could drink alcohol.”“卜茶”(Boza)是土耳其一种古老的发酵饮料,用小麦制成。颜色澄黄,口味浓郁,上面往往点缀着肉桂和烤鹰嘴豆,其中略含酒精,不过含量很低,正如书中一个角色的,“它被发明出来就是为了让穆斯林也能喝酒。”Boza sellers, Mr. Pamuk notes, have mostly disappeared from Istanbul. By the 1960s and ’70s, Mevlut is among the last of a breed. His call is ripe with huzun. One customer says, “You have a lovely voice, like a muezzin.” He replies, “It’s the emotion in the seller’s voice that really sells the boza.”帕慕克指出,卜茶小贩已经在伊斯坦布尔近乎绝迹。20世纪六七十年代,梅弗卢特是其中的最后一代人。他的叫卖声中充满了呼愁。一个顾客说,“你的声音真美,好像清真寺塔上的宣礼人。”他答道,“卜茶就是靠着小贩声音里的情感才能卖出去的。”“A Strangeness in My Mind” is not merely Mevlut’s story. This novel relates, through multiple voices, each jostling for airtime, the lives of a frazzled and often very funny cast of characters. Most are members of Mevlut’s extended family.《我意识里的怪癖》不仅仅是梅弗卢特的故事。这部小说通过许许多多的声音将一系列疲惫而又往往非常风趣的角色们的生活联系起来,而每一个声音都在力争更多的亮相时间。大多数角色是梅弗卢特大家庭中的亲戚。They arrive in Istanbul from poor villages in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey. They move into crumbling houses on the city’s outskirts before being raked by modernity into tall and disorienting apartment buildings. From this handful of people, Mr. Pamuk evokes the flow of generations of hopeful immigrants into the teeming city.他们从土耳其安纳托利亚中部贫困的村庄来到伊斯坦布尔,搬进城市郊区破旧的房子,然后又在现代化大潮中被抛进令人迷失的高楼大厦。帕慕克从这一小群人着手写起,描述出一代代充满希望的移民是如何涌入熙熙攘攘的城市。The primary theme in Mr. Pamuk’s work, powerfully evoked in his eerily fine novel “Snow” (2004), is mental dislocation — life lived between the competing attractions of Western and Eastern values, between secular doubt and religious conviction.帕慕克在2004年那本怪异而精致的小说《雪》(Snow)中强有力地写到了精神错位这个主题——生活在相互冲突的东西方价值观魅力之间、生活在世俗的怀疑与坚定的信仰之间。That’s true here, too. Mevlut is pulled, at trying moments, toward a deeper engagement with Islam. But “A Strangeness in My Mind” wears this topic lightly. The book is a hymn to life’s physical and mental chaos, not to the harmonies faith would impose.这个主题亦存在于《我意识里的怪癖》之中。在某些令人痛苦的艰难时刻,梅弗卢特被更深地推向伊斯兰信仰。但这本书对这个话题涉及不多,它是一曲对生活中灵与肉的混乱的赞歌,而不是信仰所能带来的身心和谐。A lot happens in “A Strangeness in My Mind.” There are timely births and untimely deaths, feuds and frauds, heartaches by the number. At its center is an unconventional love story.《我意识里的怪癖》中发生了很多事情。有适时的生育与过早的夭亡、世仇与欺骗、无数心痛。而故事的核心是一个不合传统的爱情故事。Mevlut is hoodwinked into eloping with the wrong girl, the less attractive older sister of a woman he admired. Theirs becomes a blissful marriage anyway, though they never quite make it out of poverty.梅弗卢特受到欺骗,和错误的女孩私奔,她是他爱慕的那个女人的,长相也不好看。不过他们毕竟是成了有福的一对,尽管一生都在受穷。There are many things to praise in “A Strangeness in My Mind,” which I’ll get to in a moment. What first needs to be said about this amiable novel is that, like boza, its alcohol content is not very high.. At nearly 600 pages, it has the stretch of an epic but not the impact of one. Like boza, it leaves a bit of film on your lip.《我意识里的怪癖》中有很多值得赞美之处,我会马上讲到。首先,它是一本温和的小说,和卜茶一样,酒精含量不是太高……它有着史诗般的篇幅,接近600页,但没有史诗的冲击力。和卜茶一样,只是在你唇边留下一丝回味。Melancholy is a hard emotion to sustain; over the long run, it cloys. Reading this novel, I was reminded of a passage in Elif Batuman’s lovely nonfiction book, “The Possessed” (2010). Ms. Batuman, an American writer born to Turkish parents, described how few people in Turkey novels, and how the melancholy Mr. Pamuk seemed somewhat miserable writing his.忧郁是一种很难去保持的感情,从长远角度来看会显得发腻。读这本小说的时候,我想起艾丽芙·巴图曼(Elif Batuman)可爱的非虚构作品,2010年的《附体》(The Possessed)。巴图曼是美国作家,她的父母是土耳其人,她在书中描述很少土耳其人读小说,而忧郁的、写小说的帕慕克有时候看上去真是可怜。About his novel “The Black Book” (1994), she writes: “It was about a man who had lost a woman called ‘Dream.’ This guy was walking around the streets of Istanbul calling: ‘Dream! Dream!’ I remember ing this on a bus in Turkey and feeling deeply, viscerally bored.”关于他1994年的小说《黑书》(The Black Book),她写道:“这是一个男人的故事,他失去了一个名叫‘梦’的女人,于是走遍伊斯坦布尔的街头,呼唤着:‘梦!梦!’我记得自己在土耳其的公共汽车读这本书,内心一阵深深的厌倦。”I was not deeply, viscerally bored by “A Strangeness in My Mind.” But I mostly turned its pages with polite interest rather than real desire. This novel hits its low points in its too frequent nods toward its title, to the strangeness in Mevlut’s mind. This “strangeness” is not so very strange; it comes to seem like little more than a variation on the author’s own brand of huzun.《我意识里的怪癖》并没有让我内心深深厌倦,但打开这本书的时候,我心中怀着的往往是礼节性的兴趣,而不是真正的渴望。这本小说写得最不好的地方就是它经常呼应标题,写到梅弗卢特意识里的怪癖。这个“怪癖”其实并不太怪;最后只不过是作家自己的呼愁的一个变种。Mr. Pamuk remains an estimable writer. One of his great gifts is for blending what is clearly a large amount of research, on many topics, into alert, humane, nonwonky prose. One example can stand in for many: his writing about street vendors.帕慕克仍然是一位非常难能可贵的作家。他最好的天赋就是把他对许多题材的大量研究混合在一起,成为敏锐、富于人文色而坚决的行文。举一个例子就够了,他对街头小贩的描写。He evokes “the golden years of Ottoman-style street food.” He expounds on many dishes, from stuffed mussels and lamb’s head to pan-fried liver. We learn the history of these food sellers. We witness them coping with onerous regulations, fickle customers, mean dogs.他描述“黄金时代的奥斯曼土耳其风格街头食物”。他详细地描写各种菜肴,从填馅青口、羊头到煎肝脏。我们通过这些食物小贩学到了历史。我们看到他们如何应付繁重的规则、暴躁的顾客和恶犬。Mr. Pamuk is a subtle writer on about social class. Once dishes like chicken with chickpeas and rice, eaten outside with plastic cutlery by office workers, begin to be seen as poor people’s food, sales shrivel.帕慕克擅长细微地描写社会阶层。办公室职员在外面用塑料餐具吃的鸡肉鹰嘴豆米饭一旦被视为穷人的食物,销量马上就跌下来了。Mevlut is among these sellers. At night, he peddles boza. During the day, he sells whatever he can. His wife, who helps prepare the food he hawks, describes herself as “the head chef of a three-wheeled restaurant.”梅弗卢特也是这些小贩之一。晚上,他兜售卜茶。白天他什么都卖。他的妻子帮他准备他卖的这些食物,说自己是“三轮餐馆的主厨”。The humor in this novel, which has been lucidly translated by Ekin Oklap, flows freely. The narrators interrupt and contradict one another as if they were talking heads in an early Spike Lee movie.小说中也包含了大量幽默,由翻译艾金·奥克拉普(Ekin Oklap)流畅地还原。叙事者们彼此打断,彼此矛盾,好像斯派克·李(Spike Lee)早期电影里的旁叙人。One woman notes the upside of dirt floors: “It took a month before I realized that the more I swept the floor, the higher the ceiling got.” Mevlut, who loves movies, comments on the downside of American and European ones: “You never quite knew who were the good guys and who were the bad guys.”一个女人说肮脏的地板也有好处:“我花了一个月才发现,我越扫地,房顶就显得越高。”梅弗卢特爱看电影,他说美国电影和欧洲电影有个缺点:“你永远都分不清谁是好人谁是坏人。”Yet “A Strangeness in My Mind” lacks the visceral and cerebral impact of Mr. Pamuk’s best novels, notably “Snow” and “My Name Is Red” (2001). For all its melancholy, it verges on being cute. You can say about it what one character says of Mevlut: “He’s a bit of a weirdo, but he’s got a heart of gold.”是的,《我意识里的怪癖》缺乏帕慕克那些最好的小说当中对心灵与头脑的冲击力,特别是《雪》和《我的名字是红》(My Name Is Red)。它虽有悲凉,却也不无喜乐。你可以用书中一个角色评价梅弗卢特的话来形容它:“他是个怪人,却有一颗金子般的心。” /201510/406137

文章编辑: 大河大全