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2019年08月21日 03:51:54

Some 87 per cent of gum-chewing teenagers who suffer regular headaches can cure themselves by giving up chewing gum, new research suggests.最新研究表明,那些爱嚼口香糖又常容易头痛的青少年中,87%的人会在停止咀嚼口香糖后症状消失。Scientists at the Tel Aviv University-affiliated Meir Medical Centre, in Israel, found that most adolescents who give up the habit experience significant relief.以色列特拉维夫大学附属梅尔医学中心的科学家发现,绝大多数青少年在改掉咀嚼口香糖的习惯后头痛症状明显减轻。The scientists, led by Dr Nathan Watemberg, believe the finding could allow doctors to cure thousands of patients of migraines and tension headaches without the need for additional tests or medication.由Nathan Watemberg医生领衔的研究组认为,该发现将使医生在不借助任何额外测试和药物治疗的前提下治愈数千患者的偏头痛和紧张性头痛。‘Out of our 30 patients, 26 reported significant improvement and 19 had complete headache resolution,’ said Dr Watemberg.Watemberg医生表示,(在该方法的引导下)参与实验的30名患者中,26名的症状有显著改善,其中有19位患者头痛症状完全消失。‘20 of the improved patients later agreed to go back to chewing gum, and all of them reported an immediate relapse of symptoms.’“20名症状缓和的患者随后同意恢复咀嚼口香糖习惯,然后他们的头痛症状很快复发。”Headaches are common in childhood and become more common and frequent during adolescence, particularly among girls.头痛现象普遍存在于儿童时期,并且在青少年时期日益普遍和发作频繁,女生中这种现象尤为明显。Typical triggers are stress, tiredness, lack of sleep, heat, games, noise, sunlight, smoking, missed meals, and menstruation.常见的触发因素包括压力、疲劳、缺乏睡眠、发热、视频游戏、噪音、日光、吸烟、不吃饭和生理期。But until now there has been little medical research on the relationship between gum chewing and headaches.但直到现在,很少有关于嚼口香糖和头痛之间关系的医学研究。At Meir Medical Centre#39;s Child Neurology and Child Development Centre, Dr Watemberg noticed that many patients who reported headaches were daily gum chewers.在梅尔医学中心儿童神经病学和发展中心,Watemberg医生注意到很多父母说起换头痛的孩子都常嚼口香糖。Dr Watemberg found that in many cases, when patients stopped chewing gum at his suggestion, they got substantially better.Watemberg发现很多案例中,当父母根据他的建议不让孩子再嚼口香糖时,孩子们头痛的状况会大为改善。Taking a more statistical approach, he asked 30 patients between six and 19 years old, who had chronic migraine or tension headaches and chewed gum daily, to quit chewing gum for one month. They had chewed gum for at least an hour a day and some had chewed for more than six hours a day.为了更科学地研究,他要求参与实验的30名6-19岁间,患有慢性偏头痛和紧张性头痛的哎嚼口香糖患者在一个月内停止嚼口香糖。这些患者平时每天至少嚼一个小时口香糖,有的甚至每天嚼口香糖超过6小时。After a month without gum, 19 of the 30 patients reported that their headaches went away entirely and seven reported a decrease in the frequency and intensity of headaches.一个月没嚼口香糖后,19名患者报告头痛症状完全消失,7人报告头痛发作频率和强度均有所下降。To test the results, 20 of them agreed to resume gum chewing for two weeks. All of them reported a return of their symptoms within days.为了测试结果,其中20人回复嚼口香糖的习惯两个星期,然后所有人表示几天后头痛发作。Two previous studies linked gum chewing to headaches, but offered different explanations.之前有两个关于嚼口香糖和头痛之间关系的研究,但得出完全不同的结论。One study suggested that gum chewing causes stress to the temporomandibular joint, or TMJ - the place where the jaw meets the skull.其中一个结论认为咀嚼口香糖的动作导致颞颌关节——下颔与头骨结合处的压力。The other study blamed aspartame, the artificial sweetener used in most popular chewing gums.另一个研究则归咎于阿斯巴甜——口香糖中最常见的人工甜味剂。TMJ dysfunction has been shown to cause headaches, while the evidence is mixed on aspartame. Dr Watemberg favours the TMJ explanation.颞骨关节功能紊乱已被明会导致头痛,但其中的据与阿斯巴甜有关。Watemberg医生倾向于颞骨关节功能紊乱导致头痛的结论。Gum only has a flavour for a short period of time, suggesting it does not contain much aspartame, he says.他说,口香糖的口味只能停留一小段时间,其中阿斯巴甜的含量不高。If aspartame caused headaches, he reasons, there would be a lot more headaches from diet drinks and artificially sweetened products which also contain it.如果阿斯巴甜引起头痛,那膳食饮料和其他含有阿斯巴甜的人工加糖食品会导致更多的头痛。On the other hand, people chew gum well after the taste is gone, putting a significant burden on the TMJ, which is aly the most used joint in the body, he says.另一方面,人们在口香糖甜味消失后继续咀嚼,会给身体最常用的颞骨关节带来更多负担。‘Every doctor knows that overuse of the TMJ will cause headaches,’ said Dr Watemberg. ‘I believe this is what#39;s happening when children and teenagers chew gum excessively.’他说道,“每个医生都知道颞颌关节负担过重会引起头痛,我相信青少年们过度咀嚼口香糖导致了这一状况。” /201312/270083吐鲁番做处女膜修复多少钱Peanut allergy has become a nemesis for increasing numbers of children and parents in recent years, forcing them to maintain nut-free households and prompting many schools to ban a childhood staple, peanut butter, from the lunchroom.近年来,花生过敏症日益威胁着孩子们的健康,这不仅迫使越来越多的家长不得不将所有坚果都清除出家庭环境,还促使不少学校将儿童时代的主食之一——花生酱请出了餐厅。When a child is allergic to peanuts, families must closely monitor everything the child eats both in and outside the home, because accidental consumption of peanuts could prove fatal. Many airlines no longer offer peanuts for fear that an allergic passenger might inhale peanut dust and suffer a life-threatening reaction at 30,000 feet.当一个孩子对花生过敏时,无论家里家外,他的家人都必须密切监控他塞进嘴里的任何东西,因为一不小心吃到花生就很可能有生命危险。许多航空公司的餐饮中都不再提供花生,以免对此过敏的乘客吸入花生粉末,以致在30000英尺(约9144米)的高空出现危及生命的过敏反应。The prevalence of peanut allergy among children in the ed States has risen more than threefold, to 1.4 percent in 2010 from 0.4 percent in 1997, according to a study by food allergists at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City. Most people with an allergy to peanuts are also allergic to one or more tree nuts, like walnuts, pecans or almonds.纽约市西奈山医院(Mount Sinai Hospital)一名食物过敏症专科医生的研究表明,美国儿童中的花生过敏症患病率从1997年的0.4%上升到了2010年的1.4%,增加了两倍还多。大多数花生过敏症患者同时也对一或多种坚果,如核桃、美洲山核桃或杏仁等过敏。To help protect such people from inadvertent exposure to nuts, labels on packaged foods often voluntarily state whether they were prepared in a facility that also processes nuts.为了防止这类人不至于意外接触到坚果,袋装食品的标签往往会主动声明该食品的生产设备是否也用于处理坚果。Some cities have nut-free bakeries that now sell products safe for allergic children, who can bring their own special, albeit expensive, cake or cupcake to a party.一些城市设有无坚果面包店,以向过敏的孩子们销售特殊、安全(但昂贵)的蛋糕或杯子蛋糕,供他们在参加聚会时携带。While experts doubt the necessity of some extreme measures taken to prevent indirect exposure to peanuts, the danger to someone with a peanut allergy who eats them is unquestioned.虽然关于是否有必要采取某些极端措施来防止间接接触花生,专家们持怀疑态度,但食用含有花生成分的食物对花生过敏症患者而言无疑十分危险。The potentially fatal reaction, called anaphylaxis, can occur with a child#39;s first exposure to peanuts: itchiness, swelling of the tongue and throat, constriction of the airway, a precipitous drop in blood pressure, rapid heart rate, fainting, nausea and vomiting.当儿童第一次接触到花生时,可能会发生一种具有潜在致命性的反应,称为过敏反应(anaphylaxis),其表现为:瘙痒、舌头和咽喉肿胀、气道收缩、血压骤降、心率加快、昏厥、恶心呕吐等。Unless the reaction is stopped by an injection of epinephrine (adrenaline), anaphylaxis can kill. In one infamous instance in 1986, Katherine Brodsky, 18, a freshman at Brown University with a known nut allergy, died after eating chili that a restaurant had thickened with peanut butter.如不及时通过注射肾上腺素遏制该反应,过敏反应可能导致死亡。1986年,布朗大学(Brown University)发生了一起著名的惨痛案例:18岁的大一新生凯瑟琳·布罗德斯基(Katherine Brodsky)对坚果过敏,她因在餐厅食用了用花生酱加稠的咖喱而死亡。There is no cure for nut allergies, although several preliminary studies suggest that it may be possible to temper a reaction to peanuts with immunotherapy. Like shots given for pollen allergies, the approach starts with exposure under the tongue to a minuscule amount of the offending peanut protein, followed by exposure to gradually increasing amounts under strict medical supervision.目前尚没有办法可以彻底治愈坚果过敏,但若干初步研究表明,采用免疫疗法或可缓和患者对花生的反应。这种方法与对付花粉过敏的方法类似:患者从舌下接触微量具有刺激性的花生蛋白开始,随后在严格的医疗监督下逐步加量。The latest study, conducted in Cambridge, England, and published in The Lancet last week, found that after six months of oral immunotherapy, up to 91 percent of children aged 7 to 16 could safely ingest about five peanuts a day, far more than they could before the treatment. About one-fifth of treated children reacted to ingested peanuts, but most reactions were mild, usually an itchy mouth. Only one child of the 99 studied had a serious reaction.最近的一项研究在英国剑桥(Cambridge)进行,并于上周发表在《柳叶刀》杂志(The Lancet)上。该研究发现,在接受口免疫疗法半年后,七至16岁的儿童中有91%可在一天内食用五颗左右的花生,且不会出现严重不良反应,这一安全摄取量远远超过了治疗前的水平。在接受治疗的儿童中约有五分之一在食用花生后仍会出现反应,但其大多数都非常轻微,通常只是嘴部发痒而已。在所研究的99名儿童中,只有一人出现了严重反应。When immunotherapy works, the research suggests, the severity of the allergy is lessened, enabling an allergic person to safely ingest small amounts of the offending protein. It is not known how long protection lasts without continued immunotherapy, however, and the researchers warned that no one should try it on his own. Further study is needed before the treatment can be used clinically, probably years from now.该研究显示,当免疫疗法起效时,过敏的严重程度有所减轻,这使过敏患者得以安全地摄取少量具有刺激性的蛋白质。目前尚不清楚在中止免疫疗法后这种保护作用还可以持续多久,但研究人员警告说,任何人都不应擅自进行此类尝试。若干年后,该疗法也许能够进入临床应用,但在此之前,还需要进一步的研究。Meanwhile, everyone with a peanut allergy is advised to carry an EpiPen for emergency treatment.此外,专家们建议,每一位花生过敏症患者都应随身携带EpiPen(预装肾上腺素的自动注射器),以备在必要时进行急救。Ideally, allergists would like to prevent the development of peanut allergy in the first place. Experts had thought that one way would be to keep fetuses and breast-fed babies from exposure to peanut protein by restricting consumption by pregnant and nursing women.在理想情况下,过敏症专科医生希望能将花生过敏扼杀在摇篮里。专家们认为,其方法之一是严格限制妊娠期和哺乳期妇女对花生食品的摄取,从而避免胎儿和母乳喂养期的婴儿接触到花生蛋白。Various studies had suggested that early exposure to peanut protein by infants with allergic tendencies could sensitize them and lead to a serious peanut allergy. In 2000, pregnant and nursing women were advised to avoid eating peanuts, especially if allergies ran in the family. And new mothers were told not to give babies peanuts before age 3, when digestive systems are more fully developed.为数众多不同的研究表明,具有过敏倾向的婴儿过早地接触到花生蛋白很可能会引起致敏,继而导致严重的花生过敏。2000年,专家们建议:妇和哺乳期妇女应避免食用花生,对于具有过敏性疾病史的家庭尤其如此。他们还告诫新妈妈们:在宝宝年满三岁,消化系统充分发育前,不要给他们吃花生。But this advice did nothing to curb the steady climb in peanut allergies, and it was abandoned in 2008.但这些建议丝毫未能遏制花生过敏症病例稳步攀升的趋势,因此,它们在2008年被撤销。Today, the thinking is exactly the opposite. Instead of restricting exposure to peanut protein by unborn or nursing babies, the tiny amounts that may enter the baby#39;s circulation when a pregnant or nursing woman eats peanuts might actually induce tolerance, not sensitization.今天,人们对付过敏症的思路与之前的完全背道而驰。人们不再严格限制未出生或哺乳期的婴儿接触花生蛋白,相反,人们认为,当妇或哺乳期妇女食用花生时,进入宝宝血液循环里的微量花生蛋白将诱导免疫耐受,而不是致敏。In a recent study of 8,205 children, 140 of whom had allergies to nuts, researchers found that children whose nonallergic mothers had the highest consumption of peanuts or tree nuts, or both, during pregnancy had the lowest risk of developing a nut allergy. The risk was most reduced among the children of mothers who ate nuts five or more times a month.在一项涉及8205名儿童(其中140人对坚果过敏)的近期研究中,研究人员发现,自身不过敏,且在妊娠期食用花生和/或坚果量最高的母亲所生下的孩子日后发生过敏症的风险最低。在母亲每个月至少食用坚果五次的孩子们中,上述风险的降幅最大。The researchers, led by Dr. A. Lindsay Frazier of Dana-Farber/Children#39;s Hospital Cancer Center in Boston, wrote: ;Our study supports the hypothesis that early allergen exposure increases the likelihood of tolerance and thereby lowers the risk of childhood food allergy.; They added that their data ;support the recent decisions to rescind recommendations that all mothers avoid peanuts/total nuts during pregnancy and breast-feeding.;波士顿市达纳法伯/儿童医院癌症中心(Dana-Farber/Children#39;s Hospital Cancer Center)的A·林赛·弗雷泽(A. Lindsay Frazier)士及其领导下的研究人员写道:“我们的研究持这一假说:对过敏原的早期接触可增加小儿对其产生耐受的可能,从而降低了儿童期食物过敏的风险。”他们又补充道,他们的数据“持最近做出的一项决定,即,不再建议所有母亲在妊娠期和哺乳期间避免食用花生/所有坚果。”The study was supported by Food Allergy Research and Education, a nonprofit, and published in December in JAMA Pediatrics.该研究受到非营利性组织——食物过敏研究和教育组织(Food Allergy Research and Education)的持,并发表于12月的《美国医学会期刊:儿科》(JAMA Pediatrics)上。According to an accompanying editorial by Dr. Ruchi Gupta, an associate professor of pediatrics at Northwestern University, ;some studies actually showed that avoiding peanuts during pregnancy increased the risk of a child developing peanut sensitization.;在相关的员文章中,西北大学(Northwestern University)的儿科副教授鲁奇·古普塔(Ruchi Gupta)士表示:“一些研究表明,母亲在妊娠期避免接触花生的确会增加其子女对花生敏感的风险。”Further support comes from studies of other common food allergens. In an Israeli study of 13,019 infants, those who were exposed to cow#39;s milk protein as a breast-milk supplement in the first two weeks of life were less likely to become sensitive to it than infants first given cow#39;s milk much later.关于其他常见食物过敏原的研究进一步持了上述结论。在以色列的一项涉及13019名婴儿的研究中,与很晚才第一次饮用牛奶的婴儿相比,在出生后两周内就以母乳为主牛奶为辅的婴儿由于较早接触到了牛乳蛋白,就不那么容易对牛奶敏感。An Australian study of 2,589 babies found that those first introduced to egg at or near 1 year of age were more likely to develop an allergy to egg protein than those first given egg at 4 to 6 months of age.澳大利亚的一项关于2589名婴儿的研究发现,与四至六个月大时就开始食用鸡蛋的婴儿相比,在一岁左右才第一次在辅食中引入鸡蛋的婴儿更容易出现卵蛋白过敏。In her editorial, Dr. Gupta emphasized that further research was needed to understand how maternal diet affects the development of food allergies and ;why more and more children are developing food allergy and how we can prevent it.;古普塔士在她的文章中强调,仍需要进行进一步的研究,以了解产妇的饮食如何影响食物过敏症的产生,并为“为什么有越来越多的孩子发生食物过敏,对此我们应如何预防”等问题寻找。But for now, she said, ;pregnant women should not eliminate nuts from their diet, as peanuts are a good source of protein and also provide folic acid,; which can help prevent neural tube defects.但就目前而言,她认为“妇不应将坚果从食谱中删除,毕竟花生是蛋白质的良好来源,还可以提供叶酸”,而叶酸有助于预防神经管缺陷。 /201409/326497石河子大学医学院第二附属医院做红色胎记手术多少钱乌鲁木齐哪家医院对皮肤痘坑医治比较好

乌鲁木齐新疆医科大学校医院整形科阿拉尔市激光祛痘哪家医院好Posting snapshots of what#39;s for dinner is a favorite pastime of social-media users, but making dishes appear as delicious as they taste is an elusive skill.把晚餐照片发到网上,是社交媒体用户喜欢的一项消遣活动,但让菜肴看上去和尝起来一样美味,却是一项不太好把握的技能。With a few professional tweaks, though, amateur food photographers can give their smartphone-captured meals a major upgrade. Austin, Texas-based food photographer Jody Horton believes nearly any dish can make for a pretty picture -- extensive food styling not required. Items ranging from pecan pralines to barbecue have taken center stage in Mr. Horton#39;s work for publications such as Texas Monthly and Southern Living.但是,经过几条专业点拨,业余美食摄影师也可以让他们用智能手机拍摄的美食照跃升一个档次。得克萨斯州奥斯汀美食摄影师乔迪·霍顿(Jody Horton)认为,几乎任何菜肴都可以拍出一张漂亮的照片,同时还不需要做很多的食物造型工作。在霍顿为《得州月刊》(Texas Monthly)、《南方生活》(Southern Living)等刊物拍摄的作品当中,从山核桃果仁糖到烧烤,各种美食都曾占据中心舞台。First of all, when taking food snapshots, he says, #39;Don#39;t overthink it.#39; The result should look natural.首先他说,在拍美食照的时候“不要想太多”。拍出来的照片应当显得自然。While stressing out about perfect plating is unnecessary, Mr. Horton does pay attention to the plate itself. #39;You want to be sure that the food will separate from the surface on which it#39;s sitting,#39; he said, so a red apple on a red plate likely won#39;t photograph well. Consider creating a contrast between the plate and the table, such as white china on a dark wood surface, as well.虽然强调完美造型是没必要的,霍顿还是很注意盘子。他说,“要确保食物与承托它的表面是分开的”,所以红盘子上放一个红苹果拍出来的效果很可能就不是很好。也要考虑在碗碟和桌子之间形成反差,比如把白色瓷盘放在深色木质表面上。But if that#39;s not possible, a white plate on a white surface almost always works. In a pinch, placing a white plate on a white napkin or paper towel allows the food to #39;become the star,#39; Mr. Horton says.但如果办不到,白色表面上放白色盘子几乎总是可行的。霍顿说,万不得已的情况下,将白色盘子放在白色餐巾或纸巾上面可以让食物“成为主演”。Good lighting is key. Natural light that comes from behind the food is best, he says, so Mr. Horton turns off indoor lights and the camera#39;s flash, and he places the plate in front of a window that provides indirect sunlight.良好的用光是关键。霍顿说,从食物背后照过来的自然光是最好的,所以他会关掉室内灯光和相机的闪光灯,把盘子放在一扇有非直射日光照进来的窗户前面。If it#39;s after dark or natural light is unavailable, he suggests making sure only one type of light is on -- not both a halogen lamp and a fluorescent overhead light, for instance -- and that the artificial light comes from behind the food, if possible.如果是在天黑以后或者没有自然光的条件下拍摄,他建议确保只有一种光源开启(比如不能让卤素灯泡和荧光顶灯同时打开),而且在可行的情况下,这种人工光线也要从食物背后照过来。Restaurants, unfortunately, are inherently difficult spots to shoot food. When taking professional pictures, Mr. Horton usually moves the entire table to the desired light, an option not available to the average diner. But candlelight placed just out of the shot can add nice texture, even if it might take a few tries to find the best candle placement.可惜餐馆天生不是方便拍摄美食的地方。在拍摄专业照片的时候,霍顿一般会把整张桌子搬到理想光照环境中,而普通餐馆都不具备这个条件。但刚好在画面范围之外的烛光可以增添不错的质感,即便可能要试几次才能找到放置蜡烛的最佳位置。The most fail-safe angle for taking a food picture is from directly above, with only the food in the frame, Mr. Horton says. That way, the picture taker doesn#39;t have to worry about a distracting background.霍顿说,拍摄美食照片最保险的角度还是直接从上往下拍,且画面范围内只有食品。这样拍照的人就不必担心背景喧宾夺主。When shooting from overhead, it#39;s helpful to hold a piece of paper out of the frame but opposite your light source to bounce light back toward the food.在从顶头拍摄的时候,可以在画面范围之外逆着光线照过来的方向举一张纸,把光线反射到食物上面,这样也是有帮助的。Those who want a little ambiance in their photos should consider taking their smartphone camera even higher by standing on a chair. #39;Something that I do a lot that people find really compelling is overhead table shots,#39; Mr. Horton says, adding that they bring in the layout of the table, while still allowing the lighting to be fairly simple. Plus, he says, #39;you don#39;t have to worry about people closing their eyes or having weird expressions.#39;如果想在照片中加入一点气氛,那么就应该考虑站在椅子上,把手机举得再高一些。霍顿说:“我经常拍、大家又非常佩的一类,是从上方拍摄的桌子的照片。”他还说,这样的照片会显现出桌面的布局,同时又使用光能够比较简单。另外他还说,“你不必担心人们闭上眼睛或露出奇怪的表情”。Certain types of food can be especially hard to photograph well. Foods in #39;bland#39; colors can be problematic, as well as casseroles, because it can be hard to tell what they are. Drinks are challenging because glass is so reflective, and they have a shorter #39;shelf life,#39; with melting ice and wilting garnishes. (One tip: Light them well.)某些种类的食物有时候特别难拍。色“平淡的”食物以及焙盘都有可能不好处理,因为有可能很难分辨出是什么东西。饮料的拍摄是一种挑战,因为杯子太反光,且饮料的“保质期”更短,冰块会融化,装饰品会发蔫。(一条建议:把光线用好。)Food photography can be about much more than the final product on the plate. #39;Some of the most interesting moments happen during preparation,#39; says Mr. Horton.美食摄影涉及的东西可能远远不止于盘子上的成品。霍顿说:“有些最有意思的时刻是在制作的过程中。”Something like fried chicken waiting at the table in a brown paper bag, grease spots included, can provide the opportunity to tell a story in a single photo, he says. #39;It suggests more before it, and you know more is coming after it.#39;他说,有些摄影作品可以用单幅照片讲出一个故事,比如桌子上静静地放着褐色纸袋包装的炸鸡,油脂形成的斑点都可以看到。“它说明之前发生过一些事,你也知道之后还会发生一些事。” /201402/275963乌鲁木齐哪里去痣好乌鲁木齐割双眼

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