明星资讯腾讯娱乐2020年02月26日 15:43:47
Phil Klay won the National Book Award for fiction on Wednesday night for his debut short story collection, “Redeployment,” which draws on his experience serving as a Marine in Iraq and captures the terror, boredom and occasionally the humorous side of war.周三晚上,菲尔·克雷(Phil Klay)以其处女短篇小说集《重新部署》(Redeployment)获得国家图书奖虚构类作品奖,这本书根据他在海军陆战队役期间在伊拉克的经历写成,捕捉了战争的恐怖与无聊,以及偶尔出现的幽默一面。In an emotional acceptance speech, Mr. Klay described returning from the war and being treated as if he were unstable, and being asked by children if he had killed anyone.克雷做了充满感情的获奖致辞,描述了自己从战争中归来后的遭遇,他曾被视为精神不稳定者,孩子也询问他是否杀过人。“I came back not knowing what to think,” he said. “What do you do when you’re trying to explain in words, to the father of a fallen Marine, exactly what that Marine meant to you?”“我回来后,不知该作何想法,”他说。“面对一个牺牲的海军陆战队战士的父亲,你该怎样用言语解释海军陆战队对你来说意味着什么?”He said writing fiction about his experiences helped him to process it. “I can’t think of a more important conversation to be having,” he said. “War is too strange to be processed alone.”他说,把自己的经历写成小说帮助他处理好了这些事情。“我想不出更加重要的对话,”他说,“战争是那样奇异,无法独自处理。”Some of the stories, which were published by Penguin Press, take place in Anbar Province, while others are set in the ed States as soldiers struggle to just to civilian life.该书由企鹅出版社出版,其中若干小说发生在伊拉克的安巴尔省,还有一些是讲述美国的退伍士兵们努力重新适应平民生活。In the nonfiction category, Evan Osnos, a staff writer for The New Yorker, won for “Age of Ambition: Chasing Fortune, Truth and Faith in the New China,” published by Farrar, Straus and Giroux. The book explores China’s ongoing transformation into an economic superpower, and the clash between its economic progress and its authoritarian government’s crackdown on social freedoms.《纽约客》(The New Yorker)的专职作者欧逸文(Evan Osnos)凭《野心时代:在新中国追求财富、真相和信念》(Age of Ambition: Chasing Fortune, Truth and Faith in the New China)一书获得非虚构类作品奖,该书由法勒、斯特劳斯与吉鲁科斯(Farrar, Straus and Giroux)出版社出版。这本书探究了中国不断向经济超级大国转变的过程,以及经济发展与专制政府压制社会自由之间的冲突。In an acceptance speech, Mr. Osnos thanked his Chinese subjects for taking a risk by talking to him. “They live in a place where it’s very dangerous to be honest and be vulnerable,” he said.在获奖致辞中,欧逸文感谢他笔下的中国主人公们冒着风险接受采访。“在他们所生活的地方,要做一个诚实或脆弱的人是非常危险的,”他说。The awards were presented at a black-tie dinner at Cipriani Wall Street, with more than 700 guests attending a ceremony hosted by Daniel Handler, better known as the children’s book author Lemony Snicket.颁奖礼在西普利尼亚华尔街饭店举行,是一场正装宴会,有700多名宾客参加,典礼由丹尼尔·汉德勒(Daniel Handler)主持——他创作童书时的笔名莱蒙尼·斯尼克特(Lemony Snicket)更加广为人知。Mr. Handler proved an edgy and entertaining master of ceremonies. He poked fun at literary navel-gazing and took repeated shots at Amazon’s chief executive, Jeffrey P. Bezos. In praising the nonprofit publisher Graywolf Press, which had two poetry finalists, Mr. Handler said, “If you are a publishing house interested in not making a profit, please see Jeff Bezos after the show.”最后明汉德勒是个犀利有趣的主持人。他嘲笑文学界目光狭窄,并一再向亚马逊的首席执行官杰弗里·P·贝佐斯(Jeffrey P. Bezos)开火。独立出版社“灰狼出版”(Graywolf Press)有两本诗集入围最终的决选名单,汉德勒赞美它说:“如果你们是一家对盈利不感兴趣的出版社,请在颁奖礼结束后去见杰夫·贝佐斯吧。”The National Book Award, which was established in 1950, is one of the country’s most prestigious and coveted literary prizes. Books written by American authors and published between Dec. 1, 2013, and Nov. 30, 2014, were eligible this year.国家图书奖于1950年创立,是美国最有声誉、最受人渴望的文学奖项之一。由美国作家创作、并于2013年12月1日至2014年11月30日之间出版的书籍有资格入围今年的评选。Jacqueline Woodson, a three-time finalist, won the young people’s literature award for her memoir in verse, “Brown Girl Dreaming,” which detailed her experience growing up as an African-American in South Carolina and New York during the 1960s and ’70s. The poet Louise Glück won for her latest collection, “Faithful and Virtuous Night,” published by Farrar, Straus and Giroux.曾经三次入围决选名单的杰奎琳·伍德森(Jacqueline Woodson)凭自己的韵文体回忆录《做梦的棕色女孩》(Brown Girl Dreaming)获得青年文学奖奖项。这本书详细描述了20世纪60至70年代,身为非裔美国人的她在南卡罗来纳与纽约成长的经历。诗人路易斯·葛吕科(Louise Glück)凭她最新出版的诗集《忠诚与高尚的夜晚》(Faithful and Virtuous Night)获得诗歌奖,该书由法勒、斯特劳斯与吉鲁科斯出版社出版。For the second year in a row, the National Book Foundation announced a long list of 10 nominees for fiction, nonfiction, poetry and young people’s literature, in an effort to drum up interest and draw more authors into the spotlight. Some literary critics complained that the long lists diluted the impact of the prize. Others noted a stark gender imbalance in this year’s nonfiction long list, which had nine male writers and just one woman, the New Yorker cartoonist Roz Chast.国家图书基金会从去年开始,每年宣布虚构、非虚构、诗歌与青年文学奖项各自的10部候选作品大名单,这是为了引起公众的兴趣,令更多作家获得关注。有些文学家抱怨这份大名单削弱了该奖的冲击力。也有些人指出,今年的非虚构类大名单存在严重的性别不平衡,有九名男性作者入围,但只有《纽约客》的卡通画家罗兹·查斯特(Roz Chast)这一位女性作者入围。This year’s fiction short list was greeted with more enthusiasm. Along with Mr. Klay’s short story collection, the stylistically diverse group of finalists included Marilynne Robinson’s “Lila,” the third novel in a trilogy set in the fictional town of Gilead, Iowa; Rabih Alameddine’s “An Unnecessary Woman,” about a reclusive older woman in Beirut, Lebanon; Emily St. John Mandel’s dystopian novel “Station Eleven”; and Anthony Doerr’s novel “All the Light We Cannot See,” a work of historical fiction set in Nazi-occupied France during World War II.今年的虚构类最终名单更加为人们所接受。这一名单风格多样,除了克雷的短篇小说集,还有玛丽琳娜·罗宾逊(Marilynne Robinson)的《莉拉》(Lila),这是她所创作的三部曲小说的第三部,故事发生在爱荷华州一个虚构的吉里德小镇;此外还有艾米莉·圣约翰·曼德尔(Emily St. John Mandel)的反乌托邦小说《11站》(Station Eleven);以及安东尼·杜尔(Anthony Doerr)的小说《我们看不到的所有光明》(All the Light We Cannot See),这是一部历史小说,发生在“二战”时期纳粹占领下的法国。The Literarian Award, for outstanding service to the literary community, went to Kyle Zimmer, the president and chief executive of First Book, a nonprofit group that distributes millions of books to children from low-income families.文学贡献奖(The Literarian Award)是颁发给对文学界做出突出贡献人士的奖项,今年由第一图书(First Book)公司的总裁兼首席执行官凯尔·齐默(Kyle Zimmer)获得,这家非盈利机构向低收入家庭儿童分发了数百万册图书。The fantasy and science fiction writer Ursula K. Le Guin was awarded the Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters. In a career spanning more than 40 years, Ms. Le Guin, 85, has published more than a dozen children’s books, 22 novels and numerous volumes of poetry, translations and short stories. Her young-adult fantasy novel “The Farthest Shore” won the National Book Award in 1973.奇幻与科幻作家厄苏拉·K·勒·奎恩(Ursula K. Le Guin)获得了美国文学卓越贡献勋章(Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters)。勒·奎恩女士现年85岁,她在40多年的写作生涯中出版了十几本童书、22部小说和无数诗集、译著和短篇小说。她的青年奇幻小说《最遥远的海岸》(The Farthest Shore)曾于1973年获得国家图书奖。In a pointed acceptance speech, Ms. Le Guin criticized the literary community for excluding science fiction and fantasy writers from awards attention for so long, and took publishers and writers to task for bowing to corporate pressures to make books more profitable.勒·奎恩女士发表了尖锐的获奖致辞,批评文学界长久以来把科幻与奇幻作家拒之门外,且令出版社和作家屈于种种压力,致力于创作更加有利可图的书籍。“I have had a long career and a good one, and here at the end of it, I really don’t want to watch American literature get sold down the river,” she said.“在我漫长而美好的写作生涯尽头,真的不希望看着美国文学遭到出卖,”她说。 /201411/344666Christmas lost its soul in the west around the time that I stopped believing in Rudolf, and it’s been a source of angst for those who care about such things for all the decades since. But in China the holiday never had much soul to begin with. That’s what makes it such fun.大约是在我不再相信世上真的存在红鼻子驯鹿鲁道夫(Rudolf)的时候,圣诞节(Christmas)在西方失去了它的灵魂。自那以来的几十年里,它已成为在意这些事的人的焦虑来源。但在中国,圣诞节从一开始就不涉及多少灵魂方面的内容。正因如此,它才变得如此有趣。Christmas in China has nothing to do with history, tradition, relatives or regifting. It is, gloriously and unashamedly, about money and fun. Mainlanders celebrate Christmas — and they do celebrate it, even though it’s not a public holiday — by shopping, eating out, maybe doing a bit of karaoke and then more shopping. There’s none of the guilt, stress or family friction of Yuletide in the west (or for that matter, lunar new year in China).在中国,圣诞节与历史、传统、亲属或礼物转送无关。它堂而皇之且无愧坦然地只关乎金钱和欢乐。中国内地人庆祝圣诞节(他们真的庆祝,尽管它并非公共假日)的方式是购物、外出就餐,可能会唱唱卡拉OK,然后继续购物,丝毫不牵扯西方圣诞节期间(或中国春节期间)往往会涉及的自责、压力或家庭擦。China does have Christians, but it has far more people who celebrate Christmas than believe in it. That disconnect exists globally too. But in China, Christmas without the benefit of Christianity is more of a romantic holiday than a pseudo-religious one.中国确有基督徒,但中国庆祝圣诞节的人要比信基督教的人多很多。这种脱节在全球都存在。但在中国,不附带基督教精神裨益的圣诞节更多的是一个浪漫的节日,而非伪宗教节日。Last year on Christmas Day, for example, 250 couples married at the registry office in one district of one southern city alone. In the west, few people choose to marry on that day, to avoid grousing from guests about having to skip the Christmas goose to attend the ceremony (guests don’t attend registry weddings in China anyhow). In China, Cupid and Santa seem to have interbred to give Christ’s birthday a romantic flavour. At Christmas time last year, aspiring blind daters at a matchmaking event in Shanghai were encouraged to tell Santa which of the other participants they fancied most, so that he could help them hook up. Given the low success rate at such events, it might have been better to ask for an iPhone.例如,去年圣诞节当天,仅在中国南方一座城市的一个区,就有250对新人在婚姻登记处登记结婚。在西方,很少有人选择在圣诞节当天结婚,以免宾客因要出席婚礼仪式不得不错过圣诞鹅而发牢骚(反正中国的宾客不出席登记处婚礼仪式)。在中国,丘比特(Cupid)和圣诞老人(Santa)似乎已合为一体,给耶稣的生日带来浪漫的情调。去年圣诞节期间在上海举行的一场婚介活动中,主办方鼓励踌躇满志的相亲者告诉圣诞老人他们最喜欢哪一位参与者,这样圣诞老人就可以帮助他们牵线搭桥。考虑到这种活动的低成功率,可能当时还不如向圣诞老人讨要一部iPhone。So why do the Chinese celebrate Christmas if it’s got nothing to do with Christ, mass or virgin mothers (that last matter being particularly unpopular, if not illegal, under the so-called “one-child” policy)?如果中国的圣诞节与基督、弥撒或处女母亲(最后一类事物在所谓的“一胎化”政策下即使不违法,也是特别不受欢迎的)无关,那么中国人为何还要庆祝这个节日呢?Adrian Cheng, heir to the Chow Tai Fook jewellery store empire that has been selling baubles to mainlanders for decades, says the past five years have experienced a big boom in giving Christmas presents. “Chinese love festive occasions. If you give them a reason for a festive occasion they will do it, even if they don’t understand the meaning behind it,” he says.珠宝零售帝国周大福(Chow Tai Fook)的继承人郑志刚(Adrian Cheng)说,过去五年出现了送圣诞礼物的大热潮。他表示:“中国人喜欢节日场合。如果你给他们一个欢庆某个节日的理由,他们就会去庆祝这个节日,即使不明白其背后的意义。”周大福在内地市场销售饰品已有几十年了。Chinese sociologists say a lot of it has to do with working too hard; Chinese workers are under so much pressure to perform that they seize any excuse to lighten up.中国的社会学家表示,这种现象在很大程度上与工作太辛苦有关;中国劳动者工作压力非常大,因此他们会抓住一切理由放松自己。Lucky for them the older generation doesn’t celebrate the holiday at all — so they don’t have to visit them. The twenty-somethings may pick up a fetching set of reindeer antlers to wear on a date, but they leave the rest of the decorating to restaurants and shopping malls. Few bother with trees at home — what a relief that must be — and no one makes their own cranberry sauce.对他们来说,幸运的是老一辈人从不过这个节,所以不必去看望他们。二十多岁的年轻人或许会在约会时拿出一套引人注目的驯鹿角戴上,但他们会让餐馆和购物中心来负责其余的装饰工作。很少有人劳神在家里布置圣诞树(这肯定让他们省了不少心),而且没人自己做蔓越莓酱。“In the west we make turkey at home, but when I go to holiday meals in Beijing, the turkey is catered by Kempinski and the log cake is from the Ritz,” says Sara Jane Ho of Institute Sarita, etiquette maven to the nouveau riche.瑞雅礼仪(Institute Sarita)的何佩嵘(Sara Jane Ho)说,“在西方,我们在家里制作火鸡,但我在北京吃节日大餐时,火鸡是由凯宾斯基(Kempinski)制作的,而树根蛋糕来自丽兹(The Ritz)。”瑞雅礼仪是向暴发户传授礼仪的专业机构。“In China, there’s no Black Friday,” she says, referring to another “tradition” that didn’t exist when I believed in Rudolf. “But in China, the whole of December is black December” as retailers compete for that Yuletide renminbi.“中国没有黑色星期五(Black Friday),”何佩嵘在提及另一项“传统”时说道。这项“传统”在我相信世上存在鲁道夫时可并不存在。“但在中国,整个12月都是黑色的”,其间零售商会彼此展开竞争,争取在圣诞节前后多赚人民币。Christmas, Halloween, Valentine’s Day, Thanksgiving — China shopped in the cultural supermarket and decided to import them all. But watch out: the trade in holidays is no longer just one way, says Global Times, the English version of the official People’s Daily. It claims that “Single’s Day”, the bn shopping holiday popularised overseas by Alibaba and known in China as “Double 11” (as it occurs on November 11), may be China’s first exportable modern holiday.圣诞节、万圣节(Halloween)、情人节(Valentine#39;s Day)、感恩节(Thanksgiving)——中国置身于文化超级市场,决定全部引进。但要注意:官方喉舌《人民日报》(People’s Daily)旗下刊物、《环球时报》(Global Times)英文版称,节日贸易不再是单向的。该报称,由阿里巴巴(Alibaba)推广到海外的、销售规模达90亿美元的购物节日“光棍节”(由于发生在11月11日,在中国也被称为“双11”),可能是中国首个可出口的现代节日。“The Double 11, a festival created by Chinese people, is now shoulder to shoulder with western festivals like Christmas or Valentine’s Day, and perhaps even overpowers them,” the paper crowed, adding that its “strong emotional appeal has started to infiltrate foreign countries” and could become “the first symbol of China’s ‘soft power’”.该报得意地称:“中国人创造的节日‘双11’现已可以比肩西方的节日如圣诞节或情人节,甚至可能盖过了它们。”该报还称,这个节日“强大的情绪感染力已开始渗透到国外”,而且有可能成为“中国‘软实力’的首个标志”。That’s one way to fill the spiritual void, I guess: pack it full of Taobao packages. Probably works as well as filling it with Christmas trees.我觉得,这是一种填补精神空虚的方式,即用淘宝(Taobao)包裹来把它塞满。这很可能与用圣诞树来填满它一样管用。 /201412/350958

  That dress looks perfect right off the rack, and that crisp button-down shirt is never going to be any brighter or whiter than the moment you buy it. So is it really necessary to go to all of the trouble of washing those brand-new garments before you wear them for the first time?刚从商场衣架上拿下来的那件裙子太美了,而那件纽扣衬衫在你买下时是最亮最白的。所以,真的有必要花费力气在第一次穿新衣之前就把它们给洗一遍吗?The answer to that depends on how you feel about rashes, insects and diseases.有没有必要全看你如何看待皮疹、昆虫和疾病了。Yes, according to Donald Belsito, a professor of dermatology at ColumbiaUniversity Medical Center, those clean-looking clothes aren#39;t so clean after all.哥伦比亚大学医学中心皮肤科教授唐纳德#8226;贝尔西托的是,要洗,因为那些看起来干净的衣实际上并不干净。Belsito, who spoke to The Wall Street Journal about the risks, noted that dyes and formaldehyde resins can spark skin irritation in some or a full-blown allergic reaction in others. But those are far from the only risks.贝尔西托在《华尔街日报》中指出,衣的染料和甲醛树脂会引发皮肤部分或全面的过敏反应。但是事实上,危害还远远不止这些。;I have seen cases of lice that were possibly transmitted from trying on in the store, and there are certain infectious diseases that can be passed on through clothing,; he explained. ;The other infestation I#39;ve seen from clothing is scabies.;“我曾经见过在商场试衣时染上虱子的案例,还有一些传染性疾病也会通过衣传染,”他解释道。“我见过另一个通过衣传染的疾病是疥疮。”Dressing rooms aren#39;t the only place where your would-be wardrobe comes in contact with others. From the people who manufactured the clothing, to those who shipped it and others who stocked the racks, there#39;s just no telling how many hands (and other parts) have touched it all.试衣间并不是你的衣与其他人发生接触的唯一场所。从装的加工者,到运输人员、货架摆放人员,没人知道到底有多少双手(以及其他部位)碰过那些衣。If that, along with Belsito#39;s added warning that ;fungus can hang around for a while,; isn#39;t enough to make you want to wash those new items once before wearing them, maybe it should make you want to wash them twice — that#39;s what the doctor does.如果这些现实,加上贝尔西托有关“真菌会滞留一段时间”的警告都不足以让你想要在穿新衣之前先清洗一次,或许应该建议你洗两次---医生们都这么做。;In terms of hygiene, it#39;s a very good thing to do,; he told the Journal. ;Being a dermatologist, I#39;ve seen examples of some strange stuff, so I don#39;t take any chances.;“从卫生的角度来说,洗两遍是再好不过的了,”他告诉《华尔街日报》说。“作为一个皮肤科医生,我见到过一些很奇怪的东西,所以我不想冒任何风险。” /201505/377610



  Preserved Pig Carcass猪膘肉At the bank of Lugu Lake lived two brothers. After the division of the family estate, the older brother got a pig and a dog while the younger one got a sum of money. Similar to the younger brother in the story “The Prodigal Son” from Bible, the younger one squandered his wealth in wild living. The older one, on the contrary, was so assiduous that he could make a living under whatever circumstances.After finding a new residence, the older brother plunged into work. He fed the pig and the dog every day, providing the best care he could offer. Because of his circumspection, the pig soon became lardy and fleshy, waiting to be slaughtered. Normally, the older brother would worship the Bodhisattva when winter approached and then started to slaughter the pig. Unzipping the pork belly, he took out the intestines and viscera, plus removed the lean meat and bones, and then seasoned the carcass with salt, pepper, garlic and ginger. Next he sewed the belly, putting it on the cabinet after airing. Finally he stuffed the large intestine with oats and the small one with buckwheat, hanging them along with viscera. Owning the preserved pig carcass, fairly speaking, he barely needed anything else. He could take the lard and the meat from it and easily made a simple but luscious dish, which was special in the eye of Mosuo People.During the Spring Festival, according to the tradition of Mosuo People, the head of the pig was served to the Bodhisattva as deference the meat around the pig’s neck was provided to parents as filial love.猪膘肉是泸沽湖畔梭人家非常有特色的一种佳肴。相传有一家梭人有两兄弟,父母把老大分了出去,老大分到一头猪和一条,分家后老大很勤劳,家里搞得像模像样,猪也喂得又大又肥,冬大的时候他先把菩萨敬了,就开始杀猪。他先把猪肚割开,把肠和内脏拉出,把里面的瘦肉和骨也剔除。然后缝上猪肚晾干后搁在神柜上。猪的大肠装上燕麦,小肠装荞麦,肚肠心肝肺都挂在家里,没油的时候,他就从膘猪的肚里取了猪油来用;没肉的时候就从猪膘身上割一块来吃。到了年三十的时候就开猪膘肉,初二猪头项圈敬菩萨,取项身肉一圈孝敬父母,过年的时候就要吃几天的猪膘肉。 /201505/377234

  The lifting of the California ban against selling foie gras (the hyperfattened liver of geese or ducks, brought about by overfeeding the live animals) is pretty much a nonissue, except to point out that as a nation we have little perspective on animal welfare. To single out the tiniest fraction of meat production and label it “cruel” is to miss the big picture, and the big picture is this: Almost all meat production in the ed States is cruel.加州取消鹅肝(通过对活鸭、活鹅进行过度喂食造成的脂肪肝)禁令是个无关紧要的小事,顶多只是表明,我们这个国家对动物福利是没什么想法的。将肉类生产中这个微不足道的部分单独拿出来,称其为“残酷”,是不能体现全局的,而全局是这样:美国几乎所有的肉类生产都是残酷的。The sale and production of foie gras was prohibited in California in 2012. Though the ban was widely ignored — foie gras was served for free in many restaurants and sold illegally in others — it’s now legal to serve it. (Production remains banned.)加州在2012年发布了鹅肝的销售和生产禁令。不过,没什么人把这项禁令当回事——很多餐厅免费供应鹅肝,还有些餐厅在非法销售它——现在又可以合法供应了。(生产依然是禁止的。)But so what? Foie gras is among the most overrated of luxury ingredients, ranking right up there with caviar and truffles. Done right, all three are delicious, but we can call them rich people’s food, and as such they’re not that important except to chefs who want to impress rich people or rich people who want to be impressed.但那又如何?鹅肝是世界上最过誉的奢侈食材之一,和鱼子酱和松露并驾齐驱。会做的话,三种食材都很美味,但我们可以称之为富人食物,因此它们也就不那么重要了,除非是厨师想要取悦有钱人,或有钱人想要被取悦。Of the three, from the point of view of pleasure, foie gras is the least important (many organ meats are more enjoyable), although it’s the easiest to produce and the least expensive. The best truffles are white, mostly Italian, difficult to find and stunningly pricey — upward of ,000 a pound. The best caviar (beluga) comes from Iran, Russia and a couple of other countries with shores on the Caspian Sea; not only are prices comparable to truffles, fishing these endangered sturgeon is strictly regulated.从愉悦的角度看,鹅肝是三种食材里最不重要的(很多器官要比它更美味),但却是最易于生产的,也是最不昂贵的。最好的松露是白色的,大多为意大利产,很难得,也贵得出奇——可以卖到1000美元一磅。最好的鱼子酱(白鲸鲟)产自伊朗、俄罗斯以及其他一些里海沿岸国家;它的价格堪比松露,而且捕捞作为濒危物种的鲟鱼是受到严格监管的。Foie gras is not only available at relatively moderate prices (you can buy it now for something like - a pound), but it’s also never out of season and produced domestically. And it’s a showpiece: Most chefs cook it not because they love it but to appeal to food snobs, who can report, “We went to XX last night and had the most amazing foie.” Right. (See this headline, which is vulgar but not wrong; don’t bother to the “story.”)鹅肝不但价格相对廉宜(现在每磅只要50到75美元就能买到),而且永远不会过季,又是本土生产。它是炫技用的:多数厨师会做,但不是因为他们喜欢,而是能吸引自命不凡的食评人,这些人接着会写:“昨晚我们去哪哪,吃到了美妙绝伦的鹅肝。”是啊。(看看这个标题,话糙理不糙;那‘报道’就不必看了。)I’m not aware of a movement against killing sturgeon or other fish whose eggs can be used to make imitation caviar. This may be because fish are generally under-considered in the world of animal welfare, or because the most desired caviar comes from so far away or because it’s more precious than foie gras. But it also may be because caviar doesn’t invoke horrible images of gavage, as the process of overfeeding poultry is called — images that feature, not to put too fine a point on it, funnels.据我所知没有人在发起反对捕杀鲟鱼或其他鱼籽可以用来模仿鱼子酱的鱼类。这可能是因为鱼类在动物福祉的世界里通常是比较受忽视的,或者因为最让人向往的鱼子酱来自太遥远的地方,又或者因为它比鹅肝还金贵。但也可能是因为鱼子酱不会让你联想起强行喂食的恐怖画面,也就是对禽类进行过度喂食的工艺——不想说太多细节,但画面中包含漏斗这样的东西。It’s not a pretty thought, and it’s a less pretty sight. Of course, foie gras can also be produced without actually force-feeding because, like many animals — including humans and dogs — ducks and geese will happily eat anything that meets their standards. You don’t have to force them: They will stuff themselves anyway. So although the process may be “unnatural,” it’s not necessarily “torture.”这个想法不怎么美好,而画面就更是丑陋了。当然,鹅肝也可以在不进行强迫喂食的情况下生产,和许多动物一样——包括人类和——鸭和鹅会欣然吃下一切符合它们要求的东西。你不用强迫它们:它们反正都会把自己往死里撑的。所以虽然这个过程会有些“不自然”,却不一定是“折磨”。As to whether this is “good” for the animals, that’s another question. But let’s get our priorities straight. Statistically, foie gras is insignificant; according to a spokesman at Hudson Valley Foie Gras, one of the country’s main producers, the market in the ed States involves just under 600,000 animals per year.至于这对动物是不是有“好处”,就是另一个问题了。不过我们首先把优先级摆出来。统计数据上看,鹅肝是微不足道的;据美国主要鹅肝生产商哈德逊鹅肝公司(Hudson Valley Foie Gras)一位发言人称,美国鹅肝市场每年涉及的动物不到60万只。My elementary math estimates that the ed States chicken broiler industry kills more birds than that every single hour of every single day. (We produced an estimated 38.5 billion pounds of chicken in 2014, at an average of 6 pounds per bird.) Almost all of those birds are raised in conditions that range from unnatural to torturous.以我小学水平的数学估算,美国肉鸡产业在每一天的每一个小时里宰杀的鸡都比这个多。(我们在2014年生产了约385亿磅鸡肉,每只鸡平均产出6磅肉。)而几乎所有肉鸡都是在不自然或带来折磨的环境中饲养的。If you allow that the same is true of most animals raised in the ed States, from dairy cows (which last year produced roughly 206 billion pounds of milk) to egg-laying hens (over 98 billion eggs) to cattle raised for beef (24 billion pounds), you are looking at an industry that produces cruelty on a scale that’s so big and overwhelming few of us can consider it rationally or regularly. And if you consider that cattle, for example, evolved to graze on grasses and are often fattened on grains — to which their digestive systems must then adapt — you might say that part of that industry’s routine is force-feeding.如果你认为美国饲养的多数动物都是这样的情况,从奶牛(去年生产了约2060亿磅牛奶)到蛋鸡(超过980亿只鸡蛋),再到肉用牛(240亿磅),你看到的这个产业催生的暴行之庞大和普遍,已经令我们大多数人无法理性地、经常性地去思考它。比如我们考虑一下肉用牛,它们通过进化成为食草动物,但往往用谷物来育肥——这样一来它们的消化系统就必须去适应——你可以说产业惯例就是强迫喂食。This is not to say a few thousand ducks and geese don’t matter; it is to say that it’s important to keep perspective. Although the plaintiffs used a federal statute (see the Poultry Products Inspection Act) to overturn the ban, and although that makes some animal welfare advocates uneasy, federal law is often used to trump state regulations, both good and bad. The legal experts I spoke to were wary, but did not see that this ruling, for example, set a precedent that might threaten California’s new egg-raising requirements, about which I wrote on New Year’s Day.这并不是说几千只鸭或鹅不重要;而是说看到全局是很重要的。原告利用了一项联邦成文法(参阅《家禽产品检验法》[Poultry Products Inspection Act])来推翻禁令,这让一些动物权益倡导人士感到不安,但联邦法律经常成为对付州监管的杀手锏,有时是好事有时是坏事。和我聊过的法律专家对这项裁决有所警觉,但不觉得它创下了什么先例,比如能威胁到加州蛋鸡养殖新规的那种,这方面我在新年那天写过。So, since this is not the last word on foie gras in California (or elsewhere), let’s stay tuned. If it’s ultimately and legally determined that foie gras production is cruel, inhumane or both, labeling it so would strengthen the argument that so are the current means of production for most industrially raised animals (and their products). This is best seen as a test case, not as a significant defeat or victory. Foie gras itself just isn’t that important.所以,这并不意味着加州(或其他任何一个地方)鹅肝之争盖棺定论,我们要继续关注。如果最终在法律上裁定鹅肝生产是虐待,或不人道行为,或两者兼有,那么正式判定这一点会强化一种看法,即当前大多数工业养殖动物(以及相关产品)的生产所使用的手段,也都是这样。最好别把它看成是一次重大的失败或胜利,而是看成一个试验案例。鹅肝本身真的不那么重要。 /201501/355038



  Beijing (AFP) - A Chinese man who sued local government officials over an attack by a wild panda has won more than ,000 in compensation, his lawyer said Monday.北京(法新社)——一名被野生熊猫咬伤的中国男子起诉当地政府,赢得了8万美元补偿。The animals are renowned for their lovable appearance but despite their placid, bamboo-chewing image they are members of the bear family and have a fearsome bite.熊猫因长得可爱而闻名,但是尽管它们有温和吃素的形象,它们仍是熊科动物,咬人一口后果是严重的。The animal wandered into Liziba village, in the northwestern province of Gansu, where local officials tr ying to capture it chased it onto Guan Quanzhi.s land, the Lanzhou Evening News reported.兰州晚报报道,咬人的熊猫闯入李子坝村,该地位于甘肃西北部,当地林业人员试图抓住熊猫,在围捕过程中把熊猫赶进了关全志的地里。;I saw a panda jump out in front of me, its body completely covered in mud,; he told the newspaper.;我看见一头熊猫在我面前跳出来,满身是泥;关告诉记者。The creature bit him in the leg and only released its grip when another villager covered its head with a coat, the report said, and the incident in March last year left Guan with injuries requiring seven hours of surgery.新闻中说,熊猫咬住了关的腿,直到另一名村民把一件外套罩在它头上,它才松口。这是去年3月份的事,关的伤口需要7个小时的手术。The panda escaped.熊猫逃了。Guan#39;s son sued local forestry officials and the nearby Baishuijiang National Nature Reserve, which is home to more than 100 wild pandas.关的儿子把林业部门和白水江国家级自然保护区告上了法庭,白水江自然保护区里有100多头野生熊猫。Following ;negotiations;, officials agreed to pay compensation of 520,000 yuan (,000), his lawyer Wang Chaohui told AFP.关的律师王朝辉告诉法新社,经过;讨价还价;,林业部和保护区同意付52万元(8.3万美元)。Guan is ;satisfied with the amount;, which will cover his medical bills, he said, adding that he may need further operations.关对于;赔偿金额很满意;,这笔钱可以付他的医疗费,他说,并说他可能需要进一步的手术。The giant panda#39;s natural habitat mostly lies in mountainous southwestern China. They have a notoriously low reproductive rate and are under pressure from factors such as habitat loss.大熊猫的自然栖息地主要在中国西南部的山中。它们的繁殖率很低,并且处在栖息地缩减的生存压力下。The number of wild giant pandas rose nearly 17 percent over the decade to 2013 to reach 1,864, state media cited an official survey data as saying this month, with a government agency crediting conservation measures for the increase.一份官方调查数据显示野生大熊猫的数量在过去10年终增长了17%,到2013年达到1864头,政府部门称保护措施起到了作用。Pandas are a major generator of tourist revenue in several parts of China and for Beijing, which capital ises on the global fascination with the animals by renting them to foreign zoos.郎猫是中国部分地区的重要_资源,由于R離是全球人与动物,-瞭也通过租赁肖離给外国的动物园不少。They have been known to attack humans, including in 2008 when a panda mauled a 20-year-old man who c ed into its enclosure at a zoo in southern China.觸S—直有攻击人类的事迹,包括在2008年,一个20岁男子)肥^家动物园的糊s区,结果被咬伤。The nature conservation organisation WWF says on its website: ;As cuddly as they may look, a panda can protect itself as well as most other bears,; using its heavy weight, strong jaw muscles and large molar teeth.世界野生动物基金(WWF)在官网上说:;尽管看起来萌萌的,熊猫有能力像其他熊类动物一样保护自己,;熊猫有庞大的体重,强有力的下颚肌肉和巨大的臼齿。It cautions: ;Although used mainly for crushing bamboo, a panda bite can be very nasty.;WWF警告道:;熊猫的牙齿虽然主要用来咬碎竹子,但是被熊猫咬一口,后果是非常严重的。; /201503/364511

  A cat has raked in 0 million (619 million yuan) since she became Internet famous two years ago, reported UK newspaper Daily Express last week.据上周英国《每日快报》的消息:自从2012年走红网络后,有只猫的身价已经超过了1亿美元(约合6.19亿人民币)。Tabatha Bundesen, 29, is the owner of Internet sensation Grumpy Cat. She lives in Arizona, US and was working as a waitress.它就是轰动网络的“不爽猫”。而它的主人——居住在美国亚利桑那州、29岁的塔芭莎#8226;邦德森曾当过女务生。On Sept 22, 2012, Bundesen’s brother took a photo of her grumpy-looking cat and posted it to Internet forum site Reddit. The photo went viral and Grumpy Cat quickly became a meme. The cat’s fame is largely due to her unique peeved look. Grumpy Cat has a form of dwarfism and an underbite that gives her a perpetual frown.2012年9月22日,邦德森的哥哥给这只表情不爽的猫拍了张照片,并将其传到了网络论坛Reddit上。照片一夜走红,对不爽猫的各种模仿令它更疯狂地传播。这只猫之所以名声大噪主要是因其独一无二的愤怒表情。而其实是它(天生的)侏儒症和反颌症让它总是愁眉不展。In most cases, just being Internet famous can’t make one rich. Grumpy Cat has her own agent who transformed her into a money-making machine. Grumpy Cat’s empire includes a line of stuffed toys and T-shirts; various self-help and life-advice books (One of them is titled The Grumpy Guide to Life.); an original TV-movie (Grumpy Cat’s Worst Christmas Ever) and soundtrack. Grumpy Cat even has her own line of coffee called “Grumppucino”, according to the Business Insider.多数时候,网络走红并不能令谁成为富豪。但是不爽猫的经纪团队让它变成了“吸金神器”。不爽猫的“帝国”里有(以他为原型的)毛绒玩具、(印着它照片的)T恤、一系列励志与生活建议类图书(其中一本名为《不爽猫生活指南》)、原创电视影片(《不爽猫最糟糕的圣诞节》)以及音乐作品。另据(美国知名客)Business Insider报道,它还有自己代言的咖啡,名为“Grumppucino”。In more recent media reports, the cat’s owner Bundesen was ed as saying the 0 million figure is “completely inaccurate”, although she didn’t say if the actual figure is higher or lower.在媒体的最新报道中,不爽猫的主人邦德森称1个亿收入的说法“并不完全准确”,但她并未透露实际数字到底是多少。Money machine吸金神器The cat changed her owner’s life. “I was able to quit my job as a waitress within days of her first appearance on social media and the phone simply hasn’t stopped ringing since,” Bundesen tells The Daily Express.在接受《每日快报》的采访时,不爽猫的主人邦德森说,“它的照片亮相社交网络的几天之内我的手机一直响个不停,而我很快就有能力辞掉务生的工作了。”The news that a cat has earned in two years what most folks couldn’t make in a lifetime has irked quite a lot of people. They feel it’s unfair that someone without any talent or who hasn’t done any hard work should earn so much. “The fact that this woman made 0 million because her stupid cat looks bummed out fills me with unspeakable rage,” tweeted Ben White, a US journalist.据报道,这只猫两年内的收入是大多数人终其一生都望尘莫及的,这让很多人心生不爽。他们觉得猫的主人毫无天赋、无所事事、丝毫没有付出努力就挣了这么多钱实在有失公平。美国记者本#8226;怀特就在Twitter上写到:一只看上去垂头丧气的蠢猫竟为它的主人赚来1亿美元,这事儿让我怒不可遏。But people make money from their looks, or equally randomly advantages, all the time, says Derek Thompson writing in The Atlantic. Brazilian super model Gisele Bundchen is worth 0 million. Her height, place of birth, skin tone, or bone structure is in no way any less a natural lottery than Grumpy Cat’s unamused scowl. As just like Gisele, says Derek, Grumpy Cat’s owner works hard to get licensing and endorsement deals for her pet.但是,《大西洋月刊》的(专栏作家)德瑞克#8226;汤普森则写到:人们因为外貌长相或是同样偶然的机遇发财致富却是常有之事。巴西超模吉赛尔#8226;邦辰就拥有2.9亿美元的身价。而她的出生地、肤色、骨架无一不是像不爽猫的愁眉苦脸一样与生俱来。德瑞克认为,正如吉赛尔一样,不爽猫的主人为了让自己的宠物获得许可、签下代言合同也付出了努力。The Internet is a whirlwind of massive media exposure, says Derek, and random memes and personalities get super famous for reasons that can’t be fully explained all the time. “It’s pointless to be moralistic about the fortune of Grumpy Cat any more than we’re condemning of the fortune of any other celebrity,” he says.德瑞克还说,互联网就是大量媒体曝光带来的一阵“旋风”,偶然的走红或是名人们因某些原因而声名大噪并不总能解释得一清二楚。“因此,站在道德的高度对不爽猫吸金加以,就像我们指责名人们的收入一样毫无意义。” /201412/349998


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