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来源:120常识    发布时间:2019年08月17日 19:51:13    编辑:admin         

Everybody likes music, right? 人人都爱音乐,对吧?I mean, no matter who you are, where you live, or what your ethnicor cultural background is, people everywhere derive some pleasure from listening to their favoritemusic.不管你是谁,住在哪,来自什么种族,拥有什么文化背景,听自己喜爱的音乐都会感到快乐。Apparently, though, some people are simply not capable of enjoying music. 但是,很明显,有些人就是无法欣赏音乐。This not because theycant experience pleasure at all. 这并不是因为他们根本无法体会快乐的感觉。People who dont “get” music typically enjoy sex, food, moneyand many other pleasurable things. 那些不爱音乐的人一般喜爱性,食物,金钱和其他能够带来快了的事物。Just not music.只是对音乐不感兴趣罢了。According to at least one study, its not necessarily due to amusia a condition that hampers thebrains ability to process music. 至少有一项研究显示,失音症不一定是问题的根源所在。People with whats being called “specific musical anhedonia” haveno trouble making sense of or hearing music properly. 那些患有特殊音乐快感缺失症的人是可以理解或正常聆听音乐的。Theyre just indifferent to it.他们只是对音乐没有什么特别反应而已。In the study, researchers at the University of Barcelona examined thirty subjects split into threegroups. 在该项研究中,巴塞罗那大学的研究人员将30个研究对象分为三组。Each participant listened to different types of music and rated how much they enjoyedthem.每个参与者要求听不同类型的音乐并告知他们喜爱的程度有多少。They were also made to respond to questions in order to win or lose between twenty-five centsand nearly three dollars to test if the participants were only immune to music, or immune to other“pleasures”, like the prospect of winning money.同时,他们还需要回答问题,如果只是对音乐免疫,那么参与者可以赢得25美分到接近3美元的奖励,如果对其他能够带来愉悦感的因素免疫的话,就得不到奖励,比如赢钱能带来愉悦感。Meanwhile, the scientists measured their emotional response to each task by analyzing heart rateand how well their skin conducted electricity.同时,科学家们通过分析心率和皮肤导电性测量出参与者对每项任务产生的情感反映。And the researchers found that some of the participants had no emotional reaction to the musiceven when they were emotionally stimulated by the money incentive task. 研究人员发现,一些参与者对音乐没有任何情感反应,甚至是在金钱刺激的情况下。The researchers dontknow why some people derive no pleasure from music. 目前研究人员还不知道为什么有些人无法从音乐中获得愉悦感。Further research may provide an answer.想要找出还需要进一步的研究。201410/335193。

Rural thefts农场里的失窃案On the lamb与羊有关The revival of an old crime旧罪新犯CRIME has been falling in Britain since the mid-1990s, with very few exceptions. Police fret about rising online fraud and phishing scams perpetuated by sophisticated global criminal networks. And then theres sheep rustling.自上世纪九十年代中期起,英国的犯罪率不断下降,只有极少数个案。但警方担心,全球的精密犯罪网络影响下带来的的网络诈骗和网络钓鱼犯罪数量会上升。然后就有了顺手牵羊。Between 2010 and 2011 the cost of thefts of farm animals shot up by 170%, according to NFU Mutual, which insures three-quarters of Britains farmers. They were up again last year, by a more modest 4%, when about 69,000 sheep were stolen. The rise continues, says the insurer. Over the past three years £413,530 (6,000) worth of livestock, mostly sheep, has been stolen in Cumbria. In November police in the north Pennines held a kind of reverse identification parade, asking farmers if any sheep recovered from thieves had been pilfered from their fields.全国农场主联合会保障了全国四分之三的农场主,根据这个联合会的数据,2010年至2011年间,农场畜牧的被窃成本飙升170%。去年,将近6万9千头羊被顺走,被窃成本再次上升了4%。保险公司说,被窃成本还将继续上升。在过去的3年间,坎布里亚郡有将近价值413,530英镑(约合67.6万美元)的牲畜被偷走,而且大部分都是羊。十一月,奔宁山北部的警察举办了一个类似反向识别的游行,问农场主是否有羊从他们的农场被偷走。August is a particularly bad time for thefts, says Steve Marsh of Dorset Police. Lambs are fat and y for slaughter. Thieves rarely have land on which to graze large herds so they need animals y to eat. Most are slaughtered quickly, he reckons, either in makeshift abattoirs or in slaughterhouses willing to overlook the animals lack of paperwork. The meat is then sold illegally. Unlike other easily nickable items, such as DVD players, the price of lamb has risen, making it an appetising option. In the legal market, prices have gone up from £6.77 a kilo in to £7.86, according to Kantar Worldpanel, a research firm.多赛特郡警察局的马什说,八月份是偷窃案极其猖獗的月份。羊羔们都长得肥肥壮壮等着被宰。小偷们没有地方饲养大群牲畜,所以他们需要直接就可以吃的牲口。大部分被偷的牲畜很快就会被宰杀,马什认为,要么是临时屠宰场,要么是非法屠宰厂会接受没有相关件的牲畜。然后肉也会被非法的卖掉。不像其他容易被偷的东西,比如DVD播放器,羊肉价格上涨了,使偷羊成为了一个极有诱惑力的选项。根据消费者指数研究所的数据,在合法的农贸市场,羊肉价格从年的6.77英镑涨到了7.86英镑。The nature of modern farming makes livestock rustling fairly easy. Sheep are often grazed in isolated fields far from the farmstead, or on common land where they are vulnerable to raiders. Farmers can no longer keep constant watch over their flocks. At least 160 sheep were stolen in the village of Wool in Dorset in early November. Police say they were nabbed between 8am on one Saturday and 2.30pm on the following Monday; they can narrow down the time no further.现代化放牧的特性使得偷窃牲畜相当容易。羊群常常在远离农场的一小片单独地域吃草,或聚在易被小偷得手公共草地。农场主已不再频繁看管他们的牧群。11月初,多赛特郡羊毛村至少有160头羊失窃。警方说,盗贼在一周六上午8点到下周一下午两点半之间得手的;而且不能再进一步的准确界定时间范围了。Meanwhile other rural thefts decline. Thieves used to winch tractors onto lorries before taking them to sell in eastern Europe, says Tim Price of NFU Mutual. But security on tractors has improved. Until recently the same key could be used to start vehicles on different farms. Manufacturers have fixed this and also added engine immobilisers. Insurance claims are declining. Stealing scrap metal is harder, too: dealers must now verify sellers identities and are no longer allowed to pay them in cash. Sheep rustling looms larger as a result.同时,其他的农村失窃数量下降了。全国农场主联合会的普莱斯说,盗贼们过去会用绞车将拖拉机拉上卡车,然后卖往东欧地区,但是拖拉机的安全系数有所提高,失窃率也降低了,直到最近同一把钥匙可以开两个不同农场的机动车。生产商已经解决了这个问题,并且还加上了发动机防盗系统。保险申诉变少了。偷金属废料也变得更困难:现在经销商必须要卖家的身份验,而且不再允许用现金付。这样顺手牵羊事件就凸现出来了。The thieves know what they are doing, says Rory Stewart, MP for Penrith and the Border, an area with a rich history of sheep theft (Wat Scott of Harden, a legendary Renaissance rustler, is said to have roared at a haystack: “By my soul, had ye but four feet ye shouldna stand long there”). They understand how to handle the animals and probably use quad bikes to round them up and shepherd them into lorries. They target sheep because unlike cattle, which have electronic ID tags and passports, sheep simply have ear tags which are easy to remove. The shear audacity.边界线附近彭里斯郡在历史上就常常出现羊失窃的事件,下院议员斯图尔特说,小偷知道自己在干什么, 他们知道对付牲口的方法:用四轮车把他们将羊群集合起来,然后再赶进卡车,他们总偷羊,是因为羊不像牛一样有电子身份标签和护照,羊只有简单的耳签,而且还很容易去掉。所以偷羊贼们胆子愈发大了。译者 周雨晴 校对 周晓青 译文属译生译世 /201511/408306。

As Robert Palmer sang in the mid 80s,“You might as well faceit, youre addicted to love.”80年代中期的罗伯特帕尔默曾经唱道:“承认吧,你已坠入爱河。”While that may or may not be truedepending on who you are, its no secret that addiction is acommon phenomenon.虽然,这句歌词的意思因人而异,但我们都知道,沉迷某事物或某人是个普遍现象。Apart from serious addictions to drugs and alcohol, how many times have you heard someoneclaim that theyre absolutely addicted to chocolate? Or diet Coke.除了严重的毒瘾和酒瘾意外,你有多少次曾听到有人说他们对巧克力十分上瘾?或者说无糖可乐,Or broccoli?或是花椰菜?Well, maybe not broccoli, but you get the point.也许不是花椰菜,但你知道我想说的是什么。But is it really possible to be a chocolate addict in the same waythat someone might be addicted to drugs?对巧克力上瘾真的会跟毒瘾一样吗?To answer that question we need to know what addiction is.要解答这个问题,我们需要知道什么是上瘾。Although the precise science ofaddiction is unclear, we do know that it involves the brain;虽然对上瘾还没有确切的定义,但我们都知道它跟大脑有关;addictive substances alter brainchemistry in such a way as to make the body crave more.上瘾的东西会以某种方式改变脑化学,从而使人体产生对该物的渴望。But what about chocolate?但怎么解释巧克力呢?Several studies indicate that chocolate addiction is for real.一些研究表明,对巧克力上瘾确实是存在的。Chocolatecontains a number of addictive substances, including caffeine and cannabinoids, chemicals similarto the ones that make marijuana a potent drug.巧克力包含很多容易上瘾的物质,如咖啡因、大麻类物质(其化学成分很像将大麻制成特效药的物质)。Further studies found not only that chocolatefats trigger the release of pleasure-causing substances in the brain, but that chocolate contains achemical similar to amphetamine, a highly addictive drug.进一步研究发现,不仅巧克力脂肪能够促使大脑释放出使人体愉悦的物质,巧克力还含有一种和苯内胺(一种极易上瘾的药物)很相似的化学物质。Does this mean that anyone who eats enough chocolate will become addicted?难道说任何吃过多巧克力的人都会上瘾吗?No. Some peoplecan eat all the chocolate they want and never get hooked.不是的。有些人可以想吃多少巧克力就吃多少而不上瘾。But chocolate does cause chemicalchanges in the brain that can result in a powerful craving.但巧克力确实会引起大脑的化学变化,从而产生一种强烈的渴望。Chocolate addiction is nowhere near aspotent or harmful as alcohol and drug addiction, of course.对巧克力上瘾可不是像毒瘾和酒瘾那样对人体有害。But if you find yourself unable to gothrough the day without at least one Hersheys Kiss, its not just in your mind. Youre hooked.但如果你发现自己一天不吃上一块好时巧克力就不自在的话,不止是你脑中会这样想,而是你确实是染上巧克力瘾了。201412/347326。

Some come and go in a matter of days. 有一些形成和消失只在几天间。Others build and grow and can last for years. 其他的生长可能要持续好几年。As plants take root and protect them from the elements. 植物在这里生根,保护小岛免受自然力量的影响。The first glance of my seen that zone cave that pretty in hospit of the environment, 第一眼看上去,它像个沙洲。一种不宜居住的环境。but actually can support life in abundance. 但实际上它能维持大量生命。Today its rare to find a cave free for humans and man creditice. 今天很难找不到一个没有人类和内陆捕食动物者的沙洲。But this is one of the best, Raine island. Its home to thousands of birds. 这里就是最好的一个,雷恩岛,这里是几千只鸟的家园。In the central of the island, they justle for the best available space. 岛屿中央它们在争夺最好的地盘,Nowhere else on the reef are they found in such numbers in such variety. 其他地方再也找不到这么多,这么种类丰富的鸟,Freaky birds, red footy boobies and castian in terns. 军舰鸟,红脚鲣鸟,红嘴巨鸥。In fact, 84 different species are found here.实际上这里生活着84种鸟。201410/335259。

German politics德国政治When all parties lead to Angela当所有政党都倾向安吉拉的时候Confusion reigns in Germany’s party politics. That may not affect who wins next year’s election德国政坛仍疑云重重,但丝毫不影响明年大选的胜者Less than a year before Germany’s federal election, Chancellor Angela Merkel is doing well, at least at home. Her centre-right Christian Democratic Union (CDU) and its Bavarian sister party, the Christian Social Union (CSU), are leading in the polls. Better still, the other parties are making news either for being in a shambles or, whenever for a moment they are not, for speculation that they might join a coalition in which Mrs Merkel would be senior partner and thus remain as chancellor.离德国联邦大选还有不到一年的时间,但至少在国内事务方面,安吉拉·默克尔总理做的很好。在民意调查中,她领导的中右基督教民主联盟(CDU)和其巴伐利亚姊党,基督教社会联盟(CSD)占据了领先地位。好事成双,有关其他政党的新闻要么报道他们处于一片混乱,即使是当他们运行良好的时候,到处也都猜测他们将加入以默克尔为领导的联合政党,而她也将继续出任德国总理。Mrs Merkel’s biggest coup has been to remain personally unsullied by the otherwise disappointing performance of the ruling coalition of the CDU and CSU with the smaller Free Democratic Party (FDP). The world might assume that German politics is given over to the country’s responsibility to save the euro. Instead, the CSU and FDP have spent most of their political energy on tactical projects that are either daft (for the CSU) or petty (the FDP).尽管由基督教民主联盟(CDU)和基督教社会联盟(CSU)以及规模稍小的自由民主党(FDP)组成的执政联盟在其他方面表现令人失望,但是默克尔总理始终保持个人清白,这是她最妙的招。全世界都认为德国政坛一直致力于履行本国对拯救欧元区的职责。相反,基督教社会联盟(CSU)和自由民主党(FDP)将他们大部分政治能量都花在他们那些愚蠢(CSU)和琐碎(FDP)的战术项目上。This month, for example, the CSU tried to pander to Bavaria’s family-values voters by pushing through a new subsidy to parents who care for toddlers at home rather than sending them to a creche. Conveniently, the payments will begin next August, just before both the Bavarian and the federal elections. Most parties, notably the FDP, see this policy as an expensive step backwards for a modern society that could leave children of poor families deprived of education. But the FDP accepted it in return for getting rid of a 10 (.6) fee that publicly insured patients have to pay once a quarter when they see their doctor.举个例子,本月基督教社会联盟(CSU)推动了一项新的补贴措施,给在家照顾学步儿童而不是送他们到托儿所的父母提供津贴,以试图迎合巴伐利亚重视家庭价值观的选民。恰逢时宜的是,该补贴明年8月就开始发放,恰好在巴伐利亚大选和联邦大选之前。以自由民主党(FDP)为主的大部分政党认为该政策是现代社会倒退的一步,其代价之昂贵可能会剥夺贫困家庭孩子的受教育机会。但是自由民主党(FDP)还是接受了该政策,并作为回报减免了10欧元(12.6美元)的费用,这公开地保了需每季度付一次医药费的病人的生活。That the FDP is reduced to horse-trading over such minutiae says a lot about the collapse of this once-grand liberal party. The polls suggest it may get less than 5% of votes in the election, and would thus be ejected from the Bundestag. If an election in Lower Saxony in January confirms such a poor showing, the FDP’s leader, Philipp Rosler (who is also economics minister), will surely have to go. There are even rumours of a plot to oust him sooner.自由民主党(FDP)沦落到在这种细枝末节上讨价还价,这很大程度上体现了这个曾今的伟大的自由政党的沦陷。民意调查显示其在大选中得到的选票不会超过5%,而且可能会因此被驱逐出联邦议院。如果一月份下萨克森州进行的大选实了这个糟糕的调查结果,那么FDP的领导人,菲利普·罗斯勒(他还是经济部长),将不得不离职。甚至有传言他们已经在密谋立刻驱逐他。With the coalition so preoccupied, the main opposition Social Democratic Party (SPD) might have been expected to attack more effectively. That was the idea behind picking Peer Steinbruck, a famously sharp-tongued former finance minister, as the party’s candidate for chancellor. Mr Steinbruck has, however, become embroiled in a sustained debate about the speaking fees he has been earning on the side (1.25m since , the highest of any Bundestag member). Never loved by his party’s blue-collar and trade-union base, Mr Steinbruck, the millionaire, may have turned off many of his erstwhile comrades completely.由于联合政府占据着显著的主导地位,主要的反对派社会民主党(SPD)可能需要采取更加有效的政治攻击。一个幕后想法就是推选以言语犀利而著称的前财政部长佩尔·施泰因布吕尔为该党的总理候选人。然而,施泰因布吕尔卷入到一场有关他在位期间所得的高额演讲费的持续辩论中(从年至今高达125万欧元,德国联邦议员中的最高值)。百万富翁施泰因布吕尔先生从来没有得到他所在党派的蓝领阶层和工会基地的厚爱,他可能已经完全失去了许多昔日同事的信任。It is telling that the SPD chairman, Sigmar Gabriel, is continually having to parry questions about an election outcome in which the SPD would play second fiddle to Mrs Merkel in another “grand coalition”, like the one Germany had from 2005-09. Absolutely not, insist both Mr Gabriel and Mr Steinbruck, claiming that they overlap ideologically only with the Greens, the other centre-left party. (The Left Party is still considered too toxic to touch, for it descends largely from the old East German Communist Party, and it is anyway also struggling to stay in parliament.)有消息称大选结果将会产生另外一个和德国2005-09期间实行的非常相似的“大联合政府”,而社会民主党(SPD)将会充当默克尔总理的副手,关于该结果的问题层出不穷,社会民主党(SPD)主席西格玛尔·加布里尔不得不一直回避这些问题。绝不可能,加布里尔和施泰因布吕尔都坚决否认,他们声称他们的思想理念只和另一个中左党派绿党(the Greens)有异曲同工之妙。(左翼党仍然被民众认为是有害政党而不愿涉及,因为其很大程度上起源于老派的东德共产党,而且无论如何它也挣扎在议会的边缘。)The SPD is terrified whenever the Greens generate optimism for the wrong reason: their suitability as an alternative coalition partner for Mrs Merkel. The Greens have been on a roll since capturing the mayorship of Stuttgart, capital of the rich south-western state of Baden-Wurttemberg, which is also the first and so far only state to be governed by a Green premier. Their success is credited to the dominance within the party’s southern branch of the “realo” wing: pragmatists who can appeal to ecologically minded but conservative urban voters. Such “bourgeois” Greens could get along fine with the CDU and CSU in Berlin, goes the thinking.社会民主党(SPD)无时无刻不担心绿党由于错误原因而过分乐观:他们可以作为默克尔的备用的联盟伙伴。自从夺得了斯图加特市长的职位后,绿党一直运行顺畅。斯图加特是德国南部富有的巴登-符腾堡州的首都,这也是绿党总理控制的第一个也是到目前为止唯一一个州。他们的成功在于很好地控制了该党南部的分现实主义党人:他们都是实用主义者,能够吸引生态意识强烈但是保守的城市选民。进一步说,这些“资产阶级”绿党人士将会和柏林的基督教民主联盟(CDU)和基督教社会联盟(CSU)很好地相处。As if to reinforce this impression, the Greens have just elected Katrin Goring-Eckardt, a leader in the Lutheran church who is from the east and is by Green standards a conservative, as their co-candidate for chancellor. (The other candidate, Jurgen , was almost preordained, for the Greens always pair a woman and a man.) Ms Goring-Eckardt’s selection was a rebuff to Claudia Roth, a flamboyant leftist. The choice immediately renewed speculation about an olive branch to the CDU.似乎是为了加强这种印象,绿党刚刚选举了卡特琳·格林-埃卡尔德担任总理的联合候选人。来自东部的卡特琳·格林-埃卡尔德是路德教会的领导人,按照绿党标准,她是一个保守派。(另外一个候选人尤尔根·特利汀,这几乎是内定的,因为绿党习惯于推选男女候选人各一名。)格林-埃卡尔德的入选是对虚张声势的左派克劳迪娅·罗斯的有力回击。这个选择很快就被认为是向基督教民主联盟(CDU)抛出的橄榄枝。The relative decline of the traditional main parties, the CDU and SPD, in favour of smaller and younger ones, explains much of this party manoeuvring. Some of these may just be fads. The Pirates have done well in four state elections but now seem to be self-destructing, unable to form basic policy and being generally tedious. Yet, as German society becomes more individualistic, says Oskar Niedermayer, a professor at Berlin’s Free University, traditional party structures based on interest groups (Catholics, say, or trade unionists) lose appeal, leaving allegiances in flux.传统的重要党派(如CDU和SPD)的相对衰落,规模较小和年轻的党派逐渐获得持,这很大程度上解释了这个政党运作。有些政党只是一时潮流。海盗党(The Pirates)在4个州的选举中表现得相当出色,但是现在他们似乎已经要自我毁灭了,他们无法形成基本方针,而且非常单一。然而,随着德国社会越来越个人主义化,传统的建立在利益集团(天主教徒或工会主义者)之上的政党结构已经失去了吸引力,这使得民众的忠诚飘忽不定,柏林自由大学的教授奥斯卡·尼德迈尔说道。At the same time and despite the campaign rhetoric, the differences between the main parties have, he thinks, got smaller, making any radical change of direction unlikely. That is especially true next year, since it seems increasingly likely that Mrs Merkel, with her safe pair of hands, will continue as chancellor. Only her coalition partner remains to be chosen.同时,他认为,尽管在这个时候竞选高调四起,主要政党之间的区别却已经变得越来越小,他们也不可能给大选方向带来巨变。这个现象在明年格外如此,因为越来越多的现象表明拥有放心的帮手的默克尔将连任德国总理。而等待我们选择的只有她的联合政党的伙伴。翻译:姜振南译文属译生译世 /201608/462273。

Usually a green, sour fruit is just a fruit thats not ripe yet.通常绿绿色,酸酸的水果只是表明水果还不成熟。If you left a lime on the tree longer would it eventually change color and become sweet, like an orange?如果你长时间不摘取树上的酸橙,它最终会改变颜色,变得甜甜的,就像桔子那样吗?Actually, limes do become much more yellow and less sour as they ripen.事实上, 酸橙会变得更黄,而且成熟后不会那样酸。Under ripe limes are darker green and quite bitter.熟透的酸橙颜色呈现黑绿,尝起来更为苦涩。There are other clues to their ripeness too.还有其他线索表明这些水果的成熟。Ripe limes are heavy with juice and more aromatic, with a fragrant “limey” smell.成熟的酸橙因为汁水会有些沉甸甸,闻起来更芳香,带有“酸橙”香味的味道。Most fruits we eat use similar cues to advertise ripeness.我们吃的大多数水果都是依靠类似的标志表明成熟度。Why would plants want parts of them to be eaten?为什么植物们希望自己的果实被进食?Fruiting plants have evolved a partnership with certain animals in order to increase the success of their seeds.水果植物因为某些动物成功增加播撒的种子已经得以进化。Tasty fruit pulp is the reward plants offer to animals in exchange for dispersing their seeds.美味的果肉是植物提供动物们以换取播撒自身种子的奖励。201501/356420。