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哈尔滨市道里区妇产医院做无痛人流多少钱哈尔滨人流哪家便宜哈尔滨去医院人流要多少钱 Throughout much of history, the English language has borrowed words from other languages to become the intermixed language that we know today. Yet in recent times it has become more of a lender than a borrower, says Philip Durkin, deputy chief editor of the Oxford English Dictionary, in an article for the B website.纵览历史,英语借用了很多舶来词,演变成了今天我们所熟悉的“大杂烩”语言。然而,《牛津英语大辞典》副主编菲利普?杜尔金在一篇发表在B网站上的文章中表示,近些年来,英语已经由“舶来”转成“输出”。English is actually a mixture of other languages that has evolved over time based on contact with other cultures. Linguists refer to English as a chain of borrowings that was the result of conquests by foreign invaders. Its adoption of words from so many different languages, known as loanwords, has resulted in it being one of most diverse languages on the planet.通过文化交流,英语逐步演变成一种融合了其他语言的大杂烩。语言学家认为,这一连串的舶来行为的原因在于外来者的侵占。英语吸收了各种不同语言的词汇,这些词汇通常被称为“舶来语”,这也使得英语成为世界上最多样化的语言之一。From about 450 AD until the 11th century, various foreigners invaded England, bringing their language with them. Britain adapted its language with each invasion, mixing words to create a blended version of many different languages. The most influential languages were: West Germanic after the invasion in 700 AD; Old Norse from the Scandinavian Viking invaders in the 8th and 9th centuries; and most importantly, French and Latin through the Norman Conquest of England in 1066.从公元450年左右到11世纪,英格兰遭遇了不同外来侵略者的入侵,这些侵略者将本国语言带到了这里。英国吸收了每一个侵略国的语言,将他们的语言与英语混合,创造出了一种多语言融合体。其中,对英语影响最深的语言包括:公元700年入侵者带来的西日耳曼语;8、9世纪斯堪的纳维亚入侵者带来的古挪威语;以及1066年诺曼底征英格兰时所带来的法语和拉丁语。Professor and author Anatoly Liberman describes loanwords as “a result of language contact in a certain place at a certain time”. For example, English started adopting Asian words (such as “jungle” and “yoga”) during the period of colonialism, when it had increased contact with this region.教授兼作家安托里?李伯曼将舶来语描述为“在特定时间、特定地点,因语言交流而产生的结果”。例如:在殖民统治时期,随着英国与亚洲之间的交流日益频繁,英语中融入了许多亚洲词汇(如“丛林”、“瑜伽”)。The continued prevalence of borrowing words across languages demonstrates the close connections different cultures have with one another in our globalized world. The rise of global media, particularly online, and enhanced international communication has led to a greater need for a common language.舶来语的经久不衰说明了在全球化背景下,不同文化之间交流的紧密。全球化传媒,尤其是网络媒体的崛起,以及国际交流的日益加深,提升了人们对通用语言的需求。In their recent book, Globally Speaking: Motives for Adopting English Vocabulary in Other Languages, Judith Rosenhouse and Rotem Kowner hail English as “the lingua franca of the modern world, the common language used for science, international business and for communication”. They report that English is the official language of more than 75 states and territories across the globe and it is the world’s most popular choice of second language.在新书《全球视角:其他语言使用英语舶来词的动机》中,朱迪斯?罗森豪斯和洛特姆?科内尔称英语为“现代世界的通用语,是科学研究、国际商务及交流方面的通用语言”。他们表示,全球超过75个国家和地区将英语作为官方语言;英语是全球最受欢迎的第二语言。The ascendancy of English as a global language has drastically increased the number of words it now lends to other languages. Whether it is a French news reporter using the words “kidnapping” or “leader”; the development of the Chinese word kafei from the English word coffee; or the near widesp use of “Internet”, “computer”, and “meeting” in most parts of the world — it is easy to see the drastic influence English now has on other languages.英语凭借其世界语言的优势,大大增加了向其他语言输出词汇的数量。无论是法国新闻报道中所使用的“kidnapping(绑架)”或“leader(领导)”,还是汉语中从英文“coffee”音译过来的“咖啡”一词,亦或是在全球多数地方普遍使用的“Internet(网络)”、“computer(电脑)”和“meeting(会议)”,英语对其他语言的巨大影响显而易见。In contrast, says Durkin, the number of new borrowed words finding their way into the shared international vocabulary is on a long downward trend. Although English is now borrowing from other languages with a worldwide range, new borrowings into English today tend to cluster much more closely in a few subject areas, especially names of food and drink.杜尔金表示,相比之下,英语中,称得上“国际通用”的舶来词数量却一直呈递减趋势。尽管英语现在仍然大范围地吸收外来语言,但是这些新舶来词往往更集中在少数几个特定的领域,尤以食物和饮料的名字最为明显。Unique vocabulary专有词汇Here are a few examples of untranslatable words from other cultures:以下列举了一些源自不同文化的不可译词:Waldeinsamkeit (German)Waldeinsamkeit(德语)A feeling of solitude, being alone in the woods, and a connectedness to nature. US poet Ralph Waldo Emerson even wrote a whole poem about it.词汇含义:这个词语描绘了一种感觉,一种孤独的感觉,一种独处在树林中并且和大自然产生沟通和共鸣的感觉。美国诗人拉尔夫?瓦尔多?爱默生甚至还写了一首诗来解释这种感觉。Pochemuchka (Russian)Pochemuchka(俄语)Someone who asks a lot of questions. We all know a few people like that.词汇含义:指那些问很多问题的人,准确地说,是那些问了太多问题的人。我们身边都会有一些这样的人。Sobremesa (Spanish)Sobremesa (西班牙语)Spaniards are laid-back and sociable, and this word describes the period of time after a meal when you have food-induced conversations with the people you have shared the meal with.词汇含义:西班牙人悠闲自在、善于交际。这个词语描述的是一段时间。这段时间里,你要与刚刚一起吃完饭的朋友就刚刚吃过的食物展开热烈的讨论。Mangata (Swedish)Mangata(瑞典语)It means the glimmering, road-like reflection that the moon creates on water.词汇含义:这个词指的是月亮倒映在水面上闪闪发光,宛若小路一样的倒影。Depaysement (French)Depaysement(法语)The feeling that comes from not being in one’s home country — of being a foreigner, or an immigrant, of being somewhat displaced from your origin.词汇含义:身处异国他乡的感觉,适用于外国人、移民者以及那些从故乡迁徙的人。 /201404/289920哈尔滨市中医院怎么走

哈尔滨妇科检查一次多少钱黑龙江省哈尔滨市七院正规的吗 The writer Charlotte Druckman and the photographer Melanie Dunea spend Sunday evenings at New York City dining establishments to find out what’s new with the people behind them.作家夏洛特·德鲁克曼(Charlotte Druckman)和摄影师梅勒妮·杜尼亚(Melanie Dunea)周日夜晚在纽约市的一些名牌餐馆寻找美食新动向。You’d think the final night of a restaurant’s existence would be a sad one. This was not the case at Family Recipe on Sunday evening. “It’s a little crazy,” said the chef and owner Akiko Thurnauer, who excused herself from kitchen duty to enjoy the company of friends and loyal customers who stopped by to bid farewell to her culinary hideout on Eldridge Street. Final orders of fried chicken wings, duck-filled pot stickers and steamed buns and crunchy, golden-brown potatoes were greedily gobbled, last-supper style. Sake glasses and wooden boxes were raised, bottles of rosé — marked half-off for the occasion — drained.你可能认为一个餐馆的最后一晚应该是悲哀的。但是家族秘伝(Family Recipe)餐馆周日晚上的情况并非如此。“有点疯狂,”大厨、老板明子·特诺(Akiko Thurnauer)说。她放下在厨房的责任,去享受朋友和忠诚顾客的陪伴,他们前来向这个隐藏在埃尔德里奇街的餐馆告别。最后一次点炸鸡翅、鸭肉锅贴、包子和金黄色的松脆土豆,吃起来狼吞虎咽,颇有最后晚餐的感觉。装清酒的玻璃杯和木箱被举起,一瓶瓶玫瑰葡萄酒被喝光——为了这个场合,葡萄酒打五折。“Sunday is kind of a weird night here,” Thurnauer noted. “Sometimes it’s really busy, sometimes really quiet, and sometimes you see amazing people,” she added, noting that celebrities were more inclined to drop by at the end of the weekend when they could keep a low profile.“在这里,周日是个古怪的夜晚,”特诺说,“有时很忙,有时很安静,有时你能看到不可思议的人。”她说名人们更喜欢在周末结束时来这里,因为那时候不太会引人注意。Trained as a graphic designer, the Tokyo native arrived in New York 18 years ago and enrolled in an E.S.L. program at Hunter College while working as a bartender. She constantly threw dinner parties and dreamed of doing the same for a larger audience. In 2004, she decided to get some professional training and landed a job at Nobu. After that and a couple of other food-related stints, she finally opened Family Recipe in September of 2011. And it’s been a learning curve ever since.明子是东京人,曾接受平面设计培训,18年前来到纽约,在亨特学院上非母语英语教学课程,同时做酒保。她不时承办宴会派对,梦想着能招待更多人。2004年,她决定接受职业培训,在Nobu餐馆找到了一份工作。之后她又短期做过几份与食品有关的工作,最终于2011年9月开设了家族秘伝餐馆。从那以后,这个餐馆一直在学习中成长。First, she realized her food was too avant-garde for the Lower East Side. “The neighborhood wants comfort food,” she said, explaining that she toned down her more eclectic for local tastes. Then Thurnauer learned another lesson: that reality is very different from the fantasy of owning a restaurant. She found that juggling motherhood (she has 6-year-old twin girls), managing a business and working the line took her away from the joy of cooking, something she hopes to get back now that the restaurant is closed. She’s keeping her lease and will use the space for her catering operation. From time to time, she may entertain the idea of a pop-up supper. Stay tuned.首先,她发现自己的食物对下东区来说太前卫了。“这个社区想要舒熟悉的食物,”她说。她解释说为了适应当地人的口味,她把菜单调整得更折中。然后特纳得到了另一个教训:你会对拥有一家餐馆抱有幻想,但现实却非常不同。她发现在做母亲(她有两个6岁的双胞胎女儿)、经营生意和工作之间周旋让她失去了烹饪的乐趣,她希望关闭餐馆后能找回它的乐趣。她还会继续租这个店,用它来进行酒席承办业务。她或许会时不时地供应临时性晚餐。请继续关注。 /201407/313390泰来县打胎价格

哈尔滨人流的手术价格It starts when people try something different-Pepsi instead of Coca-Cola, a blue tie instead of the old red one-and find that something good happens. 在一旦尝试了新东西――百事可乐替代可口可乐,用蓝领带替代旧的红领带――之后有好事发生,很多人就会变得迷信起来。 Soon, without realizing it, someone who wouldn#39;t think twice about, say, walking under a ladder or traveling on Friday the 13th begins to associate their new behavior with good luck-and starts reaching for the Pepsi again and again. 那些人虽然毫不介意走在梯子下面、不介意在恰逢13号的周五这天出远门,但他们很快也开始不自觉地将好运气和这些新行为相关联,然后就一听接着一听地喝起了百事可乐。 Such #39;conditioned superstitions#39; can develop when people believe there is something they can do to control a situation, despite there being no rational reason to think so, says Gita Johar, a professor of business at Columbia University who recently co-wrote a paper on the phenomenon. Recent research shows that superstitions that increase the illusion of control can help people find meaning and psychological comfort-and in some cases, even boost performance. 哥伦比亚大学(Columbia University)商业教授乔哈尔(Gita Johar)说,如果人们在没有合理依据的情况下相信他们可以通过做某些事来控制某一局面,这种“条件性迷信”(conditioned superstition) 就产生了。乔哈尔近期曾就这一现象与人合写了一篇论文。近期研究显示,这种能强化控制幻觉的迷信能够帮助人们找到事情的意义,获得心理安慰,有时甚至能提升业绩。 People who have both a high need for control and a sense of helplessness in a given situation-such as the straight-A perfectionist who didn#39;t have time to study for an exam-are the most likely to succumb to conditioned superstition, researchers say. 研究人员说,那些特别想要控制局面同时又在特定情境下感到无能为力的人――比如一个要求成绩全A、但又没时间复习考试的完美主义者――最有可能受到“条件性迷信”的影响。 And while such superstitions can be broken, says Dr. Johar, it often takes a lot of negative evidence before people are willing to part with their lucky rituals. That#39;s because they #39;provide some sort of a hedge against uncertainty,#39; says Eric Hamerman, an assistant professor of marketing at Tulane University#39;s Freeman School of Business who, with Dr. Johar, co-wrote the study, published in October in the Journal of Consumer Research. 乔哈尔说,尽管这类迷信可以破除,但人们通常需要看到大量的负面据,才愿意和那些被认为给他们带来好运的做法分道扬镳。图兰大学(Tulane University)弗里曼商学院(Freeman School of Business)市场营销副教授哈默曼(Eric Hamerman)说,这是因为这些迷信为人们树立起一堵抵御不确定性侵扰的围 。他与乔哈尔合着的研究论文发表在了10月份的《消费者研究》(Journal of Consumer Research)杂志上。 In their experiment, Drs. Johar and Hamerman had 275 participants play the game #39;rock, paper, scissors#39; against a computer-10 series with their right hand and 10 with their left. Unbeknownst to the participants, the computer program manipulated the results to make some people fare better with their left. When given the chance to choose which hand to use for the final matches, more than three-quarters of those playing the rigged game chose the hand that #39;caused#39; them to win more. 在他们的实验中,乔哈尔和哈默曼邀请了275名参与者与一台电脑玩“石头、剪刀、布”的游戏,每人用左、右手各玩10次。而受试者并不知道,电脑程序对游戏结果进行了操控,让某些人用左手玩的时候能更胜一筹。在最后的比赛中,受试者可以选择使用哪只手来参赛,结果超过四分之三的人选择用那只让他们赢得更多轮比赛的手。 If asked, few participants would say they consciously decided to choose the left hand because they thought it would make them lucky. However, their behavior suggests they conditioned themselves to make the connection, say the researchers. 研究人员说,在被问及原因时,很少有受试者会说他们是有意选择了更走运的左手,但他们的行为说明他们条件性地在二者间建立了因果关系。 The phenomenon of conditioned superstition is common enough that entire advertising campaigns have been built around it, says Dr. Hamerman. A recent Bud Light commercial, for example, has a fan forcing down a terrible-tasting veggie burger because his team won the last time he did so. 哈默曼说,“条件性迷信”现象的存在之广,足以让广告活动都围绕它展开。比如百威淡啤最近的一则广告中,一个球迷吃着难以下咽的素食汉堡,只因为上一次他吃这种汉堡的时候他的球队赢了。 Mary Pfister, a 20-year-old sophomore at Saint Louis University, wears her Chicago Blackhawks shirt for each game. The hockey team won big the first time she wore it this season. She once made a 15-minute trip, out of her way, back home to get it for game time. The Blackhawks have lost once while she was wearing her shirt-the only time she didn#39;t watch the game. The connection may be #39;all in her head,#39; she says, but it gives her peace of mind. 路易斯大学(Saint Louis University)的20岁大二学生菲斯特(Mary Pfister)每次看芝加哥黑鹰队的比赛时都会穿上球队的队。本赛季她第一次穿上那件衣时,该曲棍球队大比分获胜。有次她还特意花15分钟绕道回家去拿这件衣以备在比赛时间穿上。在她穿着那件衣时,黑鹰队输过一次比赛,那也是她唯一一次没有看比赛。她说,也许我是在异想天开,但这么一来我每次都能安心不少。 In their recently published experiment, Drs. Johar and Hamerman found they could reduce people#39;s superstitious behavior by reminding them of their positive traits, a technique psychologists call #39;self-affirmation.#39; In the study, people who were asked to write about times they had shown compassion later exhibited less superstitious behavior than those who had just been given a survey. 在乔哈尔和哈默曼最近发表的一篇研究中,他们发现可以通过提醒人们想起自己的优秀品质,来削弱他们的迷信倾向,这是一种被心理学家称作“自我肯定”的方法。在研究中,一些人先被要求写下能体现出自己富有同情心的经历,在随后的调查中,这些人比直接受调查者的迷信程度要小了许多。 All participants in the study answered obscure trivia questions on both blue and green computer backgrounds and were told, regardless of their actual score, that they performed better when answering questions presented on the green screen. When asked to choose the screen color for the final task, those who had been primed to remember their virtuous acts were less likely to choose the #39;lucky#39; green background. 全部受试者分别在蓝、绿色背景的电脑上回答了一些不起眼的小问题,并被告知(无论真实成绩如何)他们在绿色屏幕的那台电脑上的答题得分更高。当被问到想用什么颜色的屏幕来完成最终任务时,那些先前被提醒过自己所做善举的人们较不太会选择“幸运的”绿色背景。 Reminding people of their good traits makes them more emotionally secure, says Claude Steele, an early researcher into the psychology of self-affirmation and now a dean in Stanford University#39;s graduate school of education. #39;If I feel secure that I am a good person, I can be more open to threat in general, and that makes me less needful of being superstitious,#39; he adds. It isn#39;t that people no longer think their team will lose, or that they#39;ll fail a test, he says. Instead, self-affirmation makes them more psychologically resilient, and helps them realize they can cope even if something bad happens. 斯坦福大学教育研究生院院长斯蒂尔(Claude Steele)对自我肯定进行过早期心理学研究,他说提醒人们牢记自己的优秀品质能够让他们心里更有安全感。如果我确信自己是一个优秀的人,总体而言我可以更加勇敢地面对威胁,进而就更无须靠迷信来帮忙。他补充道,并不是说人们这样就坚信球队获胜或者考试通过。而是说自我肯定能够增强他们的心理抵抗力,帮助他们意识到即便有什么不好的事情发生,自己也能应付得了。 Still, for people under pressure to compete or perform, superstitious behavior can create a placebo effect that can improve the outcome. Since the age of 15, Maria Fabregat Farran, a 20-year-old student at the Autonomous University of Barcelona, has always worn a red bracelet while taking exams. #39;My mom gave it to me and said it was lucky, and wearing it makes me more relaxed,#39; she says. #39;I think it helps me on tests.#39; 尽管如此,如果人们肩负着竞争或尽力表现的压力,迷信行为可以催生出一种安慰剂效应(placebo effect),让他们的表现更加出色。巴塞罗那自治大学(Autonomous University of Barcelona)的20岁学生法兰(Maria Fabregat Farran)从15岁开始,每次考试都会带上一个红色的手镯。她说:我妈妈给我这个手镯,告诉我它有福气,戴着它我更放松。我觉得它能帮助我应对考试。 In a 2010 experiment published in Psychological Science, golfers sank 35% more putts when playing with a ball they were told was #39;lucky.#39; Sports teams from Little League to the pros are rife with players who practice a ritual or carry a charm they believe will boost their performance. Michael Jordan, for one, was famous for wearing his lucky college basketball shorts under his NBA ones. 据《心理科学》(Psychological Science)杂志2010年发表的一篇研究报告称,当高尔夫球手在被告知所用之球能带来好运时,他们的击球入洞率上升了35%。无论是职业球手还是美国少年棒球联合会(Little League)的小队员,都流行在比赛前举行祈福仪式或佩带一块护身符,因为相信这会让他们有更好的表现。篮球巨星乔丹(Michael Jordan)也有一个众所周知的习惯,那就是每次比赛都将他的幸运大学篮球短裤穿在NBA队的里面。 While conditioned superstitions affect personal behavior, cultural ones can impact the market at large. Some 10,000 fewer people fly on Friday the 13th, and U.S. businesses generate less revenue on those days compared with other Fridays, since some people don#39;t want to travel, work or make purchases, says Thomas Kramer, an associate professor of marketing at the University of South Carolina#39;s Moore School of Business. “条件性迷信”会影响个人行为,而文化迷信则会更广泛地影响着市场。南卡罗莱纳大学(University of South Carolina)尔商学院(Moore School of Business)市场营销副教授克雷默(Thomas Kramer)说,如果13号恰逢星期五,这天的航空出行乘客会减少约10,000人,这一天美国企业的创收也较其它周五要少,因为一些人在这一天不会出远门、工作或者购物。 In a study published in the Journal of Consumer Research in 2008, Dr. Kramer asked 95 students to write down their associations with either Friday the 13th or an innocuous day before answering questions about gambling decisions. His finding: After thinking about Friday the 13th, compared with a random day, participants became more risk-averse. #39;They were willing to forgo a gamble with a larger payoff in favor of a lower gamble with assured value,#39; he says. 在2008年《消费者研究》上发表的一篇研究中,克雷默让95名学生参与一场游戏,并在回答问题之前,让一部份人用纸笔把自己与恰逢星期五的13号联想起来,另一部份人则随便写下一个不晦气的日子。他发现:思索过13号周五的受试者比其他受试者的避险倾向更强。他说,相比一个高风险高回报的大赌,他们更倾向于有确定收益的小赌。 /201312/268157 A Chinese pharmaceutical company has received the green light from China’s State Food and Drug Administration to become the country’s first official producer of a homegrown version of Viagra, Pfizer’s famous erectile dysfunction drug.一家中国制药公司已得到国家食品药品监督批准,成为国内首家正式生产国产版本万艾可(Viagra)的厂家,万艾可是辉瑞公司(Pfizer)治疗勃起功能障碍的著名药物。Pfizer’s patent on Viagra expired in China in May, following patent expirations in several European countries and elsewhere that are expected to undercut profits for the American pharmaceutical giant as cheaper alternatives are rolled out.辉瑞公司的万艾可专利已于五月在中国到期,公司在几个欧洲国家和其他地区的专利此前也已陆续到期,预计随着便宜替代品的推出,这个美国制药业巨头的利润将受到侵蚀。Since May, Chinese companies have been vying with one another to emerge as the dominant player in the new market for generic versions of the pill. In the early stages of the competition, Guangzhou Baiyunshan Pharmaceutical appears to have emerged triumphant.五月份以来,几家中国企业一直在这个非专利药的新市场上相互争夺主导地位。在竞争的早期阶段,广州白云山制药总厂似乎胜出。After years of behind-the-scenes preparation, the company last week received the state production license that will allow it to start churning out sildenafil citrate, the active ingredient in Viagra. Guangzhou Baiyunshan, a subsidiary of the larger Guangzhou Pharmaceutical Holdings Limited, began developing its product in the 1990s, but had to hold off in 2003 when it was unable to get a production license because of the Pfizer patent, Nanfang Daily reported.经过多年的幕后准备工作,该公司上周获得了国家许可,将允许其开始批量生产枸橼酸西地那非,即万艾可的活性成分。据《南方日报》报道,广州白云山是更大的广州医药集团有限公司的下属公司,自20世纪90年代起就在研发自己的产品,但不得不在2003年推迟生产,因为辉瑞的专利,白云山没有得到生产许可。Chinese companies have spent the better part of two decades lying in wait for Pfizer’s patent to expire because profits in China’s erectile dysfunction drug sector are enormous and only expected to grow.在辉瑞公司的专利到期前的20年里,中国公司一直在虎视眈眈地等待着,因为中国的勃起功能障碍药物市场的利润巨大,而且预计只会增长。The “Investigation Report on China Sildenafil Market, 2009-2018” put out by China Market Research Reports estimates that more than 50 million men in China suffer from sexual dysfunction. The demand for a remedy is expected to rise along with the aging of China’s population. The ed Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs projects that by 2050 China will be home to 437 million people over the age of 60.中国市场研究报告(China Market Research Reports)发布的“中国西地那非市场2009-2018年调查报告”估计,中国有5千多万男性患性功能障碍。对治疗药物的需求预计将随着中国老龄人口的增长而上升。联合国经济及社会理事会预测,到2050年,中国60岁以上的人口将达到4.37亿。According to a Citigroup study cited by CN, the current Chinese erectile dysfunction drug market is worth 1.7 billion renminbi a year. This could reach as much as 5 billion renminbi, or 0 million, by 2018, it said, and generic versions of Viagra could take more than half the market. Whereas Viagra is sold in China at more than 90 renminbi, or almost , a pill, Baiyunshan plans to market its own version for between 30 to 50 renminbi, giving it a serious competitive advantage.据CN援引的花旗集团(Citigroup)的一项研究,目前中国勃起功能障碍药物市场的价值是每年17亿元人民币。报告称,到2018年,这个市场价值可高达50亿元人民币,或8.1亿美元,万艾可的仿制药可能获得这个市场的一半还多。万艾可在中国的售价是每片90多元人民币,约合将近15美元,白云山计划向市场推出的仿制药的售价是每片30至50元人民币,具有极大的竞争优势。Viagra was introduced to China in 1998, but Pfizer faced a range of challenges to its patent and other litigation until 2007. One of the greatest obstacles the company faced in marketing the drug to Chinese consumers was that it did not own the trademark on its most commonly used Chinese name, “Wei Ge (伟哥),” which sounds somewhat like the English while literally translating to “Great Older Brother,” or “Big Guy.” When Pfizer tried to trademark the colloquial Chinese term for its product, it discovered that that name was aly owned by a local pharmaceutical company in Guangzhou and so was left with the lackluster transliteration “Wan Ai Ke (万艾可),” which has no particular Chinese meaning.万艾可在1998年进入中国市场,辉瑞曾面临过从专利到其他诉讼等一系列挑战,直至2007年。公司向中国消费者推销该药所面临的最大挑战是,它不拥有自己药品最常用的中国名“伟哥”的商标,这个名称听起来与英文名接近,字面的意思是“大哥哥”或“大家伙”。当辉瑞试图把这个中国口语名称注册为其产品商标时,它发现那个商标已被广州一家当地制药公司拥有,所以只能给药品注册了枯燥的音译名“万艾可”,这个名称没有中文的特别意义。Baiyunshan clearly seeks to mimic the mainland success of “Wei Ge” by naming its product “Jin Ge (金戈),” which means “Golden Dagger-Axe.” This serves up a witty reference to Pfizer’s “Big Guy” in terms of pronunciation while conjuring the image of the phallic, L-shaped blade favored by warriors in the Shang through Han dynasties.白云山显然想通过将其产品命名为“金戈”来模仿“伟哥”在中国大陆的成功,新名字在发音上与辉瑞的“大家伙”诙谐地相似,而且“戈”这种受到从商代到汉朝的武士喜爱的勾形刀,让人联想起阴茎的形象。This clear mimicry in both product and marketing is an indication, however, of the Chinese pharmaceutical industry’s weakness, according to an article in China Youth Daily. It ed Long Yongtu, who was the lead negotiator on China’s entry into the World Trade Organization, as saying in 2006 that 90 percent of the 5,000 or so large and small pharmaceutical companies in China produced only generics, and their combined annual sales revenue totaled less than billion, less than that of a single company of Pfizer’s size. In 2013, Pfizer took in .3 billion globally.然而,从《中国青年报》的一篇文章来看,在产品和营销上的这种明显模仿行为,是中国医药行业薄弱的表现。文章引用中国加入世界贸易组织谈判的首席代表龙永图2006年的话说,中国有大大小小5000多家制药企业,其中90%以上生产仿制药,所有药企的总产值加在一起不到400亿美元,比不上辉瑞一家的。2013年,辉瑞公司在全球的营业收入是513亿美元。Nearly a decade later, Chinese pharmaceutical companies are still more eager to imitate than innovate, shying away from the huge investments and risks of developing new drugs in favor of the certain returns from imitating tried-and-true blockbuster drugs or repackaging existing formulas. According to China Youth Daily, Chinese pharmaceuticals on average still invest less than 1 percent of their budget in research and development, despite recent government incentives.将近十年过去了,中国的制药企业仍热衷于模仿,而不愿创新,企业避开巨大的资金投入及开发新药的风险,选择靠模仿经过检验的成功畅销药、或重新包装现有成分来获得确定的回报。据《中国青年报》文章,尽管政府最近推出了奖励措施,中国医药企业平均投资在研发上的钱不到预算的1%。Generics are nonetheless better alternatives for penny-pinching consumers than the knock-offs that abound in China, as they are subject to governmental regulation and contain the same active ingredients and dosage as the original drug. Time will tell if those who prefer traditional Chinese medicine virility treatments such as pangolin scales or tiger penis will be swayed by the new “Golden Dagger-Ax” on the market.虽然如此,对想省钱的消费者来说,仿制药仍比中国无所不在的假货好得多,因为仿制药受到政府监管,含有相同的活性成分,剂量也与原药相同。那些更喜欢传统的中国壮阳药,比如穿山甲鳞片或虎鞭的人,是否会被市场上新的“金戈”征,有待时间明。 /201409/328360哈尔滨摘节育环要多少钱哈尔滨市立医院联系电话

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