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在厦门地区市中医院痘痘厦门省一院门诊医生厦门光子脱毛哪家整形好 As a design student at the Norwich School of Art in the early 1970s, Mark Allen watched the weather broadcast every afternoon on the B. Back then, TV presenters slid magnetic symbols around a metal map: dots for rain, asterisks for snow, lines to mark off areas of equal pressure. ;They were just hieroglyphics as far as everybody was concerned,; Allen says. ;Why was a triangle a rain shower?;20世纪70年代初,在诺维奇艺术学院念书的马克·艾伦(Mark Allen)每天下午都会看英国广播公司(B)的天气预报。当时电视主持人在金属地图上摆弄带吸铁石的符号:点状物代表下雨,星号代表下雪,用线条标记大气压同等的地区。“人们会觉得这些符号不好懂。”For his final project in 1974, Allen set out to make weather icons more intuitive. He looked to a set of pictograms by Otl Aicher, who devised spare, thick-lined figures for the 1972 Olympic Games. Allen used a similar style to trace a puffy cloud, adding simple icons to the bottom edge: rain droplets, lightning bolts, rays of sun. ;The main vehicle was the cloud, and I hung everything off that,; he says. The B adopted Allen#39;s iconography in 1975, in exchange for 200 pounds and a small percentage of license fees. His drawings stayed on the air for 30 years.1974年,艾伦的毕业设计令天气符号显得更加直观。他参考了奥托·艾舍(Otl Aicher)的一套小图标——艾舍为1972年奥运会设计了一系列简单、粗线条的人物标记。最后,艾伦使用类似风格画出一块蓬松的云朵,在底部补充了一些简单的符号:雨滴、闪电、阳光。“最主要的载体是云朵,然后把其他东西附在上面,”他说。1975年,B以200镑和极小的分成比例买下了艾伦这套符号的使用权。他所绘制的符号在电视上出现了30年。They were neither the first nor the last weather icons, but they were perhaps the most elegant. For decades, weather maps had been cluttered with technical notation. The first commercial weather map, sent out by the U.S. Weather Bureau in 1910, represented cloud conditions with empty and filled circles and the wind with tiny arrows. By 1912, these maps were reproduced in more than 100 cities. The symbols grew less obscure, says Mark Monmonier, a historian and geographer at Syracuse University, when competition among wire services, which started sending out weather maps in the #39;30s, led to simpler, more attractive designs.它们并不是第一组天气符号,也不是最后一组,但它们或许是最简洁优美的一组。几十年来,气象地图上乱糟糟地堆满各种技术符号。1910年,美国气象局发行了第一份商业气象地图,用空心和实心的圆圈来代表云层分布状况,用小箭头来代表风。1912年,这些地图在100多个城市再版。20世纪30年代,各大通讯社之间展开竞争,雪城大学的历史学家兼地理学家马克·蒙莫尼尔(Mark Monmonier)说,它们纷纷刊登气象图,因此所用的符号不再那么含糊,开始使用更简单、更有吸引力的图标设计。Weathermen often drew their maps as cameras rolled, using wax pencils or felt-tip markers, until the 1970s, when, as Allen#39;s weather icons were adopted at the B, U.S. stations tried their own stick-on, magnetic symbols. The advent of computer graphics in the 1980s brought more standardized, low-res icons: ;You only had 16 colors that you could put on the graphic,; says Mike Nelson, a Denver meteorologist who worked for a company called ColorGraphics Weather Systems. ;You couldn#39;t be all that creative.;面对镜头,天气播报员经常用蜡笔或记号笔在气象图上勾画,20世纪70年代,艾伦的天气符号被B采用的同时,美国电视台也开始使用它们自己的磁铁天气符号。20世纪80年代,电脑制图的出现带来了更多标准化的、低度的天气符号:“只有16种色可以上色,”丹佛的气象学家,在“图气象系统”公司工作的麦克·尼尔森(Mike Nelson)说,“所以没法太有创意。”By the late 1980s, computer systems were advanced enough that stations could select their own custom-made graphics. And when weather forecasts made their way to websites and mobile apps, things became even more customized. Around 2000, a government meteorologist in Texas named Dennis Cain made a set of icons from photographs — rainy streets, wind turbines, headlights in the fog — which became the standard images on weather.gov.到20世纪80年代末,电脑系统有了长足的进步,电视台可以选择自行定制的天气符号。当天气预报出现在网络和移动应用上之后,这些符号就更加个性化了。2000年前后,得克萨斯州一个名叫丹尼斯·凯恩(Dennis Cain)的政府气象学家用照片做了一套符号——下雨的街道、旋风、大雾中的汽车灯光——它们成了weather.gov网站的标准符号。Like other weather icons, Cain#39;s have fierce adherents. When the National Weather Service said it might swap the photo icons for more conventional figures, it received 18,000 comments in the first few days — most angry. The B faced similar outrage when it retired Allen#39;s icons in 2005. Weather symbols ;can get very controversial very quickly,; says Robert Bunge, who was the director of Internet services for the National Weather Service at the time. ;You can get buried in it.;和其他天气符号一样,凯恩的符号也有不少拥趸。当国家气象务中心声称可能会用更传统的符号换掉这套照片符号后,一天内就收到18000个,大多数都对此表示愤怒。2005年,B换掉艾伦那套符号时也面临了同样的愤怒。天气符号“会迅速引发争议”,国家气象务中心当时的主管罗伯特·邦格(Robert Bunge)说,“争议激烈到能把你埋起来。” /201409/327682AMONG the mysteries of evolution, one of the most profound is what exactly happened at the beginning of the Cambrian period. Before that period, which started 541m years ago and ran on for 56m years, life was a modest thing. Bacteria had been around for about 3 billion years, but for most of this time they had had the Earth to themselves. Seaweed s, jellyfish -like creatures, sponges and the odd worm do start to put in an appearance a few million years before the Cambrian begins. But red in tooth and claw the Precambrian was not—for neither teeth nor claws existed.进化悬案中,最具深远意义的是寒武纪的起源问题。寒武纪之前(即5.41亿年前,连续的5600万年)物种较少。细菌已经出现了30亿年,在这段时间里地球只有它们相伴。在寒武纪到来前的几百万年前,海草、水母类生物、海绵和怪蚯蚓开始露面。但红牙利爪生物在寒武纪前没有出现过。Then, in the 20m-year blink of a geological eye, animals arrived in force . Most of the main groups of the animal kingdom—arthropod s, brachiopod s, coelenterates , echinoderm s, molluscs and even chordate s, the branch from which vertebrate s went on to develop—are found in the fossil beds of the Cambrian. The sudden evolution of this megafauna is known as the Cambrian explosion. But two centuries after it was noticed, in the mountains of Wales after which the Cambrian period is named, nobody knows what detonated it.接着,2000万年的一眨眼时间里,大规模动物降临。人们在寒武纪化石床里发现了动物王国的主要动物集群,包括腕足、腔肠、棘皮、软体和脊索(脊椎动物进化的分)。寒武爆发以巨型动物群的急剧进化著称。当其被发现的两个世纪以后,在寒武纪命名的威尔士山,没有人知晓爆发的原因。A group of Chinese scientists, led by Zhu Maoyan of the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, plan to change that with a project called “From the Snowball Earth to the Cambrian explosion: the evolution of life and environment 600m years ago”. The “Snowball Earth” refers to a series of ice ages that happened between 725m and 541m years ago. These were, at their maxima, among the most extensive glaciations in the Earth’s history. They alternated, though, with periods that make the modern tropics seem chilly: the planet’s average temperature was sometimes as high as 50°C. Add the fact that a supercontinent (illustrated above, viewed from the Earth’s south pole) was breaking up at this time, and you have a picture of a world in chaos. Just the sort of thing that might drive evolution. Dr Zhu and his colleagues hope to find out exactly how these environmental changes correspond to changes in the fossil record.一个中国科学家团队——以朱茂炎为首的南京地质古生物所,计划启动名为“从冰雪地球至寒武爆发:6亿年前的生命进化与环境”,以改变现场。“冰雪地球”指发生在7.25亿至5.41亿年前的一系列冰河时代。这些时期的高峰段是地球历史上冰川运动最广泛的时候。尽管冰川活动在这些时期交替发生,使现代热带地区看起来很冷,但地球的平均温度有时也会高达50摄氏度。加上超大陆(如上图所示,位于南极附近)在这段时期分裂,便可想象得到此时的世界该是多么混乱的一幅图画。只有一些物种会进行进化。朱士和他的同僚们希望准确找出这些环境变化在化石记录中所对应的变化。The animals’ carnival 动物嘉年华Fortunately, China’s fossil record for this period is rich. Until recently, the only known fossils of Precambrian animals were what is called the Ediacaran fauna—a handful of strange creatures found in Australia, Canada and the English Midlands that lived in the Ediacaran period, between 635m and 541m years ago, and which bear little resemblance to what came afterwards. In 1998, however, a team led by Chen Junyuan, also of the Nanjing Institute, and another led by Xiao Shuhai of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute, in America, discovered a 580m-year-old Lagerst#228;tte—a place where fossils are particularly well preserved—in a geological formation called the Doushantuo, which sps out across southern China.幸运的是,中国这一地期的化石记录倒丰富。直到最近,唯一被人们发现的前寒武纪的动物化石叫做埃迪卡拉动物群——在澳大利亚、加拿大和英国内陆发现的生活在埃迪卡拉纪时期(6.35亿至5.41亿年间)的奇怪生物,它们被实与后来的生物没有一点相似之处。然而,1998年,南京地质古生物所的陈均远队和美国弗吉尼亚工学院带肖书海队,发现了另一个5.8亿年前的寒武纪宝库,该地化石保存良好,叫做陡山沱组地层,其分布在中国南部地区。Portents of the modern world 现代世界的先兆This Lagerst#228;tte has yielded many previously unknown species, including microscopic sponges, small tubular organisms of unknown nature, things that look like jellyfish but might not be and a range of what appear to be embryos that show bilateral symmetry (pictured right). What these embryos would have grown into is unclear. But some might be the ancestors of the Cambrian megafauna.该化石宝库发现了许多不为人所知的物种,包括微型海绵动物,未知的自然小型管状结构,像水母但又不是,显示出两个对称的胚胎(右图所示)。这些胚胎将演变成什么目前尚未可知。但是有些可能是寒武纪巨型动物群的先祖。To try to link the evolution of these species with changes in the environment, Chu Xuelei of the Institute of Geology and Geophysics in Beijing and his colleagues have been looking at carbon isotopes in the Doushantuo rocks. They have found that the proportion of #185;#178;C—a light isotope of carbon that is more easily incorporated by living organisms into organic matter than its heavy cousin, #185;#179;C—increased on at least three occasions during the Ediacaran period. They suggest these increases mark moments when the amount of oxygen in seawater went up, because more oxygen would mean more oxidisation of buried organic matter. That would liberate its #185;#178;C, for incorporation into rocks.为了将这些物种的进化与环境的变化联系起来,北京地质和物理研究的所楚学雷和他的同僚们在陡山沱组岩石里看到了碳同位素。他们已经发现,有机体中的碳12比其同胞碳13更易于与有机化合物结合,在埃迪卡拉纪可增加至少3倍。他们认为,这些增长记录了氧在海水中上升的数量,因为更多的氧气意味着更多的有机化合物氧化。那将释放碳12,与岩石结合。Each of Dr Chu’s oxidation events corresponds with an increase in the size, complexity and diversity of life, both plant and animal. What triggered what, however, is unclear. There may have been an increase in photosynthesis because there were more algae around. Or eroded material from newly formed mountains may have buried organic matter that would otherwise have reacted with oxygen, leading to a build-up of the gas.楚士的每一个氧化活动都伴随着植物和动物的生命形状、复杂性和多样性的增加。然而,触发的原因仍是个谜。由于周围的水藻变多了,可能会增加光合作用。或者是来自新形成的山体中腐蚀的材料在消化有机化合物时,会呼出氧气,形成气体。The last—and most dramatic—rise in oxygen took place towards the end of the Ediacaran. Follow-up work by Dr Zhu, in nine other sections of the Doushantuo formation, suggests this surge started just after the final Precambrian glacial period about 560m years ago, and went on for 9m years. These dates overlap with those of signs of oxidation found in rocks in other parts of the world, confirming that whatever was going on affected the entire planet. Dr Zhu suspects this global environmental shift propelled the evolution of complex animals.埃迪卡拉纪末期出现了最后且是最剧烈的氧气增加。根据朱士对陡山沱组地质层其他九个部分的研究,他认为氧气的增加正好发生在5.6亿年前的前寒武纪冰河时期,并持续了约900万前。这些日期正好世界其他地区发现的岩石氧化迹象吻合,实了所发生的一切影响了整个地球。朱士猜想全球的环境变化促使了复杂动物的进化。Dr Zhu also plans to push back before the Ediacaran period. Other researchers have found fossils of algae and wormlike creatures in rocks in northern China that pre-date the end of the Marinoan glaciation, 635m years ago, which marks the boundary between the Ediacaran and the Cryogenian period that precedes it. (The Cryogenian began 850m years ago.) Such fossils are hard to study, so Dr Zhu will use new imaging technologies that can look at them without having to clean away the surrounding rock, and are also able to detect traces of fossil organic matter invisible to the eye.朱士还计划将研究倒推至埃迪卡拉纪以前。其他研究者已在中国北部地区的岩石里发现水藻化石和蚯蚓类生物,是6.35亿年前的冰河世纪末,标志埃迪卡拉纪和成冰系时期的界限前移。(成冰系开始于8.5亿年前)。这样的化石很难研究,所以朱士将运用新型影像工程学看到它们,无需清楚化石周围的岩石,并能肉眼找到有机化合物化石的足迹。Besides digging back before the Ediacaran, the new project’s researchers also intend to analyse the unfolding of the Cambrian explosion itself by taking advantage of otherLagerst#228;tten—for China has several that date from the Cambrian. Dr Chen, indeed, first made his name in 1984, when he excavated one at Chengjiang in Yunnan province. It dates from 525m years ago, which make it 20m years older than the most famous Cambrian Lagerst#228;tte in the West, the Burgess shale of British Columbia, in Canada. The project’s researchers plan to see how, evolutionarily speaking, the variousLagerst#228;tten relate to one another, to try to determine exactly when different groups of organisms emerged.除了挖掘出埃迪卡拉纪以前的项目,新的项目的研究者们还想要利用化其他化石宝库(因为中国存在着许多来自寒武纪的化石宝库)分析寒武纪爆发的演变。陈士最早因1984年考察到了云南省澄江生物群而出名。云南澄江生物群起源于5.25年前,比西方最著名的寒武纪化石宝库“不列颠哥伦比亚伯吉斯生物群”(加拿大)早了2000万年。项目的研究者们想知道不同的化石宝库如何与其他相关联,并试图准确确定不同有机生物群体出现的时间。They will also look at the chemistry of elements other than carbon and oxygen—particularly nitrogen and phosphorous, which are essential to life, and sulphur, which often indicates the absence of oxygen and is thus antithetical to much animal life. Dr Zhu hopes to map changes in the distribution of these chemicals across time and space. He will assess how these changes correlate, whether they are related to weathering, mountain building and the ebb and flow of glaciers, how they could have affected the evolution of life, and how plants and animals might themselves have altered the chemistry of air and sea.他们也想研究除了碳和氧的其他化学元素——尤其氮和磷,哪一个对生命来说是必要的;且硫表明其缺少氧将对大部分动物有害。朱士希望能绘制出这些化学元素在时间和空间中的分布变化图。他也将估定这些变化如何相互关联,它们是否与风化、山体建造和冰川的潮汐有关,它们如何能影响到生命的进化,植物和动物如何改变空气和大海的化学成分。Most ambitiously, Dr Zhu, Dr Xiao and their colleagues hope to drill right through several fossiliferous sites in southern China where Ediacaran rocks turn seamlessly into Cambrian ones. Such places are valuable because in most parts of the world there is a gap, known as an unconformity, between the Ediacaran and the Cambrian. Unconformities are places where rocks have been eroded before new ones are deposited, and the widesp Ediacaran-Cambrian unconformity has been a big obstacle to understanding the Cambrian explosion. With luck, then, a mystery first noticed in the Welsh mountains in the early 19th century will be solved in the Chinese ones in the early 21st. If it is, the origin of the animal kingdom will have become clear, and an important gap in the history of humanity itself will have been filled.朱士、肖士及他们的同僚们最有抱负的是,希望在中国南部地区,在埃迪古拉纪岩石与寒武纪岩石交替的化石遗址中进行钻测。由于世界的大部分的此地区都有裂缝,即不整合面,因此埃迪古拉纪和寒武纪之间的这些地方是变化多样的。不整合面的岩石早在新岩石产生前就已经腐蚀,埃迪古拉纪-寒武纪之间广布不整合面,它们是研究寒武爆发的巨大阻碍。幸运的是,19世纪早期首先在威尔士山脉被发现的一个秘密将解答21世纪中国人想要知道的问题。果真如此,动物王国的起源将逐渐清晰,人类历史的一个重要鸿沟将被填平。 /201303/231764福州市中医医院割双眼皮手术多少钱

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厦门中山医院激光美白Japanese researchers on Friday unveiled a population clock that showed the nation#39;s people could theoretically become extinct in 1,000 years because of declining birth rates.日本研究人员上周五发布了一个人口倒计时钟,该时钟显示,由于出生率持续下降,理论上日本人将于1000年后灭绝。Academics in the northern city of Sendai said that Japan#39;s population of children aged up to 14, which now stands at 16.6 million, is shrinking at the rate of one every 100 seconds.日本北部城市仙台的学者称,日本14岁以下儿童人口目前为1660万,正在以每100秒1个的速度减少。Their extrapolations pointed to a Japan with no children left within a millennium.学者们的推断指出,日本在1000年后将没有儿童。;If the rate of decline continues, we will be able to celebrate the Children#39;s Day public holiday on May 5, 3011 as there will be one child,; said Hiroshi Yoshida, an economics professor at Tohoku University.日本东北大学的经济学教授吉田浩说:“按这种下降速度,到3011年5月5日我们将剩下一名儿童,仍能庆祝儿童节。”;But 100 seconds later there will be no children left,; he said. ;The overall trend is towards extinction, which started in 1975 when Japan#39;s fertility rate fell below two.;他说:“但再过100秒,日本将没有儿童。自从1975年日本生育率降到每名育龄妇女两个孩子以内,走向灭绝便成了总体趋势。”Yoshida said he created the population clock to encourage ;urgent; discussion of the issue.吉田说他创立这一人口钟是为了鼓励人们“紧急”开展关于这一问题的讨论。Another study released earlier this year showed Japan#39;s population is expected to shrink to a third of its current 127.7 million over the next century.今年早些时候发布的另一项研究显示,下世纪日本人口将缩减到现有人口(1.277亿)的三分之一。Government projections show the birth rate will hit just 1.35 children per woman within 50 years, well below the replacement rate.政府预测显示,50年内日本生育率将降至每名妇女1.35个小孩,大大低于人口替换率。Meanwhile, life expectancy -- aly one of the highest in the world -- is expected to rise from 86.39 years in 2010 to 90.93 years in 2060 for women and from 79.64 years to 84.19 years for men.与此同时,日本已然是世界第一的人口寿命将进一步延长。日本女性的平均寿命将从2010年的86.39岁增加到2060年的90.93岁,而日本男性的寿命将从2010年的79.64岁增加到2060年的84.19岁。More than 20 percent of Japan#39;s people are aged 65 or over, one of the highest proportions of elderly in the world.超过20%的日本人年龄在65岁以上(含65岁),是世界上老年人口比例最大的国家之一。Japan has very little immigration and any suggestion of opening the borders to young workers who could help plug the population gap provokes strong reactions among the public.日本的外来移民很少,向外国年轻工人开放边境能帮助填补人口差距,但这种提议总是会激起民众的强烈反应。The greying population is a headache for policymakers who are faced with trying to ensure an ever-dwindling pool of workers can pay for a growing number of pensioners.老龄化人口是让决策者头疼的事情,他们面临着如何用不断减少的劳动人口付的养老金来养活越来越多的退休老人的问题。But for some Japanese companies the inverting of the traditional ageing pyramid provides commercial opportunities.然而,对一些日本公司而言,传统老龄化金字塔结构的这一倒转提供了商机。Unicharm said Friday that sales of its adult diapers had ;slightly surpassed; those for babies in the financial year to March, for the first time since the company moved into the seniors market.日本尤妮佳公司上周五称,在截止到三月的上一个财政年度中,成人尿布的销量“略微超过了”婴儿尿布的销量,这在该公司进军老年人市场后是首次。 /201205/182797 福建厦门二院如何厦门有整形三甲医院



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