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2019年10月18日 10:41:35 | 作者:爱问在线 | 来源:新华社
Science and technology科学和技术Pesticides农药Smoking them out把它们熏死Tobacco extracts protect plants from pests and pathogens烟草提取物可用于植物病虫害THERE are, as Paracelsus put it, no poisons—only poisonous doses.巴拉赛尔士曾说:世上其实没有毒药,所谓的毒性只是剂量变化引起的而已。That is certainly true of nicotine.对于尼古丁,这当然是确切无疑的。The amount in a puff from a cigarette acts as a pleasant stimulus.吸一口烟你可能会觉得神清气爽,The amount in a packet of 20, injected in one go, would kill you.但是如果一次性注射一包20烟的尼古丁剂量,可是会要了你的命的。The Victorians understood this and regularly used nicotine as a lethal poison—not for people except in the minds of a few crime novelists but for insects.维多利亚时代的人明白这一点,并且已经把尼古丁作为一种常见的致命毒药来使用—不是用来杀人除了在一些犯罪小说家的构思中,而是用来杀虫。The invention of modern, synthetic insecticides has more or less killed that practice off.而现代合成杀虫剂的发明在一定程度上结束了尼古丁的使命。But Cedric Briens of the University of Western Ontario is thinking of reviving it, and is also asking whether tobacco has any other pesticidal properties that might be exploited by the hard-pressed horticulturalist.现在,西安大略大学的塞德里克?布里安则又在考虑重新启用尼古丁,同时在设法验烟草是否还有其他杀虫功能,期望可为饱受病虫害之苦的园艺家所利用。To find out, Dr Briens and his colleagues at Canadas agriculture ministry ground up dried tobacco leaves using a blender and a sieve.为此,布里安士和他在加拿大农业部的同事们用搅拌机和筛子将烟叶碾碎,They then heated the result in a pressurised, oxygen-free environment to distil out what they could in the form of a treacly oil.然后将碾碎后的烟叶在高压、无氧环境下加热,提取出一种以粘稠油状存在的物质。They tested this oil on 11 species of fungus and four types of bacterium that are common agricultural problems.他们用这种油对农业中常见的11种真菌和4种杆菌,They also tried it on the larvae of Colorado beetles, a notorious pest of potatoes.以及一种常见的令人闻之生厌的马铃薯害虫—科罗拉多甲虫进行了试验。As they report in Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research,他们的研究结果发表在《工业化学与工程化学研究》上。the researchers found that several pestilential organisms were affected by the oil.研究报告显示这种油对好几种有害的有机生物有作用。Specifically they discovered that Pythium ultimum, a fungus that attacks aubergines, peppers, lettuces, tomatoes and cucumbers as seedlings,研究明确地发现,在这种油的作用下,危害幼苗期茄子、青椒、莴苣、番茄、黄瓜的真菌,Clavibacter michiganensis, a bacterium that kills young plants and deforms fruits, and Streptomyces scabies,腐霉病菌,可使幼苗致死、果实畸形的杆菌—马铃薯环腐病菌,以及另一种导致马铃薯烂痂病,a second bacterium, which causes potatoes to develop revolting scabs and for which no treatment currently exists, all stopped growing in the presence of the oil.且目前没有有效防治方法的杆菌—疥链霉菌,均被抑制生长。The beetle larvae, too, were killed—though that was no surprise, since the oil contained a lot of nicotine.此外,甲虫幼虫也可被杀死—这其实是意料之中的,因为这种油里含有大量的尼古丁。What was a surprise was that removing this nicotine did not diminish the oils effectiveness against bacteria and fungi, and made it only marginally less effective against beetle larvae.但意料之外的是,将这种油去除后,对细菌和真菌的影响作用却并没有降低,只是对甲虫幼虫的作用在一定程度上减轻了。The crude oil killed all of the larvae whereas the nicotine-free stuff left a fifth of them alive after two days.布满这种油的环境中,所有的甲虫幼虫都被杀死,散乱分布的情况下,两天后也只有五分之一存活。Clearly, there are other pesticides at work, and finding what they are is the next task.显然,其它具有杀虫作用的物质在起作用,下一步任务就是找出这些物质。Meanwhile tobacco has proved itself a more useful substance than even the Victorians realised. Can its rehabilitation be far off?这些发现明了烟草不止可以用来做香烟,它甚至具有比维多利亚时代的发现更大的作用。如此,烟草的这种“复兴”还会远吗? /201302/224689Books and Arts; Book Review; English landscape;Up hill, down dale文艺;书评;书卷中的英伦风光;风光无限好 TOM FORT pedals down the A303 in Britain’s soft south. Paul Barker trudges round Hebden Bridge in the hard north. Both writers are seeking something distinctive about their chosen places. By the same token, both are sensitive to the idea of “non-place”, a phrase Mr Fort uses to describe service stations, shopping centres, airports and the space-bubbles inhabited by drivers. Mr Barker does not name it, but he nonetheless conveys his sense of the same thing—at the fancy grocer’s, selling Japanese wakame and cranberry pressé, or the executive houses with stone bed-warmers on the windowsill and Range Rovers in the drive. These places might be anywhere or, for his purposes, nowhere.Tom Fort 骑自行车从英国平坦的南部A303道顺道而下。Paul Barker在崎岖的北部的Hebden Bridge附近艰难跋涉。两位作家都在寻找他们所选择的地点的独特之处。同样的,二者都敏感关注 “非场所” 这个概念:Fort 用“非场所”来称呼务站、购物中心、机场或车手居住的“太空泡泡车”;Barker虽然没有使用“非场所”这个词,但他却表达了同一种概念:在销售日本若目和蔓越橘调酒苏打水的花里胡哨的小店铺、窗台上放着暖床石壶的;行政;别墅,路途中的揽胜越野车。这些地方既可以是任何地方,而相对他的所求目标,又或根本不存在。 Both try not to be nostalgic, but in the end neither can help himself. The conflict is roughest in “Hebden Bridge”, partly because the author himself is implicated. He grew up there and in neighbouring Mytholmroyd. Back in the 1940s the place was “enwrappe”, as he puts it, in “the old ways”. Weaving mills and sewing factories that had claimed generations of his family were still in business, oblivious to their coming collapse. Mr Barker then made the now classic move, the first in his family, to leave home for university, and never come back, except to visit.两者都尽量使自己不要太过于怀揣着乡愁,然而,他们最终都情不自已。这一冲突在《Hebden Bridge》一书中表现得尤为突出,有部分原因是因为Barker本人与此地有着千丝万缕的联系。这儿以及附近的Mytholmroyd是他成长的地方。追溯到二十世纪四十年代,按他的说法,这里曾以“老传统方式”“缠绕着”生存。那些让他的家族数代人为之操劳的纺织业与装厂虽然运作如常,却没有预料到它们随后倒闭的命运。于是,Barker作出了(现在再普通不过的)举动:他成为家中第一个离乡进大学的人,并且除了探访便不再回来了。 Meanwhile, others came in, “offcomers”, with new ways—hippies, artists, pagans—just in the nick of time, as the demolition balls were swinging and the stone terraces falling. They squatted and protested. The planners retreated. Bookshops sprang up; mills and chapels became workshops, galleries and flats—then luxury flats, bringing different newcomers. With great foresight, in the late 1970s Mr Barker began to tape-record the old inhabitants, whose stories now fill the most interesting pages of his book.在同一时刻,(拆迁机上的)吊锤在空中来回摇晃撞击,大理石的阳台坠落尘土,在这千钧一发之际,“外来者”——嬉皮士,艺术家,异教徒以一种新潮的方式涌入当地,他们占据旧址以示抗议。规划者撤退了下去;新书店则纷纷开张,磨坊和小教堂变成了工厂,画廊和公寓(之后是那些奢侈公寓)迎来了新人落户。Barker卓有远见,早在二十世纪七十年代末,他就开始用录音带录下那些老居民的故事,现在那些故事占据了他书中最有趣的章节。 Mr Barker has also taped an ageing hippy, a graphics designer, a tattoo lady, puppeteers and others, for he knows how much the place owes to them. But the book only really comes alive when he is talking to the old sexton or the weavers who started work at 13 (part-time at 11). Mr Barker knows these people and they know him—and his uncles and cousins. They speak easily, casually, slipping out the detail that hits the spot: the smell of corduroy in the sewing room; a jar taken to the grocer for “a ha’p’orth[注10] of treacle”; words to a mill child (the author’s father) for steadying himself with one hand and working with the other—“Barker, we pay thee to use two hands.”Barker也同样录下了一位老嬉皮士,一个平面设计师,一位纹身女,一些玩木偶剧的人,因为他清楚这片土地亏欠了他们(这些人对家乡的维护之恩)。但是,只有当Barker在与教堂司事或者那些从13岁开始做纺织工(兼职从11岁开始)交谈时,这本书才真正生动起来。他了解这些人,这些人也了解他,还有他的叔叔们以及表兄弟们。他们轻松而随意地交谈,言语中不经意间就道出了那些应景的细节:缝纫车间灯芯绒的气味、一只被带到杂货铺要求装上半便士糖浆的罐子、对那个用一只手稳定身体用另一只手工作的磨坊童工(即作者的父亲)说的话——“巴克,我们付你工资可是要用两只手工作的。” Tom Fort’s book, named for a well-used English road, is a smoother ride: elegantly written, with a dry humour and an eyebrow raised at the failed “smart solutions” of transport ministers. His object is to reveal the special beauty of the landscape, particularly Salisbury Plain[ and Stonehenge (pictured). Mr Fort is a charming and knowledgeable guide, who can people the hills with shepherds, and the manors and rectories with eccentric antiquarians; who can tell you about an ancient system for flooding water meadows or the common names of chalk-loving flowers and butterflies. It is enough to make Wiltshire your next holiday destination.Tom Fort的书以一条常被使用的英国公路命名,并且有着更为流畅的内容:优雅的笔触,带着些冷幽默,使读者在读到交通部长失败的“聪明解决方案”时扬起眉毛。他的目的是为了展现了风景的特殊的美丽,特别是索尔兹伯里原野和巨石阵。Fort是一个富有魅力且极具知识的向导,他可以与牧羊人一起居住在山丘上,也可以与性情古怪的古玩收藏家一起居住在庄园中。他也可以向你讲述无边草甸的古老制度或是喜钙的花朵或蝴蝶的常用名。这些都足够使威尔特郡成为你下一次度假的目的地。 The bits that stick, though, are his “non-places”: the Little Chef restaurant at Popham, Amesbury’s Solstice Park, a business development, and above all a hilarious riff on “The Ancestor”, a huge sculpture outside a Holiday Inn—itself an example of “Neolithic chic”, the brochure says. “Very boutiquey, very contemporary.”然而,当论该书令人按卷难忘之处,都是Fort所谓的“非场所”:据小册子上所述,波帕姆的小厨师餐厅,埃姆斯伯里冬至公园,一桩生意的开发。“所”中之最是一句对假日酒店外一座巨大雕塑“祖先”的,令人捧腹——雕塑本身就是一个典型的“新石器时代的时尚女”,介绍手册上如是说:它“非常精品,非常现代”。201207/188807Science and Technology Premarital sex The waiting game科技 婚前性行为 等待的游戏Chastity before marriage may have its uses after all婚前守贞可能的确有作用WHEN is it the right time to do the deed?什么时候做爱做的事情合适呢?If priests had their way, it would be shortly after the wedding ceremony—but recent studies show such advice is rarely heeded.如果让神父们来说,这档事应当发生在在结婚典礼的不久之后——但是最近的研究显示,这样的建议很少得到人们的重视。Roughly 85% of the American population, for example, approves of premarital sex.比如说,大约85%的美国人赞同婚前性行为。Faced with numbers like that, what hope do the Vatican and its ilk really have?面对这样子的数据,梵蒂冈和它的同仁们又到底是做何想法呢?More than they did a week ago. Until now, the argument that couples should wait until they are married before they have sex has rested on mere assertion and anecdote.相对于已在一周前亲热过的情侣来说,现今依旧认为夫妇应将童贞留于婚后的论调,已仅仅成了一种口头宣言或是奇闻轶事。Dean Busby and his colleagues at Brigham Young University, in Utah, however, have gathered some data which support delay.然而,犹他州杨百翰大学的院长Busby和他的同事却收集了一些数据来持延迟(婚前的)性行为的做法。Fabian tactics费边战术Little is known about the influence of sexual timing on how relationships develop.目前,还不清楚性交往的时间节奏安排对两性关系发展会产生怎样的影响。Even so, opinions abound.但即便如此,各种意见观点仍然比比皆是。Some argue that the sexual organs, both physical and mental (for, as the old saw has it, the most powerful erotic organ is the mind) need a test drive to make sure the chemistry between a couple means they will stay together both in sickness and in health.有人认为,性器官包括生理和心理两部分(比如,如古谚所言,最能引发人情欲的器官是人心),它们需要一种驱动性的考验以确保情侣两人身上的化学吸引能够维持长久,让两人能够同甘共苦。Others suggest that couples who delay or abstain from sexual intimacy early on allow communication to become the foundation of their attraction, and that this helps to ensure that companionship and partnership keep them together when the initial flames of lust die down.还有人认为,推迟过早的亲密性行为或者禁欲的情侣,他们之间的沟通理解成为了相互间吸引力的基础,这样以来,即使他们最初燃烧着的爱之欲火慢慢熄灭,他们也可以保持长久的友谊和伙伴关系。To examine these suggestions more closely, Dr Busby and his colleagues recruited 2,035 married people ranging in age from 19 to 71,为了更进一步的去检验这些意见观点,Busby士和他的同事征集到了2,035对已婚夫妇的数据,他们的年龄从19岁到70岁不等,and in length of marriage from less than six months to more than 20 years. Their religious affiliations varied widely; many had none.婚龄从不满六个月到超过20年不等,而且他们的宗教信仰差异也非常之大,很多人没有宗教信仰。All were asked to complete an online questionnaire normally used to help couples understand their strengths and weaknesses.所有的夫妇都被要求填写一份网上问卷调查,以帮助夫妇了解自己的长处和弱点。Among the nearly 300 questions, participants were asked when they first had sex with their partners, whether their sex lives were currently good, how they resolved conflicts, and how often they thought of ending their relationship.在将近300个问题中,参与者被问及到他们第一次与自己伴侣发生性行为的时间,他们的性生活目前是否良好,和他们如何处理矛盾冲突以及他们考虑终结伴侣关系这种想法的频繁程度。In addition, the questionnaire had 14 items that evaluated how good participants were at expressing empathy and understanding to their partners and how prone they were to be critical or defensive.此外,这项问卷调查还有14个项目,评估参与者能够多好的向他们的伴侣表达自己的同情和理解,以及他们在面临批评或自我防御辩护时将倾向于做什么。All questions, apart from those about frequency of sex, were answered on a five-point scale, with one indicating strong disagreement and five indicating strong agreement.所有的问题,除了性爱频度以外,选择的回答都是五分制计量的,由初始的1分表达强烈的反对到5分表达强烈的赞同。Because religiosity delays sexual activity, Dr Busby and his colleagues also asked participants how often they attended church, how often they prayed and whether they felt spirituality was an important part of their lives. They used the answers to control for religiosity.由于笃信宗教可以延缓性活动,Busby士和他的同事同样也询问调查参与者他们出入教堂参与教会活动的频率,他们多久祷告一次以及他们是否认为精神生活是他们生活中重要的一部分。They also controlled for income, education, race and length of relationship.他们采用的限定了信仰虔诚度,同样他们的也划分限制了不同的收入、受教育程度、种族以及两性关系维系长度。Their report, just published in the Journal of Family Psychology, suggests that people who delay having sex do indeed have better relationships, on four different measures (see table).他们刚刚在《家庭心理学杂志》发表的的报告认为,那些延缓推迟性行为的伴侣在四种不同的测量比较上(见文图)的确拥有一份更良好的两性关系。That result applies to both men and women.并且这个结果同时适用于男性和女性。Unfortunately, Dr Busby’s method cannot distinguish the cause of this.但不幸的是,Busby的方法不能区分到底是什么原因导致的这个结果。It could be, as many moralists preach, that the delay itself is improving. It could, though, be that the sort of people who are happy to delay having sex are also better at relationships.正如很多道德说教所言,这结果很有可能是因为延缓推迟(性行为)本身就正在经历改变。然而,这也有可能是因为乐于推迟性生活的人更善于经营两性关系。Correlation, in other words, rather than causation.换言之,这是一种相互左右的关系,而不是因果关系。That is material for another study.谈到婚姻则是另一份研究学问了。If the result persists, though, even when personality is taken into account, it will provide useful ammunition for priests and marriage-guidance counsellors.如果这个结论还是坚持其所持观点,那么即使考虑到人不同的性格问题,它也不免成为神父和婚姻指导顾问的强力攻击火药。 /201212/216169

Finance and Economics;Indias economy;The fightback;财经;印度经济;反攻;Undercurrents of optimism about reform, and some fighting talk, in India;在印度经济改革势头良好、但仍存靡靡质疑之声的背后;After a storm-tossed six months for the economy, Indias authorities are trying to get things back on an even keel. On June 25th the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) announced measures to try to stabilise the rupee. It has lost a fifth of its value against the dollar in the past year (see chart), reflecting global woes but also a slowdown in India and a drying up of capital inflows. Its decline is widely seen in India as a bad thing, stoking inflation and hurting firms with foreign-currency debt.在国内经济度过了近六个月的风雨飘摇之后,印度政府开始着力如何将经济局势趋于稳定。6月25日,印度储备宣布了一系列措施,意图稳定卢比汇率。在过去的一年中,卢比对美元的汇率下挫近百分之二十(见下图),不仅反映出了全球经济之殇,还体现了印度本国经济增速放缓,进口资金枯竭的问题。这种下滑对印度来说普遍被视为不利因素,不仅通胀率随之节节攀升,对于举有外债的公司来说负担也更为沉重。India has long shied away from letting fickle foreigners buy government bonds, but the RBI this week loosened the rules to tempt in sovereign-wealth funds and other long-term investors. It also slightly eased restrictions on Indian manufacturing and infrastructure firms seeking funds abroad.印度向来都对一些不靠谱的外资对国债的收购请求采取规避的态度,但印度央行此次则对政策实施宽松,希望能够吸引到更多大笔的资金和长期投资意向人。一些从事制造业和基建工程的印度公司也在寻求外资助力的限制上得到了适度的放宽。IKEA, a Swedish furniture chain, boosted morale by saying it would invest up to 1.5 billion EURO(1.9 billion Dollar) in India—although on closer inspection that sum was sp over many years. Coca-Cola followed suit with the announcement of an additional 3 billion Dollar in investment, taking the total earmarked for India by 2020 to 5 billion Dollar. A ratings agency proved oddly helpful, too: on June 25th Moodys signalled it would not follow Standard and Poors and Fitch, which have both warned of a possible downgrade of India to junk status. Its rating, which hovers just within investment grade, remains stable, the agency said.瑞典家居连锁巨头宜家公司宣布决定在印度投入15亿欧元(约19亿美元)资金——尽管这笔巨额投资被安排在数年时间里逐批投放,但也为当地经济的提振带来了利好消息。可口可乐公司也紧随其后,宣布将会追加30亿美元拨入印度市场,到2020年时印度将接受总额达50亿美元的投资。一家评级机构也出乎意料地帮了个忙:本月25日,穆迪宣布其不会跟随标普和惠誉之后,警告会将印度的信用评级降至垃圾级。穆迪确认,印度目前所拥有的投资级依然稳定。The impact of all this? Not much. The rupee is still near record lows. Yet there is a feeling that a bleak picture may be improving slightly, mainly thanks to a government reshuffle. Pranab Mukherjee, the finance minister, left his position on June 26th to contest the largely ceremonial post of the presidency. Mr Mukherjee, who presented his first budget in 1982, has had a disastrous stint as finance minister this time round, pursuing controversial tax claims against foreigners, including Vodafone; failing to tame the budget deficit; and chairing troubleshooting committees that often fired ordnance at Indias own feet.上述的这些到底能派上多大的用场呢?只能说收效甚微。卢比汇率目前仍在其历史最低点附近徘徊,但随着政府部门及领导人的重新洗牌,也有预感认为惨淡的国内经济形式也许可以得到些许好转。印度财政部长普拉纳布·穆克吉在26日辞去了职务,并宣布将会参与下一届总统竞选的角逐。穆克吉部长在1982年初上任的时候第一次公布了他的财政预算,但就目前的经济状况来看,他任职期间的所作所为早已过分拮据不合时宜。比如针对如沃达丰这样的外资企业征税、缩减预算赤字失败、以及其领导的修正委员,最后往往被明是搬起石头砸自己的脚。Responsibility for the finance ministry, for a time at least, has passed to Manmohan Singh, the prime minister. Although even less of a spring chicken—at 79, compared with Mr Mukherjees 76—he has credentials as a reformer, having served as finance minister when India unveiled its liberalisation in 1991.有关执掌国家财政大权的事宜,已经在近几年移交给了曼莫尼·辛格总理。与76岁的穆克吉相比,已79岁高龄的辛格更欠年龄上的优势,但他曾在1991年时任财政部长,那时的印度正在经历一系列的经济自由化改革,可以说辛格对于这场变革也是功不可没。At the end of his career, the hope is that Mr Singh makes a stand and rams through budget cuts and vital changes on tax and foreign investment. “It could make a difference,” says an official. “He has a lot of credibility. It is an area that is close to his heart and his reputation will be much more on the line… The situation is tough so there is a limit to what can be done, but it is a mood-lifter.” His party, Congress, which leads the ruling coalition and is run by Sonia Gandhi, its hereditary chief, is lukewarm about making tough decisions. But there are signs that it may have successfully wooed one or two smaller parties outside its present coalition, which may help it push tricky changes through parliament.而辛格也被许多人寄望,能够在执政末期再加把力,促成预算削减和有关税制与外资的改革上。“局面一定会有所改变,”一位官员预测到,“他在这些议题上已经积累了不少经验和功绩,这是他的心之所向,但他的名誉也将会经受更多考验,很有可能晚节不保。目前形式仍然严峻,因此真正能够落实的项目也十分有限。但不管怎么说,这是一种士气上的鼓舞。”而主导联合政府、接任亡夫之位的领袖索尼娅·甘地所领导的印度国大党及议会对做出这些艰难决定的态度不温不火,但也有迹象显示,一些小型联合执政外的在野党则被这些议题吸引过来,帮助一些具有争议的法案在议会中通过。The promise of a push on reforms has been made—and broken—consistently by the government for years. With a busy electoral timetable up to general elections in 2014, it may be harder to fulfil than ever. Still, others, stepping back from the hurly-burly, can see a silver lining in Indias great wobble, particularly the fall in the currency. T.C.A. Ranganathan, the chairman of Exim Bank of India, which finances trade, says: “The exchange rate has moved in our favour. Im fairly happy.” He reckons a weaker rupee will help spur a long-awaited boom in manufacturing. Kaushik Basu, the governments chief economic adviser, no slouch on the need for reform, agrees. A cheaper currency means India is “getting an advantage for our export sector”. Perhaps, in time, that may prove more important than todays firefighting.印度政府在过去几年中针对改革的承诺一直反口复舌,2014年的印度总统大选意味将会有更多的高层活动,届时部分工作和议题将会更难开展。但仍然有人渐渐淡出唇舌剑,在印度如今经济局势的剧烈震荡,尤其是货币持续贬值的趋势当中看到了希望。主管贸易注资的印度进出口主席T.C.A 阮甘那桑说:“我很高兴看到卢比汇率正在朝我们希望的方向发展。”他认为,卢比的持续疲软可以帮助完成一次久盼未临的制造业昌旺。一向对经济改革信誓旦旦的印度政府首席经济顾问巴素也认同这一观点。廉价货币对印度的出口业来说“可能是一种优势”。时间会明,这一切将会比现在的改革与保守派之争更为至关重要。 /201303/228660

The Rolling Boil That Cools Your Food有一种沸腾能冷却你的食物!When you think of something boiling, you probably picture a pot on the stove, but theres another kitchen appliance that brings liquid to a boil, not to heat food, but cool it. It sounds crazy, but household refrigerators keep food cold by bringing liquid fluorocarbon to a boil.一提到沸腾的事物,你的脑海里可能就会浮现出水壶被放在炉子上的画面。但是,有一种厨具可以使液体沸腾,但不是为了加热食物,而是用于冷却食物。这事儿听起来很不可思议,但是家用冰箱就是通过使碳氟化物沸腾来冷藏食物。How Does This Work?这其中的原理是什么呢?Fluorocarbon coolant flows through two sets of coils in your fridge, absorbing heat inside and releasing it outside, into your kitchen. Youve probably seen one set of coils behind the fridge, in back. Thats where heats released. Hidden inside the fridge is the other set of coils, where heats absorbed.碳氟化物冷却剂流经冰箱的两组盘管,吸收冰箱内部的热量并将其释放到外部。你可能看到在冰箱后侧有一组一组盘管,热量就是在那里被散发。而藏在冰箱内部的另一组盘管则是用来吸收热量的。Its inside these hidden coils that liquid coolant comes to a boil. What makes the coolant boil? The secret is in the relationship between pressure and boiling point. When pressure changes, so does the temperature at which a substance comes to a boil.就是在这组内置盘管里,液态冷却剂会沸腾。是什么使冷却剂沸腾的呢?在于压强和沸点之间的关系。当压强发生改变,物质的沸点也会跟着变化。As the liquid coolant passes through a valve into the hidden coils, the pressure drops. This pressure change makes the coolants boiling point drop below the chilly temperature in the fridge. So, some of the coolant boils immediately and evaporates into a gas inside the coil. Evaporation uses up lots of heat energy. As the coolant continues to boil and evaporate, it absorbs heat from the air in the fridge, making it even colder inside. So that’s how boiling fluorocarbon cools your food.随着液体冷却剂经过一个阀门进入内置盘管,压强就会降低。压强的变化使冷却剂的沸点降到比冰箱内部的低温还要低。这样,部分冷却剂立即沸腾,在盘管内汽 化。汽化作用会消耗掉大部分热能。随着冷却剂不停地沸腾汽化,冰箱中空气的热量被吸收,使得冰箱内部温度更低。沸腾的碳氟化物就是这样冷却了食物。 /201207/188945

Business Mining in Indonesia Now you own it, now you dont 商业 印尼矿业 时有时无China wants coal. But digging it up is a dirty, dangerous business中国煤炭需求增大,但采煤生意黑暗又危险CHURCHILL MINING, a London-listed firm, announced in May 2008 that it had found 150m tonnes of coal in Indonesian Borneo.2008年5月,伦敦上市公司丘吉尔矿业股份有限公司宣布在印尼婆罗洲勘测到储量为1.5亿吨的煤矿。This was an underestimate.其实这低估了实际储量。The firm now thinks there are 2.8 billion tonnes, making it the seventh-largest undeveloped reserve in the world.如今该公司认为此地储量达到28亿吨,如此其未开发煤矿储量就跃居世界第七位。Alas for Churchill, other people quickly grew interested.不幸的是,很快就有人对此虎视眈眈。The Nusantara Group, a conglomerate controlled by Prabowo Subianto, a politician, had previously controlled the mining in that area.由政客普拉沃·苏比按托控股的Nusantara Group之前曾掌控该地区采矿业,Six companies affiliated with Nusantara held licences for six blocks in the East Kutai district of East Kalimantan province, but did not explore for coal.努山塔拉集团旗下的6家公司分别持有东加里曼丹省东库台6个划区的采矿许可,但从未进行勘测。Those six licences expired between March 2006 and March 2007, after which the district government began offering the mining area to other firms.06年3月至07年3月间,这6个许可陆续到期。随后,当地政府就将该矿区承包给别家公司。Churchill entered the picture by acquiring a 75% stake in four new licences for the same area, which had been awarded to the Ridlatama Group, an Indonesian company.丘吉尔矿业股份有限公司从Ridlatama Group(一家印尼公司)手中收购了该地区4个新采矿许可75%的股权,由此进入公众视线。In July 2008, two months after Churchill revealed its discovery, the district chief of East Kutai suddenly extended the six expired licences that had been held by Nusantaras affiliates, even though Churchills local partner had been awarded new licences for the same area.08年7月,也就是丘吉尔矿业公布此发现两个月后,东库台地区的行政长官在明知丘吉尔矿业地方合作伙伴已被授予该地区最新采矿许可的情况下,突然对努山塔拉旗下公司所持的6个过期许可进行授权,延长开采期限。Churchill claims that it has since been the target of a campaign to drive it out of Borneo.丘吉尔矿业股份有限公司称自那时起自己就成了靶子,各方竭力将自己逐出婆罗洲。In May 2010 a new district chief of East Kutai revoked the Churchill-Ridlatama licences, leaving Nusantara-affiliated companies in sole control of the 2.8 billion-tonne reserve.10年5月,新上任的东库台行政长官吊销了丘吉尔矿业股份有限公司所持的采矿许可,由努山塔拉集团独占那28亿吨煤矿,法院也驳回了丘吉尔矿业股份有限公司的起诉。Courts rejected Churchills complaints. This week it appealed to Indonesias Supreme Court.本周该公司向印尼最高法院提出了上诉。 /201212/217569

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