顺德中医院怎样时空知识

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 顺德中医院怎样城市健康
Imagine a therapy that supposedly cures most ailments and for which almost 100 per cent of all the published studies conclude is effective — in other words, a panacea which has been tested but never faulted by science. This can only mean that the treatment in question is a miracle cure which is useful for every single condition and in every single setting. Would we not all love to know such a therapy?想象下一种可以治愈大多数疾病的疗法,几乎所有发表的研究中得出的结论都是有效的,换句话说,这是一种久经检验但从未被科学质疑过的灵丹妙药。这只能意味着我们提到的这个治疗是一种奇迹,它对不同情况下的每一种病症都有效。我们不是都会喜欢这种疗法吗?Simple common sense tells us, however, that such miracle cures cannot exist — unless, of course, we consider the wide range of treatments that fall under the umbrella of Traditional Chinese Medicine.然而,常识告诉我们,这种奇迹是不可能存在的——除非,当然啦,我们认为中医治疗覆盖的范围是很广泛的。Take acupuncture, for instance. Most traditional acupuncturists will try to convince you that acupuncture is a veritable panacea, a treatment that works for anything and everything ranging from acne to zoster. In case you find this hard to believe, go on the internet and try to find a single condition for which acupuncture is not claimed to be effective.以针灸为例。大部分传统针灸师会试图说你,针灸是一个名副其实的万能药,治疗的范围,从痤疮到带状疱疹。如果你不信,上网去搜搜病例看看针灸是不是声称很有效。What is more, acupuncture trials hardly ever generate negative findings — at least those that originate from China. We and others have shown that Chinese trials of acupuncture as good as never suggest that acupuncture does not work. This has led to the bizarre situation where one does no longer need to the paper reporting a new Chinese study because one aly knows what it shows, namely that acupuncture is effective. If that is so, one does not even need to conduct the study, since one aly knows the outcome before the research has started.更妙的是,针灸试验没有产生任何负面的结果——至少那些源自中国的信息是这么说的。我们和其他一些人于是明白了中国的针灸实验是从来不会认为无效的。如果这样的话,你何必还要进行研究呢,在研究之前已经知道结果了啊。Perhaps you think the ‘Western’ scientists who disclosed this baffling phenomenon are chauvinists who, for one reason or another, want to discredit Chinese science. In this case, you would probably want to wait for a team of Chinese researchers repeating our investigations.也许你认为西方科学家质疑这一令人困惑的现象是因为沙文主义或其他啥原因好抹黑中国。在这种情况下,你可能想等待一队中国研究人员复核下我们的调查。Wait no more.不用在等了。Chinese researchers identified all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of acupuncture published in Chinese journals. A total of 840 RCTs were included in their assessment, and 838 of them (99.8 per cent) reported positive results. Only two trials (0.2 per cent) reported negative results. The authors concluded: ‘Publication bias might be a major issue in RCTs on acupuncture published in Chinese journals … which is related to high risk of bias. We suggest that all trials should be prospectively registered in international trial registry in future.’中国研究人员确认了中国期刊上发布的有关针灸的所有随机对照试验。共有840个随机对照试验及评价,其中838例(99.8个百分点)报道结果有效。只有两个试验(百分之0.2)报告结果无效。作者得出的结论是:在中国期刊发表关于针灸随机对照试验结果的主要问题是太偏颇了……很明显的先入为主(认为有效)。我们建议,以后所有实验都应该提前在国际实验注册备案。For many years I, too, had been inclined to give my Chinese colleagues the benefit of the doubt and assumed that publication bias — the phenomenon where negative results tend to remain unpublished — might be the explanation. If so, trial registration would indeed be the answer. But think of it: publication bias might provide a reason for a preponderance of positive findings but it cannot truly explain that close to zero per cent of negative results see the light of day. There must be other factors involved.多年来我一直致力于给我的中国同事灌输质疑的好处,以及发表的文章一边倒——也可能是负面的情况根本没有被报道出来。如果是这样的话,实验前在国际实验注册备案是个不错的办法。再回过头来看看,公布的实验结果一边倒的表示有效,负面效果几乎为零,对此没有个清楚明了的解释。肯定还有其他因素。One obvious explanation could be that many or most of the Chinese studies are — dare I say it? — dodgy to the point of being fraudulent. This allegation seems so outlandish that I would never have voiced it, unless there is some pretty solid evidence to back it up.一个明显的解释是中国的很多研究或者说绝大部分研究——我为啥这么说呢?——他们(的实验)不可靠且不诚实。如果没有确凿的据,我绝对不会发出这样粗鲁的指控。A recent survey of Chinese clinical trials has revealed fraudulent practice on a massive scale. China’s food and drug regulator carried out a year-long review and concluded that more than 80 per cent of clinical studies are ‘fabricated’. The investigators uated data from 1,622 clinical trial programmes of drugs awaiting approval by the regulator. Much of the data were found to be incomplete, failed to meet analysis requirements or were untraceable. Some institutions were suspected of deliberately hiding or deleting records of adverse effects, and tampering with evidence that did not meet expectations. ‘Clinical data fabrication was an open secret even before the inspection,’ an unnamed Chinese hospital director was ed as saying. Contract research organisations seem to have become ‘accomplices in data fabrication due to cutthroat competition and economic motivation’.最近对中国临床实验的调查显示了他们有大规模的欺诈行为。中国食品药物监管部门进行了长达一年的回顾总结,百分之80以上的临床研究数据为“捏造”的。研究人员评估了1622个等待监管机构批准的临床试验方案的数据。大亮的数据被认为是不完整的,不符合要求或无法进行追踪分析的。甚至一些机构涉嫌故意隐瞒或删除不利影响的记录,并篡改据以符合预期结果。一位不愿透露姓名的中国医院主任说:“在审核前,“制做”临床数据已经就是个公开的秘密了”。合同研究组织,由于激烈的竞争以及经济利益,成为了数据造假的共犯。CRO----合同研究组织,20世纪80年代初起源于美国,它是通过合同形式为制药企业、医疗机构、中小医药医疗器械研发企业、甚至各种政府基金等机构在基础医学和临床医学研发过程中提供专业化务的一种学术性或商业性的科学机构。The human rights activist Mai Ke went one step further, claiming that there is an ‘all-pervasive culture of fakery’ across all products made in the country. ‘It’s not just the medicines,’ he told Radio Free Asia. ‘In China, everything is fake, and if there’s a profit in pharmaceuticals, then someone’s going to fake them too.’人权专家Mai Ke进一步补充道“在这个国家的产品制造业中有一种无处不在的造假文化,不仅是药物,”他告诉自由亚洲电台“在中国,啥都有假货,如果药品有利可图,就有人会去造假。”Crucially, he stressed that the problem also extends to Traditional Chinese Medicines: ‘It’s just harder to regulate the fakes with traditional medicines than it is with Western pharmaceuticals, which have strict manufacturing guidelines.’最重要的是,他强调,这种现象也蔓延到了中医药:“比起西医传统的中医药监管起来难度要高的多,因为西药有严格的生产标准。”Academic ethics is an underdeveloped field in China; this leads to a culture that is accepting of academics manipulating data. ‘I don’t think that the 80 per cent figure is overstated,’ another Chinese insider commented.学术道德是中国一个欠发达的领域;这导致了一种文化,对学者操纵数据比较宽容。另一位中国内部人士说,我认为80%的数字没有夸大。Considering data fabrication on such an epidemic scale, it seems much easier to understand the above-mentioned phenomenon, where nearly 100 per cent of Chinese acupuncture studies generate positive findings. Such trials heavily pollute the worldwide evidence, particularly because the Chinese trials constitute a major chunk of the current evidence base in this area.考虑到这样大规模的数据造假,上述针灸实验近乎百分百有效的现象就不难理解了。这些实验数据严重污染了世界范围内的数据库,尤其是现有的这类大部分由中国实验数据构成的数据库。If we agree that data fabrication has seriously detrimental effects, we must ask what we can do about it. I feel we have little choice but to distrust the evidence that originates from China. At the very minimum, we must scrutinise it thoroughly and sceptically. Whenever it looks too good to be true, we ought to discard it as unreliable.如果我们都赞同数据库造假会导致严重的影响,我们必须思考下能做些什么。我们的选择不多,除了质疑中国的实验数据。至少,我们要详细的深入检查和质疑。无论何时,什么东西看起来好得不像话了,我们就应该把它当做不靠谱的东西抛弃掉。 /201702/494399Huawei, the Chinese telecoms group, is expanding in the beleaguered PC market, undeterred by slumping sales and the demise of smaller participants.中国电信设备制造商华为(Huawei)正在低迷的个人电脑(PC)市场寻求扩张,没有被PC销售下滑和较小参与者出局的现实吓倒。The company, which has revved up sales of handsets and network gear in Asia and Europe but failed to win over Americans due to fears over national security, is expected to bring out a fully fledged laptop later this month.预计华为将在本月晚些时候推出一款高配置的笔记本电脑。该公司近年在亚洲和欧洲扩大了手机和网络设备的销售,但由于美国方面担心国家安全,华为未能在美国市场打开局面。It will also bring out a version of the hybrid MateBook introduced last year.它还将发布去年推出的MateBook二合一笔记本电脑的最新版。That device, with a detachable keyboard, is similar to Microsoft’s Surface PC/tablet, sales of which fell 25 per cent year-on-year in the latest quarter, partly due to stronger competition.这款键盘可拆卸的设备类似于微软(Microsoft)的Surface PC/平板电脑,后者的销售在最近一个季度下降25%,部分原因是竞争加剧。“The smartphone business was tough. Getting into this is going to be even more tough,” one analyst of Huawei’s diversification said.“智能手机业务很艰难,而进入这个领域将会更加艰难,”一名分析师在谈到华为的业务多元化努力时表示。Huawei is pitching its laptop at the high end and targeting consumers rather than businesses.华为将其笔记本电脑产品定位于高端市场,针对消费者而不是企业。“They are looking to compete with Apple on looks and features,” one person who had a sneak preview said, referring to the MacBook line.“他们寻求在产品外观和功能上与苹果(Apple)竞争,”曾有机会看到华为新款电脑的一名人士表示,此言指的是苹果的MacBook系列笔记本电脑。PC and laptop shipments in 2016 fell 6.2 per cent year on year, totalling 269m units, according to research groups Gartner and International Data Corporation.研究组织高德纳(Gartner)和国际数据公司(IDC)的数据显示,2016年台式和笔记本电脑的出货量下降6.2%,合计2.69亿台。It was the first time since 2008 — soon after Apple launched the iPhone and smartphone adoption began to rise — that annual PC shipments fell below 300m units.这是自2008年以来全年PC出货量首次跌破3亿台水平。上一次发生这种情况时,正值苹果推出iPhone不久,智能手机的使用率开始上升。The rate of decline has slowed, and there are pockets of modest growth, including notebook sales in North America and gaming PCs, according to research consultancy Canalys.研究咨询公司Canalys表示,PC销售下滑速度已有所放缓,并且局部市场出现小幅增长,包括北美的笔记本电脑销售,以及游戏电脑销售。“Expanding their PC business is probably the next logical step,” Ben Stanton, analyst at Canalys, said.“扩大PC业务很可能是华为下一个合乎逻辑的步骤,”Canalys分析师本·斯坦顿(Ben Stanton)表示。“It’s probably the only hole in their portfolio.”“这很可能是他们的产品组合中唯一的漏洞。”Huawei pointed yesterday to the strength of its smartphone business — reporting that it shipped 35m handsets in the first quarter, up 22 per cent year-on-year and giving it a 10 per cent share, according to IDC.华为昨日指出,其智能手机业务表现强劲。根据IDC表示,该公司报告第一季度手机出货量达到3500万部,同比增长22%,市场份额达到10%。Winning business customers’ trust in a PC device would be vital to its success, said Mr Stanton, noting that Dell and HP spent decades building up reputations.斯坦顿表示,赢得企业客户对PC设备的信任,对于华为的成功将是至关重要的。他指出,戴尔(Dell)和惠普(HP)都花了数十年时间打造声誉。Huawei lacks a wealth of partners and distribution channels, “so is at a huge disadvantage in that respect”.华为缺乏大量的合作伙伴和分销渠道,“因而在这方面处于极大的劣势”。 /201705/507857

Don’t you just hate it when you have to take an important phone call and you’re surrounded by potential eavesdroppers? You either have to whisper or go outside to keep the conversation private, which is not exactly ideal. Now, a new gadget aims to fix this problem by muffling your voice and making you look like Bane in the process.当你接到一个重要电话,却发现身边可能有人在偷听时,会不会觉得很讨厌?为了保护通话隐私,你即便不想,也只能降低音量或者出去说。不过现在,有个新装置能帮你解决问题,它可以减弱你的声音,而且你戴上它就仿佛变身《蝙蝠侠》中的反派贝恩。Hushme is a bizarre high-tech mask that blocks the sound of the wearer’s voice so that people nearby can’t hear what is being said. It connects to your phone via Bluetooth and comes with a pair of earbuds. When you get a private call, all you have to do is put the muzzle-like mask on and it will do the rest. The pair of thick cushy pads over your mouth do a good job of muffling your voice, but to ensure nothing gets through, Hushme also features external speakers that play a variety of sounds when you speak.Hushme是一款样子奇怪的高科技口罩,它能阻隔佩戴者的声音,这样周围人就听不到讲话的具体内容。它通过蓝牙连接手机,并配有一副耳机。你在接到私人电话的时候,只要戴上这个嘴套式口罩,剩下的一切它都会帮你解决。它有两块厚实的软垫盖住嘴唇,消音效果非常出色,另外为了保没有声音泄露,Hushme的外部扬声器也是一大特色,它可以在你讲话的同时播放各种各样的声音。The Hushme mask, which comes in a variety of colors, can be worn around the neck, like a regular pair of earphones, and attaches in front of your mouth thanks to a couple of very powerful magnets. It’s not yet clear how comfortable speaking with this Bane-like mask over your mouth really is, or how effective its speech muffling capability is, so all we know so far is that it makes you look weird.Hushme口罩有多种颜色可供挑选。它可以像普通耳机一样戴在脖子上,也可以靠两块强力磁铁的吸附而牢牢罩在嘴上。不过,戴着这个看起来像贝恩的口罩讲话是否舒适,以及它的消音能力是否有效,都还有待验,目前知道的就是它戴上去显得很奇怪。The sound options for covering your voice currently include wind, ocean, rain, birds, monkey, squirrel, R2D2, laughing Minion and Darth Vader breath, but new ones could be added in the future.如果想要用其他声音掩盖自己的声音,目前可供选择的有风声、涛声、雨声、鸟鸣、猴子叫、松鼠叫、《星球大战》里R2D2机器人的声音、小黄人的笑声和达斯?维达的呼吸声。不过,以后还会新增其他选项。While Hushme is promoted as a phone call privacy protection device, you could always use it to protect your ears from loud mouth co-workers at the office. Just slap this baby over their mouths and you can get on with your work.虽然Hushme的定位是通话隐私保护装置,但你也可以用它来保护耳朵,免受办公室里大嗓门的同事的干扰。只要把这个小玩意卡在他们嘴上,你便能耳根清净,安心工作了。Advertised as the “world’s first voice mask for mobile phones”, Hushme was unveiled at CES, at the beginning of this year. It’s not commercially available yet, but its makers plan to start a crowdfunding campaign in May, and to start selling it by the end of the year. Engadget reports that it will cost around 0.今年年初,Hushme在国际消费类电子产品览会上亮相,它被宣传为“全球首款手机消音口罩”。Hushme如今还未上市,但制造商已计划于五月份发起众筹,并于年底开售。《瘾科技》称,Hushme预计售价在200美元(1378元人民币)左右。 /201704/503328

In the 12 years since Mark Zuckerberg launched Facebook, the global media landscape has changed beyond recognition. This is in no small part due to the social media platform that he started as an undergraduate, which is now one of the biggest global distributors of news.在马克.扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)推出Facebook以来的12年里,全球媒体版图发生了天翻地覆的变化。这在很大程度上可归因于他在读本科期间创立的这个社交媒体平台,如今这个平台已是全球最大的新闻分销商之一。Where printed newspapers were traditionally constrained by the cost of physical distribution, Facebook and other social media are, by contrast, equipped with the power to transmit information across borders at limited or no cost. This has brought undoubted benefits to millions of users who can access information more ily than before. It has also brought with it responsibilities.印刷版报纸传统上受到物理分发成本的约束,相比之下,Facebook和其他社交媒体具有以有限成本、甚至无成本方式跨境传播信息的威力。这给数以百万计的用户带来了不容置疑的好处,他们能够空前便利地获取信息。这也带来了责任。Such obligations will become increasingly difficult for Facebook to brush aside in light of the controversy generated by its role in the sp of misinformation.鉴于Facebook在虚假信息传播方面扮演的角色所引发的争议,该公司要回避这种义务将变得越来越困难。Fake news propagated by partisan websites proliferated across social media in an unprecedented fashion ahead of Donald Trump’s victory in US elections. The degree to which this influenced voters is hard to gauge. But given that more than half of Americans source news from social media, 150m of them on Facebook, it is an obvious source of concern.在唐纳德.特朗普(Donald Trump)赢得美国大选之前,党派性网站发送的假消息以前所未有的方式在社交媒体上传播。很难衡量这些假消息影响选民的程度。但鉴于一半以上美国人从社交媒体获取新闻(其中1.5亿从Facebook获取新闻),这明显是一个令人担心的问题。Nor is Facebook alone in feeling the heat. The spotlight shifted to Google on Monday after it gave prominence in its search rankings to a false report claiming that Mr Trump had won the popular vote.也并不只是Facebook感受到压力。聚光灯在周一转向谷歌(Google),因为它在搜索排名中突出了一则虚假报道,称特朗普已经赢得民众选票。Mr Zuckerberg argues that Facebook is a technology company not a media company. Unlike traditional news media, where editors curate content and check accuracy and balance, Facebook deploys engineers to write algorithms that select news according to the historic preferences of users. Mr Zuckerberg is reluctant for his company to assume a role as arbiter of the truth.扎克伯格辩称,Facebook是一家技术公司,而不是一家媒体公司。不像传统的新闻媒体有编辑来策划内容、检查准确性和保持平衡,Facebook让工程师编写算法,根据用户的历史偏好来选择新闻。扎克伯格不愿让他的公司担当真相的仲裁者。One advantage of the network business models adopted at the outset by the likes of Google, Facebook, Twitter, Uber and Airbnb was that they were all capital light. Ethical and financial responsibility for how the networks were precisely used was less than clear. This made some sense: if you are threatened over the phone, you do not blame the phone company.谷歌、Facebook、Twitter、优步(Uber)和Airbnb从一开始就采用的网络商业模式有一大优势,那就是它们都是“轻资本”的。围绕这些网络究竟如何被使用的道德和财务责任不那么清楚。这有一定道理:如果有人打电话威胁你,你不能责怪电话公司。The burden of responsibility is growing for all of these businesses as they expand. Even Facebook employees have found the company’s defence less than convincing. Some of them have formed an unofficial task force to investigate the role of their platform in sping fake news.随着这些企业发展壮大,它们的责任负担也随之加大。就连Facebook员工也发现该公司的辩护缺乏说力。其中一些人成立了一个非官方工作组,调查他们的平台在传播假消息方面起到的作用。Facebook is not only a 21st-century newsagent. It plays a far more sophisticated role in disseminating information and encouraging the sharing of news among people of similar beliefs and opinions.Facebook不只是一个21世纪的报刊亭。它在传播信息、鼓励信念和观点相似的人们在彼此之间分享新闻方面,发挥着复杂得多的作用。There is tacit acknowledgment of the inherent dangers in leaving everything to algorithms. Both Facebook and Google have moved this week to restrict advertising on online platforms carrying fake news. If the two companies are able to discern which websites are sping misinformation they should also be in a better position to filter out blatant falsehood.对于把一切都扔给算法这种做法的固有危险,已经得到了默认。Facebook和谷歌两家本周已采取行动,限制在散布假消息的在线平台上投放广告。如果这两家公司能够分辨哪些网站在传播错误信息,那么它们也应该在屏蔽掉那些公然谎言方面处于比较有利的地位。This is not a one-off election drama. Finding facts is becoming more important as some politicians do whatever it takes to attract support.这不是一次性的选举戏剧。随着某些政界人士不择手段地吸引持,发现事实正变得更加重要。The challenges of adapting technology to play a policing role are great, and companies such as Facebook and Google are understandably wary of drawing accusations of bias by intervening in the nature of content. They must nevertheless shoulder some responsibility for distinguishing fact from fiction.调整技术、使其起到监督作用,这里的挑战是艰巨的,而Facebook和谷歌这样的公司担心干预内容的性质会被指责存在倾向性是可以理解的。然而,它们必须肩负起区分真伪信息的一部分责任。 /201611/478632China is aiming to increase the scale of its cloud computing industry by more than 2.5 times by 2019, from 2015 levels, according to a new government plan.根据一项新的政府计划,到2019年,我国云计算产业规模将在2015年的基础上增长超过2.5倍。The scale of the cloud computing industry will be expanded to 430 billion yuan by 2019, up from 150 billion yuan in 2015, according to an action plan for 2017-2019 issued by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology.根据工业和信息化部印发的《云计算发展三年行动计划(2017-2019年)》,到2019年,我国云计算产业规模将从2015年的1500亿元增至4300亿元。Other targets include making breakthroughs in core technologies, increasing cloud computing in manufacturing and government affairs, and strengthening the global influence of Chinese cloud computing companies.其他目标包括在核心技术上取得突破,提升云计算在制造、政务领域的应用水平以及增强中国云计算企业的国际影响力。The ministry expects that two to three Chinese cloud computing companies will lead the global market within three years.工信部期望3年内涌现2-3家引领全球市场的中国云计算企业。Cloud computing should be a strong support for China#39;s manufacturing and internet industries and help make other social and economic sectors informationized, the ministry said.工信部称,云计算应成为中国制造业和互联网产业的强力撑,帮助其他社会和经济领域实现信息化。The ministry pledged to enhance cloud computing network security and improve security regulation and relevant laws.该部门承诺加强云计算网络安全,并完善安全监管及相关法律。In the next three years, the government will help boost cloud computing technologies and encourage local governments to work with leading cloud computing companies to build public service platforms.在接下来的三年时间里,我国政府将会帮助促进云计算的发展,并鼓励地方政府和领先的云计算企业合作,一起打造公共务平台。 /201704/504829

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