襄阳第四医院好吗服务问答

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 襄阳第四医院好吗中医乐园
Euro-zone economies欧元区经济Mirabile dictu说也奇怪A recovery at last, but no revelation终于有所复苏,但是也不出乎意料Aug 17th 2013 |From the print editionTHE prayed-for recovery in the euro area has finally come to pass. After a dismal 18 months in recession, euro-zone GDP rose by 0.3% (an annualised rate of 1.1%) in the second quarter from its level in early 2013. That outcome was a bit stronger than expected, although the outlook for growth remains weak.欧元区祈求已久的复苏终于来了。经历了十八个月低沉的衰退之后,相比2013年第一季度,欧元区的GDP在第二季度增加了0.3%(年化增长率为1.1%)。这个表现强于预期,尽管增长的前景仍然堪忧。The upturn was led by Germany, whose GDP increased by 0.7%. France did surprisingly well, with output up by 0.5%. There was also some encouraging news from southern Europe. Output continued to fall in Italy and Spain but the rate of decline slackened to 0.2% and 0.1% respectively. And there was a sharp rebound in Portugal, which has suffered a deep recession: its GDP grew by 1.1%.这次回升由德国主导,其GDP增长了0.7%。法国的表现有点出乎意料,增长了0.5%之多。南欧也有好消息。尽管意大利和西班牙的GDP继续下滑,但是各自只下滑了0.2%和0.1%。而葡萄牙则有一个剧烈的反弹,之前经历了很严重的衰退,而现在GDP增长了1.1%。The pickup still leaves GDP across the euro area 0.7% lower than a year ago. The output declines since the second quarter of 2012 have been biggest in tiny Cyprus, where GDP is down by 5.2%, and in Greece, where it has fallen by 4.6%. Despite its performance in the second quarter, the Portuguese economy is 2% smaller than a year ago.欧元区经过此次回暖之后,GDP总量仍然比去年低0.7%。自去年二季度到现在衰退最严重的是小国塞浦路斯,GDP下降了5.2%,而希腊也下降了4.6%。尽管葡萄牙这次表现不错,但是其经济总量与一年前相比也缩小了2%。The record of the euro-zone economy since the peak reached before the global financial crisis five years ago is even more depressing. Output is 3% lower; in America it is more than 4% higher (see chart). Among the big euro-zone economies only German GDP now exceeds its pre-crisis peak, by 2%. The economies on the periphery of the single-currency club have suffered drastic falls, although Greece is in a league of its own with a shrinkage of 23%.五年前全球金融危机前欧元区的经济达到峰值,从那时到现在的记录更让人失望。工业产出比当时低了3%之多,而美国则高出了4%。在欧元区的经济体中,只有德国现在的GDP总量超过了金融危机前的峰值,比峰值多了2%。欧元区非核心经济体GDP严重下降,虽然只有希腊下降了23%之多。Even with so much lost ground to make up, the medium-term outlook is for a lacklustre recovery in the euro area, which will continue to be held back by its dodgy banks. Forecasters recently surveyed by the European Central Bank expected on average that euro-zone GDP for the whole of 2013 would be 0.6% lower than in 2012; and that it would grow by only 0.9% in 2014. A tepid recovery is unlikely to do much for the unemployed, especially those in southern Europe where joblessness rates are extraordinarily high. The end of the recession will give fresh heart to European leaders, who can (again) proclaim that the worst of the crisis is over. But weak growth will still leave the euro area vulnerable to social and political discontent.尽管经济需要重振雄风,但是欧元区的中长期复苏乏力,这其中运转不佳的是主要原因。欧洲央行最近调查预测欧元区今年的GDP增量为0.6%,低于去年,而明年的增长率也仅为0.9%,微弱的复苏似乎不能使就业状况好转,尤其是在欧洲南部失业率居高不下的国家。衰退的结束会鼓舞欧盟的领导人,但是谁敢说危机结束了呢?疲软的增势仍然让欧元区极易陷入社会不满与政治不满中。 /201308/253041

Clothes retailing装零售The dedicated followers of fast fashion专注追随快时尚的他们Spains most successful fashion retailer, Inditex, has two ambitious local rivals snapping at its heels西班牙最成功的时尚零售商Inditex正被两位野心勃勃的对手追赶ON HIGH streets and in shopping centres across the globe, Spains most successful clothing retailer, Inditex—best known for its Zara outlets—does battle daily against such other multinational fast-fashion giants as Hennes amp; Mauritz of Sweden, Uniqlo of Japan and Gap of the ed States. But it also faces rising competition, at home and abroad, from two Spanish rivals, Mango and Desigual.在全球各地的主要街道和商场内,西班牙最负盛名的装零售商——Zara的拥有者Inditex集团,每时每刻都在和其他跨国快时尚巨头角逐,其中包括瑞典的Hamp;M,日本的优衣库,以及美国的Gap。与此同时,随着两家西班牙对手,Mango和Desigual的登场,海内外的竞争愈演愈烈。The larger of the two contenders, Mango is still fairly small: its turnover of 1.9 billion last year was less than one-fifth that of Inditexs Zara branches. But Mango aly has more outlets than Zara, and is in more countries than Inditex as a whole. Mango plans to open lots more branches and increase its turnover to 5 billion by 2017.虽然比Desigual略大,Mango的规模依旧较小:其去年19亿欧元的营业额还不到Inditex旗下分Zara的五分之一。然而,Mango的店铺数量已经超过了Zara,分布在107个国家,这远远广于整个Inditex的地理分布。Mango还计划开设更多的分品牌,并在2017年之前达到50亿的营业额。Desigual is smaller still. It had sales of 828m last year, four-fifths of them outside Spain, and has outlets in 109 countries. It has expanded tenfold since 2007. Its heady growth has attracted the attention of Eurazeo, a French private-equity firm, which in March bought a 10% stake. This valued Desigual at 2.9 billion; Inditexs current stockmarket valuation is 70 billion.Desigual比Mango还要小。去年它的销售额为8.28亿欧元,其中五分之四的销售额来自西班牙境外。Desigual在109个国家都有店铺,规模自从2007年以来增加了十倍。如此迅速的增长引人注目,一家法国的私募公司Eurazeo于三月购买了10%的股权。此交易使得Desigual的估价达到了29亿欧元;与之相比,Inditex目前的股价为700亿欧元。Besides all being from Spain, the three retailers each have media-shy founders who have brought in outside managers to help them expand, explains Marcel Planellas of Esade Business School in Barcelona. Amancio Ortega of Inditex—Forbes reckons he is now the worlds fourth-richest man—began by making bathrobes before opening the first Zara in 1975 in Galicia. His success blazed a trail for the other two. Isak Andic, Mangos Istanbul-born founder, started by selling imported goods at a market stall in Barcelona, and Desiguals Swiss-born Thomas Meyer made denim jackets in Ibiza. Mr Andic and Mr Meyer both opened their first shops in the mid-1980s, though Desigual was a late bloomer until its recent growth spurt.这三家零售商的创始人不仅都来自西班牙,对媒体也避之不及。巴塞罗那ESADE商学院的Marcel称,他们都请来了职业经理人来帮忙扩大业务。据福布斯猜测,Indidex集团的阿曼西奥·奥尔特加已经成为了世界第四首富。他远在1975年在加利西亚第一家Zara开张之前,就开始制作浴袍。这为其他两位创始人开辟了一条道路。伊斯坦布尔出生的Mango创始人伊萨克·安蒂奇,靠着在巴塞罗那摆摊卖进口货起家;Desigual的托马斯·梅耶来自瑞士,在伊比萨靠制作牛仔夹克起家;安蒂奇先生和梅尔先生都在80年代中期开张了第一家店铺;不过Desigual倒是大器晚成,最近几年才开始突飞猛进。Whereas its two younger rivals follow a more conventional fashion-retail model of changing their collections two to four times a year, Inditex constantly churns out new designs, to encourage consumers to return to its shops frequently. Inditex has about half of its clothes stitched together in Spain or nearby countries, so it can react fast to changing trends. This costs more but helps avoid fashion misses and markdowns. The other two, again following the industrys conventions, have largely outsourced production to Asia, though Desigual is also starting to stitch more clothes in Europe to get them into the shops faster.Mango和Desigual虽然资历尚浅,但走的还是较为传统的时尚零售模式,平均一年更换两到四次装系列。相比之下,Inditex则不断更新设计,以吸引回头客频繁光顾。Inditex大约一半的衣都在西班牙或临近国家缝合,以便及时应对千变万化的潮流。尽管这样做的费用较高,却能有效避免过季过时、降价促销。在这点上,另外两家则依旧紧随行业惯例,把生产基本上都外包到亚洲。不过Desigual也开始在欧洲缝合衣,以期能够更快把装引入店铺。Inditex has been able to do without advertising, relying on good store locations in big cities to attract custom. Desigual, in its rush to catch up, has created a buzz with controversial advertisements (such as a television spot in which a young woman, wishing to get pregnant, puts pinholes in her partners condoms) and quirky promotions such as offering free clothes to shoppers who arrive in their underwear. Desigual promotes itself as a “lifestyle” brand, more like Nike than Zara. Its bold prints and carefree, Mediterranean vibe are almost as popular in France as they are in Spain, says its chief executive, Manel Jadraque, who is aiming to make France the companys biggest market by the end of this year. “If we can make it in Paris, the birthplace of fashion, we are doing well”.Inditex依托在大型城市良好的店址做到了零广告。Desigual急于赶上,创造了不少颇具争议的广告和古怪的促销活动,如只穿内衣的上门顾客就能免费获赠装。Desigual的公关形象是“生活方式”品牌,和Zara相比,倒是更像耐克。Desigual用图大胆,无拘无束,地中海风味浓郁,在法国和西班牙一样大受欢迎。首席执行官马内尔·哈德拉克立志要将今年年底前使法国成为该公司最大的市场。“巴黎是时尚的发源地,如果我们能在这儿成功,那就说明我们干得不错。”Though Desigual has outlets all over the world, around nine-tenths of its sales are still in Europe, so it is unclear how far its vibe can travel. It has closed its shops in China to concentrate on other Asian markets, such as Japan. Inditex, in contrast, has more than 450 shops in China.虽然Desigual的店址遍布世界各地,但有十分之九的销售额都来自欧洲,所以目前其前景不明。为了关注其他亚洲市场,它已经关闭了中国的店铺。与之相比,Inditex在中国的门店超过450家。Mr Jadraque, seeing how crowded the budget end of fast fashion is getting, is targeting a slightly fancier segment of the market: in Spain Desiguals T-shirts start at 29 compared with around 13 at Zara and 10 at Mango. It sells its clothes through a variety of channels, such as wholesalers and department stores, and it has extended its brand into shoes, sportswear and cosmetics. So far, Desiguals focus on “fun and profit” is paying off. Last year its margin was 29%, higher than Inditexs and double that of Mango.目睹日渐拥挤的平价快时尚市场,哈德拉克先生把目光投向了一个稍微花哨的市场:在西班牙,Desigual的T恤起价29欧元,而Zara和Mango的T恤只有13欧元和10欧元。Desigual的装销售渠道多样,包括批发商和百货公司,而其品牌也已延伸至鞋类、运动和化妆品。到目前为止,Desigual乐趣与利润并举的策略已经初见成效。去年利润率为29%,高出Inditex, 更是Mango的两倍。Europes recession hit Mango harder than its rivals. In 2011 it had to cut its prices and reinvent itself, ditching glitzier clothes to focus more on casual basics, says its chief executive, Enric Casi. Last year sales grew 9%, outpacing Inditexs. So far, Mangos shops have been relatively small, and aimed at young women. Emulating Inditex, it is now opening bigger ones that stock mens and childrens clothes, sportswear and underwear, as well as a separate chain called Violeta by Mango, for women with fuller figures. All this means heavy spending on logistics, says Mr Casi, and less reliance on franchised outlets for growth.欧洲的经济衰退给Mango带来的打击比其他对手都更严重。首席执行官安瑞·可卡西称,2011年时它不得不削减价格,重整旗鼓,摒弃华而不实的装,转而专注于休闲风。去年销售额增长了9%,超越了Inditex。目前,Mango的店铺规模较小,主要针对年轻女性。不过,它也开始效仿Inditex,开放了更大的店铺,一并出售男装、童装、运动衣和内衣,同时开设了另一家名为Violeta的连锁店,主要务体型比较丰满的女性。可卡西称,这一切都意味着更为沉重的物流开,以及减少对特许经营店依赖的增长策略。Such change is akin to altering Mangos DNA says Joan Enric Ricart of IESE, another business school in Barcelona—a formidable challenge. Even if all goes to plan, it will take almost a decade to get to where Zaras sales are now. Nevertheless, having two such ambitious rivals on its doorstep will surely keep Inditex on its toes.琼安·瑞科·李卡特来自巴塞罗那的另一家商学院IESE,声称这样的改变无异于对Mango进行基因重组,可谓困难重重。即使一切都能按照计划进行,要想取得Zara目前的销售量也需要差不多十年功夫。不过,有这么两位竞争对手紧紧相随,足以叫Inditex时刻保持警醒。 /201407/311124

Larger than any lion alive today, this would have been an awesome predator. These caves were probably its winter den.冰河时代的狮子比当今任何一种狮子的体型都更加巨大,他们曾是一种可怕的捕猎者。这些山洞便可能是他们冬天的洞穴。With such abundant game down on the plains, this hunters life must have been pretty good.能在平原上进行大量的捕猎游戏,这些狮子的生活一定十分惬意。Sheer size and power and the benefit of life within a pride made it the unmatched ruler of the plains. By looking at the lions of Africa today, we can imagine how these ice age cats once lived in small prides based around a group of hunting females.无可比拟的体型和力量,良好的生存条件。这些因素使这些骄傲的狮子成为了美洲大平原的绝对主宰。看看今天的非洲狮,我们能够想象,在冰河时代,这些被一群雌性环绕的猫科动物是如何骄傲地生活的。Like wolves, lions work together to win larger prey. After a leading hunter launches the attack, the others move in, helping to dispatch the victim with a suffocating bite. But even for these rulers of the plains, the good life had to end. They would be toppled by another predator with even sharper skills.和狼一样,在追捕大型猎物时,狮子们也进行团队合作。领头的狮子首先发动袭击,随后其他的狮子也参与其中,扑到猎物身上并给与致命一击。但是,即使是平原上的主宰,他们的美好生活也不得不结束了。人类以更为强大的捕猎技能取代了他们的地位。The ice age lions joined the list of victims, animals that had lived here for hundreds of millennia, but were soon lost forever.冰河时代的狮子是人类活动的受害者之一,许多在美洲大平原上生活了数千年的动物很快都永久地消失了。Today few signs remain that any of them were ever here. Odd traces scattered far and wide across the plains. But if we piece together bones and teeth, plant fragments and the clues from animals alive today, we can begin to bring a lost world back to life.如今,明这些动物曾在美洲大平原活动的痕迹已寥寥无几。这些稀有的痕迹遍布平原各地。但是如果我们把这些骨骼,牙齿,植物碎屑以及从存活着的动物身上得到的线索拼凑到一起,我们便能将这个遗失的世界重新带入我们视野。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属.201305/240919Business商业报道Corporate governance in Germany德国公司的管理Diversifying the board董事会的多元化German boards have long been cosy mens clubs. But things are changing德国的董事会曾一度是享乐者的天堂,但是现在不一样了。HERMANN JOSEF ABS liked to joke, Whats the difference between a doghouse and the supervisory board?HERMANN JOSEF喜欢开玩笑:屋和监事会有什么不同?The doghouse is for the dog; the supervisory board is for the cat.屋是给的,监事会是给猫的,For those unfamiliar with the nuances of German humour, for the cat is slang for something like trash.这是德国式幽默,猫在俚语里通常指代废物。The late banker would know: while running Deutsche Bank from 1957 to 1967, he also sat on dozens of supervisory boards.已故的家或许知道,在1957到1967年间主管德意志时,HERMANN JOSEF ABS还是几十个监事会成员里的一个。This was the peak of Deutschland , a clique of long-serving bosses, autocratic chairmen, do-nothing board members and their financier friends.过去,监事会是德国公司的顶层,他们是由一群长期担任老板的小团体,独裁主席,游手好闲的董事会成员以及他们金融界的朋友们组成。Big German companies supervisory boards are supposed to act as a check on their management boards.大型德国公司的监事会应该管理董事会,But in practice their relations were too cosy for this.但是实际上他们的关系过于亲密。This past year the stumbles of two titans seemed to highlight how much corporate power is still concentrated in few hands in the Germanspeaking world.去年这两大巨头的过失似乎在过于强调企业大权仍掌控在少数德国人手里。As 2013 began Gerhard Cromme was chairman of the supervisory boards of both Siemens, an industrial conglomerate, and ThyssenKrupp, a steelmaker.2013年伊始,Gerhard Cromme成为西门子及钢铁制造商蒂森克努伯两家企业的监事会主席。But big losses at foreign mills and heavy fines over a cartel case cost him the chairmanship at ThyssenKrupp.但是卡特尔事件中国外钢厂的巨大损失及高额罚款让他失去了蒂森克努伯公司监事会主席一职。Then in July, a boardroom bunfight at Siemens ended with the departure of Peter Lscher, the chief executive.同年7月,西门子董事会舞会事件以其首席主管Peter Lscher的离职而告终。Mr Cromme belatedly called for his firing—but only after hiring him and protecting him for years.Cromme请求延迟他的解雇,但也只是在雇佣和保护了他几年之后。Josef Ackermann, a Swiss former boss of Deutsche Bank and a Siemens board member, had defended Mr Lscher.德意志前瑞士分行行长兼西门子董事Josef Ackermann力挺Lscher。When Mr Lscher went, so did he.当Lscher走后他也离职了。Shortly before this he had quit as chairman of Zurich, a Swiss insurer, whose chief financial officer had committed suicide, leaving a note berating Mr Ackermann.在这之前不久他还辞去了瑞士保险公司苏黎世董事长一职。该公司的首席财务官自杀了,只留下一张便条斥责Ackermann。Now he has no big corporate job, there have been reports that Mr Ackermann may have to step down as a trustee of the World Economic Forum after its gabfest in Davos this week.现在他没有大公司工作,有报道称本周在达沃斯会议进行冗长的谈话后,Ackermann只能降职为世界经济论坛的受托人。At first glance, corporate power in Germany still looks male, German and concentrated.乍一看,企业大权仍集中在德国男性手里。But its boardrooms are slowly getting more diverse.但是董事会正慢慢变得多样化。In 2003 the average supervisory-board member at a public company sat on 1.9 boards; now the figure is 1.6.2003年监事会成员中上市公司平均占了1.9席。A 2001 cut in tax on sales of shares let banks and insurance companies, which played big roles as lenders and part-owners, start disentangling themselves from companies.然而现在这个数据是1.6。2001年销售股份削减税被放款及合伙大户和保险公司承包,并开始解决纠纷。Into the gaps, and onto the boards, has come a new generation of more active members.为了填补空缺,也有很多新一代的有活力的成员加入董事会。Boards have little choice but to be sharper, says Christoph Schalast of Frankfurt School of Finance and Management.法兰克福金融管理学院的Christoph Schalast表示董事会别无选择,只有变得更加锐利。Many companies are now paying fines and settlements for their behaviour before the financial crisis.现在许多公司都在金融危机到来之前为他们的行为付罚款和理赔款。A 2010 change in the law doubled the statute of limitations for such misdeeds to ten years.2010年修改法律诉讼时效等罪行翻了一倍,达10年了。Progress on making boards more international is slower.董事会的国际化进程变缓了。Eight of the largest 30 public companies have foreign bosses, but the rest of their boards members are predominantly German, even at the countrys most multinational firms.规模最大的30家上市公司中有8家老板都是国外的,但是即使在大多数跨国公司,其董事会其他成员主要还是德国人。But Burkhard Schwenker, the boss of Roland Berger, a consulting firm, says that counting passports is simplistic: what matters more is international experience, which German firms increasingly look for when recruiting both management-and supervisory-board members.咨询公司Roland Berger的董事长Burkhard Schwenker却表示哪个国家的其实不重要,在招募管理及董事成员时更看重的是德国公司急需的国际经验。If boards are becoming more professional and diverse, is accumulation of board seats a bad thing in itself?如果董事会变得越来越专业越来越多样化,积累董事会职位本身是坏事吗?Jrg Rocholl, the president of the European School for Management and Technology, says that studies disagree on whether busy board members are better or worse for profits.欧洲管理与技术学院的院长Jrg Rocholl表示繁忙的董事会对企业收益是利是弊仍意见不一。But he agrees that boards are becoming more capable, and says this has been a factor in Germanys economic revival.但可以肯定的是董事们正变得越来越能干,这也是德国公司经济复苏的原因之一。Pay for German board members is going up; but these days, members are earning it.董事成员的工资上涨了,但是这段日子是他们应得的。 /201402/275160

Science and technology科学技术Radiation and evolution核辐射与进化Surviving fallout辐射尘中 幸免于难Birds can evolve to cope with the lingering effects of nuclear incidents鸟类能够通过进化应对核事故的残余影响And the raven, never flitting, still is sitting那乌鸦并没飞去,它仍然栖息,仍然栖息THE disaster last year at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, caused by an earthquake and tsunami, scored seven on the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale.去年,地震和海啸引发了福岛第一原子能发电站核泄漏事故,在国际核与辐射事件等级标准中被评为第七级;No worse rating exists.没有比这情况还糟的分级了。Radiation is harmful to living things, yet the long-term effects of persistently high levels of background radiation on ecosystems are poorly understood.核辐射对生物有害,而长时间高水平的本底辐射对生态系统有何影响,人们还知之甚少。With this in mind, a team led by Timothy Mousseau of the University of South Carolina and Anders Moller of the University of Paris-Sud set out to compare bird species dwelling near the Fukushima plant with those living at the site of another nuclear incident that scored a seven on the INES:the Ukrainian town of Chernobyl, where disaster struck in 1986.为了研究这个问题,南卡罗莱纳大学的Timothy Mousseau和巴黎第十一大学的Anders Moller率团队着手比较在两个INES七级事故事发地附近栖息的鸟类种群。Remarkably, they found that some species seem to develop a tolerance for radioactivity over time.结果出人意料。他们发现随着时间迁移,似乎有些鸟类发展出了对核辐射的耐受力。Fukushima and Chernobyl are more than 7,000km apart, but Dr Mousseau and his colleagues soon realised that the two sites had much in common.福岛和切尔诺贝利相距7,000余公里,不过Mousseau和同事们很快发现,两地的鸟类种群有共同之处。Both are in areas that have a temperate climate with species that have similar habits and needs.两地均属温带气候,周围环绕着农田和森林,鸟类的习性和需求相似。And both are surrounded by a mixture of farmland and forest. Upon closer examination the researchers found that 14 species of bird lived in both regions, including the barn swallow, great tit, great reed warbler, buzzard and Eurasian jay.经过进一步调查,研究人员发现两地有14种相同的鸟类,包括家燕、大山雀、大苇莺、鵟、松鸦。With so many similarities between the two places, a comparison of the biological responses to radiation in each would surely be illuminating.既然情况如此相似,比较两地生物对核辐射的反应自然应当具有启发意义。To do this, during July 2011, the researchers counted and identified birds at 300 locations near Fukushima that had radiation levels as low as 0.5 microsieverts per hour and as high as 35.2011年7月,研究人员清点并鉴定了福岛核电站附近300个地点的鸟类。Then they compared these results to bird data collected in areas that had the same range of radiation levels near Chernobyl between 2006 and .这些地点的辐射水平低至0.5毫西弗/小时,高至35毫西弗/小时。作为对照,牙医给患者拍X光片的辐射量很少超过0.05毫西弗。Their results, published in Environmental Pollution, show that as radiation levels in an area rose to 35 microsieverts per hour, the average number of birds dropped by almost a third compared with the areas where radiation levels were only 0.5 microsieverts per hour.研究结果发表在《环境污染》杂志上:在辐射水平为35毫西弗/小时的地方,鸟类平均数量比0.5毫西弗/小时的地方少了将近1/3。This makes sense:这是合情合理的:in those areas with a high level of radiation, living things would tend to die or sicken and fail to reproduce.辐射水平高的地方,生物更容易生病死亡,更难繁衍后代。However, when researchers looked at the 14 bird species that lived in both regions, they found that the same level of radiation was associated with twice as large a drop in bird numbers in Fukushima as in Chernobyl.但是,当研究者比对两地共有的14种鸟类时,发现在同样的辐射水平下,福岛的鸟类下降数量几乎达到了切尔诺贝利的两倍。The reasons for this are not clear.人们还不清楚这个现象的原因。It is possible that the composition of the radionuclides are proving more dangerous to the Fukushima birds than they are to the birds near Chernobyl.也许是因为福岛的放射性核素成分对鸟类更危险。But Dr Mousseau suggests a more likely explanation is that evolution has aly been at work near Chernobyl, killing off individual birds that cannot cope with the background radiation and allowing the genes of those that have some tolerance to be passed on.不过Mousseau士称,这更可能是因为进化已经在切尔诺贝利周围的鸟群中起作用了。The birds at Fukushima are only beginning to face the evolutionary challenge of living in a radioactive world.不能适应本底辐射的鸟类死亡,对辐射有耐受力的基因则得以传承。而福岛的鸟类才刚刚开始面对辐射环境中的生存进化挑战。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201307/246227

Irans revolution伊朗革命Waiting for God等待真主Debunking the myths that sustained Ayatollah Khomeinis republic揭示领袖霍梅尼共和国之谜Revolutionary Iran: A History of the Islamic Republic. By Michael Axworthy.《伊朗革命:伊朗共和国的历史》,作者:Michael Axworthy“SLEEP easily, Cyrus, for we are awake,” assured Irans last shah, Muhammad-Reza Pahlavi, speaking at the tomb of his imperial ancestor in 1971. This staged event helped forge the myth that the Pahlavis were an adored monarchy stretching back millennia to the Achaemenid empire, a claim to which the shah clung dearly. Yet in less than a decade his embittered people had delivered his throne into the hands of an obscure Shia cleric, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. James Buchans elegant “Days of God”, which came out last November, focused on how all this came to pass. Now Michael Axworthy, a former diplomat and director of the Centre for Persian and Iranian Studies at Exeter University, goes over much of the same ground and explains how the Islamic republic has survived.“Cyrus,有我们在,你们安心睡吧!”,1971年伊朗最后一位国王Muhammad-Reza Pahlavi在其先王墓前信心十足。从千年前紧握王权的阿契美尼德王朝直到巴列维王朝,一直深受爱戴,简直是一个谜。尽管近10年来饱受疾苦的人民把其王朝政权交与一位不甚知名的牧师Ruhollah Khomeini之手,去年11月出版的James Buchan的《真主之日》简洁而又着重解释了这一形成原因。前外交官兼埃克塞特大学伊朗研究中心负责人Michael Axworthy在书中探讨了这一地区,同时解释了伊朗政权幸存下来的原因。The shahs gaudy fete at Persepolis, not far from Cyruss tomb, held to celebrate the monarchys 2,500th birthday, epitomised a half-century of montazh: a succession of flashy buildings and self-congratulatory statues which helped to conceal the dislocations of a society on fast-forward. Construction faltered for lack of cement; many of Irans ports became clogged with shiploads of imports. The minister of the shahs court, driving through Tehran in his Chrysler Imperial in 1969, noticed dingy side streets with “not an ounce of asphalt”. Lashing out at the grandiose party at Persepolis, Ali Shariati, an Iranian leftist writer, denounced 5,000 years of deprivation and social injustice. Khomeini, then in exile in Iraq, thundered for the first time that Islam was fundamentally opposed to monarchy.离伊朗王赛勒斯坟墓不远处的波斯波利斯曾举行了盛大的宴会庆祝伊朗王朝成立2500周年,通过画面剪辑简单回顾了一下伊朗半个世纪以来的历史:一排排高楼大厦,一座座自我标榜的雕像,这些都掩盖了这个快速发展国家背后的混乱。缺乏混凝土结构的建筑摇摇欲坠,船舶上的进口商品使得港口混乱不堪。1969年伊朗王朝法官乘坐克莱斯勒帝国旗舰名车前往德黑兰(Tehran),就注意到街道两边混乱不堪,没有一条柏油路。伊朗左翼作家Ali Shariati猛烈抨击波斯波利斯的奢华盛会,指责5000年的政权废止和社会的不公。当时被流放伊拉克的霍梅尼大声疾呼伊朗人民是坚决反对皇权的。A hodgepodge of Marxists and other leftists allied themselves at first to the religious fundamentalists in common cause against the shah, inspiring Iranian students, in particular, to rise up against his rule. Within a few years, though, the left had lost out to Shia Islamic political groups that were, Mr Axworthy writes, “more flexible, more charismatic, more in tune with Iranian realities and less hidebound”. Like Mr Buchan, Mr Axworthy has mined newly opened archives to good effect. He lays bare the failure of Western governments to keep abreast of fast-changing events. One British dispatch saw “no threat to basic stability” in late 1977; another asked whether Iranians were still “the epitome of idleness”. The Iranian hostage-takers were astounded to find that, of the four CIA officers in the American embassy in Tehran, none could speak Persian.那些信奉传统基督教的马克思主义者和左派人士首次联合起来,尤其还煽动学生共同抵抗伊朗王的统治。Axworthy写到,在近几年里,脱离什叶派团体的左翼人士“更加灵活,有感召力,与时俱进与伊朗现实相结合”。与Mr Buchan一样,他也恰到好处地引用了最近公开的史料,还指出了西方政府在获取重大事件方面的不足,例如1977年底英国报道认为“不会威胁到基本稳定”,另一西方媒体认为伊朗是不是在虚张声势。伊朗人质劫持者惊奇地发现美国驻德黑兰大使馆的4名CIA人员不会说波斯语。Balancing scholarly precision with narrative flair, Mr Axworthy depicts an Islamic movement that exploited and distorted traditional Shia beliefs in order to seize and hold on to power. Cycles of protest and mourning, 40 days long and timed to coincide with Shia holy days—Mr Buchans “days of God”—were like “a great revolutionary lung”, inhaling indignation, exhaling more demonstrations. Khomeinis theory of divine rule, velayat-e faqih, still unknown to most in 1979, represented a complete innovation in Shia religious thinking. The Shia Muslim tradition believes the Mahdi, its messiah, will return, but its adherents had not previously considered putting themselves in power.为了平衡学术的准确性和叙述的技巧,Axworthy曲解了传统的什叶派信仰来描述伊朗运动。在长达40天的什叶圣日期间,伊朗人民的不断抗议和哀悼就像“一个巨大的革命之肺”,吸入怨恨,吐出更多的游行示威。代表什叶派精神全面革新的霍梅尼神权统治—法吉赫的监护在1979年还不为大多数人所知。什叶派穆斯林坚信他们的救世主会降临,但是其拥蹙之前并没有让他们掌权。Revolutionary jargon justified purges and trials (the regime executed 2,946 people in 1981 alone, according to Amnesty International). Those who survived bombs set off by the radical left and other secularists were glorified as shaheed-e zendeh, or living martyrs. Fundamentalist rhetoric also fed popular fervour for an eight-year war against Iraq, framing the struggle as a continuation of the ancient fight between the evil caliph Yazid and the martyred Hussein, who was killed at the battle of Karbala in 680. Military offensives were named after that sacred Shia site; the last big assault, Karbala-5, fought around Fish Lake, a huge artificial basin on Iraqi defence lines, was also the most wretchedly wasteful. Around 20,000 Iranians are believed to have died.假借革命之意使得审查肃反合理化。那些幸免于左派引发的战乱和非宗教信仰者被歌颂为shaheed-e zendeh,英雄。正统基督主义舆论也持长达八年的两伊战争,仿佛古代残暴领袖Yazid和烈士Hussein战斗的续曲。“卡尔巴拉5号”军事行动以什叶圣城—卡尔巴拉命名,在伊拉克防线人工湖—鱼湖附近展开战斗,战争极其残酷,据称有20000伊朗人死亡。Mr Axworthy does the best job so far of describing the Iran-Iraq war. He draws on first-hand accounts of pilots, lieutenants and militia, and challenges the accepted notion that the Iranian air force was inept. The attacks were carried out according to intricate plans drafted under the shah, whose highly trained pilots were released from prison. He also breaks from Mr Buchans thesis that Khomeini was bent on exporting Islamic government to Iraq, arguing instead that he saw the conflict as a just war to fend off a real threat. Drawing on Persian eyewitness accounts, he conjures up the chaos: the scramble for masks in nerve-gas attacks; paper-thin lungs blistered by mustard gas; fish, rotting and floating belly-up in an Iraqi lake brimming with barbed wire, electrodes and mines, “adding a new stench to the battlefield”.Axworthy对两伊战争做了迄今为止最好的描述,他引用了飞行员,军官和民兵组织的第一手描述,对伊朗空军实力孱弱这一根深蒂固的观念提出了质疑,那些从监狱里释放出来在伊朗王精细的指挥下袭击敌人的飞行员,都是训练素质很高的。对Buchan的关于霍梅尼想把伊朗政府转移至伊拉克的论据Axworthy也提出了异议,他认为此次战争只是为了避免真正的威胁。根据伊朗目击者描述,他在书中写到这场混乱:大家争抢防毒面具,肺部受到芥子气的感染而起水泡变薄,伊拉克湖里的腐鱼漫过铁丝电网,矿井,使得“战场上臭气熏天”。Yet the repressive Islamic republic of today was not at all inevitable. Reformist Iranian presidents succeeded one another, from Mehdi Bazargan and Abolhassan Bani-Sadr in 1980 to Muhammad Khatami in 1997. Evidence shows that Khomeini genuinely wanted to work with progressive governments—not least because he needed their credibility to rule. Mr Axworthy paints a nuanced picture of the ayatollah, who let army generals lead the war and his assembly of experts end it, although the ceasefire was “more deadly to than poison”.然而今天专制的伊朗共和国并不都是不可避免的,伊朗改革派领导人一个接一个,从1980年的Mehdi Bazargan ,Abolhassan Bani-Sadr到1997年的Muhammad Khatami,这些都表明霍梅尼想与改革政府合作,而不只是因为他需要他们的信任来治理国家。Axworthy 对伊斯兰宗教领袖也做了细致描述,其让军队将领和集结的专家结束了这场战争,尽管此次停火协议“对于他而言比毒药更致命”。Mr Axworthys analytical approach helps him demystify a revolutionary regime that has needed to feed off myths. He revisits, and convincingly reinterprets, defining moments of the Islamic republic. One is Khomeinis infamous response to a journalist as he returned to Tehran in February 1979, to cheering crowds. He felt “nothing”, he said—not because of a cold indifference to the Iranian people, but because he believed himself to be only a vehicle for the mind of God on Earth. The strength of Mr Buchans rendering of Irans story lies in its detail and its delicious storytelling; Mr Axworthys, in his scholarly rigour and first-class analysis. Anyone interested in this most complex of revolutions would do well to both.Axworthy的分析揭开了革命政党需要依靠宗教的神秘面纱,他重新清楚而又令人信地解释了伊朗共和国的种种事件,例如1979年2月霍梅尼重返德黑兰鼓舞人民的那次臭名昭著的答记者问,霍梅尼感觉这没有什么,并不是他对伊朗人民冷漠,而是因为他坚信她就是上帝意志的使者。Buchan着重于故事的趣味性和细节,而Axworthy则侧重于学术的严谨和精湛的分析技巧。如果对这段复杂的革命史感兴趣,不妨都拿来读一读。 /201405/299873All this month, our friends at JC Penney这个月 JC Penny的朋友们are helping us raise money for breast cancer research.都在帮助我们为乳腺癌研究基金会筹款And we thought we would help既然我们能帮上忙you would help us out in this,你也可以出一份力its a game were calling Aim for The cure.你要玩一个叫爱心射击的游戏The object to the game is to use the bow and arrow to pop游戏规则是在60秒的时间内使用弓箭as many ballons as you can in 60 seconds.射中尽可能多的气球The more ballons you pop, the more money you raise.射中的气球越多 筹集的资金也越多Some ballons are worth a 100 dollars.有些气球价值100美元Some are worth more.还有的价值更高Theres one worth 5000 dollars in there.其中一个值5000美元And if you hit one with a ribbon on it,如果有带的气球被射中someone is gonna get splashed玻璃缸里的人将被狂喷一身冷水and that would be an automatic 10000 dollars.同时累加10000美元的筹款金额But first,we need a volunteer to get in our splash tank.首先 我们要请一位勇士坐进玻璃缸里So please welcome jessicas husband Cash.现在有请jessica的丈夫cashSo Im sorry to say hello to you and then goodbye.真不好意思 刚和你打完招呼就要说拜拜了Youve gonna go sit in that chair.游戏期间 你都要坐在里面And water is gonna splash on you most likely.并且很有可能享受一次疯狂淋浴But maybe not, well see what you hit.I...也可能不会啦 取决于有带的气球能不能被刺中 我Im gonna try. we could shoot here.我会加把劲的 可以开始了注:EllenShow中英字幕来源于:艾伦秀字幕组 /201311/265983Science and technology科学技术Psychology心理Tall, dark and stable Wobbly furniture leads to a desire for emotional stability摇摇晃晃的家具让人在情绪上追求稳定CLEARLY, a person’s decisions are determined by circumstances.显然,任何人在做决策的时候都受决策时的周遭环境所影响。Just how closely they are determined, however, has only recently become apparent.但具体来说会造成多大的影响直到最近才有了一个较为清晰的解释。Experiments conducted over the past few years have revealed that giving someone an icy drink at a party leads him to believe he is getting the cold shoulder from fellow guests, that handing over a warm drink gives people a sense of warmth from others,在过去几年进行的一系列实验中,有一个实验发现在聚会中,给客人提供冷饮会让他有不受旁边人待见的感觉倾向,相反,提供温水等有温度的饮料会让他们感觉到周围人的温暖。and—most astonishingly—that putting potential voters in chairs which lean slightly to the left causes them to become more agreeable towards policies associated with the left of the political spectrum.最让人惊奇的是,在另外一个关于潜在选民的实验中,让一个没有立场的潜在选民,坐在椅子上并微微向左边靠,他会更加认同与左派相似的政治立场。The latest of these studies also looks at the effect of furniture.这一系列实验最近将他们的目标转向了家具,研究家具对人的影响。It suggests that something as trivial as the stability of chairs and tables has an effect on perceptions and desires.他们假设许多不被人注意到的细节例如桌椅的稳定性会影响到人们对于其他事物的看法和愿望。The study was conducted by David Kille, Amanda Forest and Joanne Wood at the University of Waterloo, in Canada, and will be published soon in Psychological Science.这份研究是由David Kille,Amanda Forest以及滑铁卢大学的Joanne Wood一同完成的,即将在《心理科学》杂志上发表。Mr Kille and his collaborators asked half of their volunteers to sit in a slightly wobbly chair next to a slightly wobbly table while engaged in the task assigned.在实验中,他们选取了47个处于单身的大学本科生,将他们分为两组,一半学生在实验中坐在一张会摇晃的桌子旁一张会摇的椅子上,The others were asked to sit in chairs next to tables that looked physically identical, but were not wobbly.另外一半则是坐在外表相似却非常稳的椅子上。Once in their chairs, participants were asked to judge the stability of the relationships of four celebrity couples:研究人员给两组学生展示四组夫妇的照片:Barack and Michelle Obama, David and Victoria Beckham, Jay-Z and Beyoncé, and Johnny Depp and Vanessa Paradis.奥巴马和米歇尔,维多利亚和贝克汉姆,Jay-Z和碧昂斯,强尼戴普和vanessa paradis,They did this by rating how likely they thought it was, on a scale of one to seven, that a couple would break up in the next five years.然后让学生们给四对夫妇的情感稳定性打分—从一分到七分,他们未来五年离婚/分手的几率,A score of one meant extremely unlikely to dissolve.一分代表几乎不可能分开,A score of seven meant extremely likely to dissolve.七分代表十分可能分手。After they had done this, they were asked to rate their preferences for various traits in a potential romantic partner.接下来,调查者让两组学生分别对一系列理想配偶的特征进行打分—量表上给出一系列特征,Traits on offer included some which a pilot study indicated people associate with a sense of psychological stability, some that are associated with psychological instability and some with no real relevance to instability or stability.依旧是一分到七分,一分代表一点也不喜欢这样子的七分代表大爱。量表上设置的特征,有些与追求稳定相关联,有些与追求不稳定相关联,有一些是随机挑选的特质,三类特征交错放置。Participants rated the various traits on another one-to-seven scale, with one indicating not at all desirable and seven meaning extremely desirable.其中关于追求稳定的一些特质包括是否值得信赖,是否可靠。而追求不稳定的特质包括是否自发性强,或是具有探险精神。The results reveal that just as cold drinks lead to perceptions of social conditions being cold, tinkering with feelings of physical stability leads to perceptions of social instability.调查结果就像之前那个聚会不要请人喝冷饮的调查一样,在身体感受到不稳定状态的时候会使得心理上更加倾向于感受到社交中的不稳定因子。Participants who sat in wobbly chairs at wobbly tables gave the celebrity couples an average stability score of 3.2 while those whose furniture did not wobble gave them 2.5.摇椅上的人给那四对夫妇打得分数是3.2,比另外一组高出0.7,越高分数代表越可能分开。What was particularly intriguing, though, was that those sitting at wonky furniture not only saw instability in the relationships of others but also said that they valued stability in their own relationships more highly.最有趣的还不是这里,最有趣的是这些坐在摇晃家具上的人不仅更倾向于看见他人关系中不稳定的因素,也倾向于更加重视追求自己与他人关系中的稳定因子。They gave stability-promoting traits in potential romantic partners an average desirability score of 5.0, whereas those whose tables and chairs were stable gave these same traits a score of 4.5.他们在后一个实验中对理想配偶的稳定特质重视程度的打分平均是5.0,比另外一组高出0.5,The difference is not huge, but it is statistically significant.虽然数字上的差异不是很大,但是就数据分析来说,已经很能说明问题了。Even a small amount of environmental wobbliness seems to promote a desire for an emotional rock to cling to.即使只是环境中存在一点点的不稳定因素似乎都会让人们产生赶快抓住一根感情稻草的冲动。 /201402/277473

  • 69爱问襄阳第四人民医院怎么走
  • 襄阳市四医院做人流多少钱
  • 豆瓣解答襄阳包皮手术多少费用千龙知识
  • 襄阳四院医院几点下班爱优惠
  • 襄阳市第一人民医院的权威医生中医信息襄阳襄城妇幼保健院中医院耳鼻喉科
  • 国际新闻襄阳市铁路医院割包皮手术费多少钱
  • 老河口市第一医院处女膜修复手术怎么样
  • QQ咨询襄阳全身体检要多少钱服务晚报
  • 襄樊市红十字医院输卵管再通术多少钱爱口碑
  • 宜城市人民医院包皮手术怎么样
  • 襄阳市第一人民医院看妇科好不好丽健康襄阳牛皮癣医院是哪家
  • 襄阳市第三人民医院妇科疾病多少钱周对话
  • 医护报襄阳第三人民医院妇科大夫
  • 襄阳一医院妇产科医院
  • 襄阳老河口市人民中心医院医院账单家庭医生门户
  • 襄阳老河口市人民中心医院治疗痔疮怎么样搜索常识襄阳老河口市治疗痛经哪家医院最好的
  • 爱乐园襄阳市中医医院处女膜修复手术怎么样时空分类
  • 湖北省襄阳看男科怎么样城市卫生
  • 襄樊铁路医院治疗内分泌多少钱
  • 襄阳市四院看前列腺炎好吗光明指南
  • 家庭医生媒体襄阳市中医院妇科咨询健康
  • 谷城县看男科好吗
  • 周资讯谷城县人民医院妇科在线咨询百姓口碑
  • 襄阳第一医院做孕检多少钱城市新闻
  • 华媒体枣阳市康复医院治疗阳痿早泄国际问答
  • 枣阳市一医院农保能报销吗
  • 襄阳襄州区妇幼保健院中医院孕前检测怎么样
  • 襄樊市妇幼保健中医院尿科
  • 襄阳第四人民医院治疗龟头炎多少钱
  • 襄阳保康县人民医院治疗女性疾病怎么样百姓诊疗
  • 相关阅读
  • 襄阳中心医院属于专科医院吗中华媒体
  • 襄阳477医院打胎有风险么?
  • 新华知识襄阳老河口妇幼保健院中医院治疗前列腺炎多少钱
  • 襄阳治疗龟头炎到哪家医院医苑卫生
  • 襄阳第一人民医院治疗早泄多少钱
  • 襄阳第四医院治疗内分泌多少钱安口碑老河口市第二医院网上预约
  • 襄阳四医院报价
  • 百科卫生襄樊红十字医院治疗女性不孕多少钱医中文
  • 襄阳妇保医院月经不调怎么样
  • 湖北医药学院附属襄阳医院正规
  • (责任编辑:郝佳 UK047)