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2020年02月24日 09:15:02    日报  参与评论()人

泉州双眼皮埋线哪家医院好德化县中医院去疤多少钱泉州石狮市祛痣医院推荐 #39;What#39;s celebrity sex, Dad?#39; It was my 7-year-old son, who had been looking over my shoulder at my computer screen. He mispronounced #39;celebrity#39; but spoke the word #39;sex#39; as if he had been using it all his life. #39;Celebrity six,#39; I said, abruptly closing my AOL screen. #39;It#39;s a game famous people play in teams of three,#39; I said, as I ushered him out of my office and downstairs into what I assumed was the safety of the living room.“爸爸,什么是名人性爱(celebrity sex)?”问这个问题的是我七岁的儿子,他正从我的肩头看向电脑屏幕。他把“celebrity”(名人)发错了音,但说“sex”(性爱)这个词时就像是已经用了一辈子一样。我迅速关掉AOL的屏幕,说道:“六个名人(Celebrity six)(译者注:英语中“六”与“性”发音相近,因此作者故意将二者混淆,以向儿子解释),是名人们以三人团队形式玩的一种游戏。”我把他带出我的办公室去楼下客厅,我认为那里是安全的。No such luck. His 3-year-old sister had gotten her precocious little hands on my wife#39;s iPhone as it was charging on a table next to the sofa. By randomly tapping icons on the screen, she had conjured up an image of Beyonce barely clad in black leather, caught in a suggestive pose that I hoped would suggest nothing at all to her or her brother.结果明我想错了。他三岁的已把她那过早发育的小手放到了我妻子的iPhone上,当时手机正放在沙发旁的桌子上充电。她乱点着屏幕上的图标,“变出”了一张碧昂丝(Beyonce)穿着暴露黑色皮衣的图片,我希望碧昂丝那颇具暗示意味的造型对女儿或她哥哥都不会产生任何暗示意味。And so it went on this typical weekend. The eff-word popped out of TV programs we thought were friendly enough to have on while the children played in the next room. Ads depicting all but naked couples beckoned to them from the mainstream magazines scattered around the house. The kids peered over my shoulder as I perused my email inbox, their curiosity piqued by the endless stream of solicitations having to do with one aspect or another of sex, sex, sex!这个普通的周末就这样度过了。孩子们在另一个房间玩耍,电视节目上出现了F开头的那个词,而我们原本以为这些节目已足够温和。房子里散落着的主流杂志上,印有几乎全裸男女的广告在向他们打招呼。孩子们从我的肩头盯着我查邮件,与性有这样或那样关系的无止境的诱惑激起了他们的好奇心。When did the culture become so coarse? It#39;s a question that quickly gets you branded as either an unsophisticated rube or some angry culture warrior. But I swear on my hard drive that I#39;m neither. My favorite movie is #39;Last Tango in Paris.#39; I agree (on a theoretical level) with the notorious rake James Goldsmith, who said that when a man marries his mistress, he creates a job vacancy. I once thought of writing a book-length homage to the eff-word in American culture, the apotheosis of which was probably Sir Ben Kingsley pronouncing it with several syllables in an episode of #39;The Sopranos.#39;美国文化什么时候变得这么粗俗了?问出这个问题,你会迅速被贴上不懂世故的土包子或是愤怒的文化斗士的标签。但我用我的硬盘发誓,我两者都不是。我最喜欢的电影是《巴黎最后的探戈》(Last Tango in Paris)。我赞同(在理论上)臭名昭著的浪子詹姆斯#12539;戈德史密斯(James Goldsmith),他说过,当一个男人跟他的情妇结婚时,他就创造了一个就业机会。我曾经想过写一本书向美国文化中以F开头的那个词致敬,最能体现这个词“崇高”地位的可能是本#12539;金斯利爵士(Sir Ben Kingsley)在《黑道家族》(The Sopranos)某一集中用好几个音节把它讲出来的那一幕。I#39;m cool, and I#39;m down with everything, you bet, but I miss a time when there were powerful imprecations instead of mere obscenity -- or at least when sexual innuendo, because it was innuendo, served as a delicious release of tension between our private and public lives. Long before there was twerking, there were Elvis#39;s gyrations, which shocked people because gyrating hips are more associated with women (thrusting his hips forward would have had a masculine connotation). But Elvis#39;s physical motions on stage were all allusion, just as his lyrics were:我不介意,也没什么意见,但我想念激烈咒骂而非裸淫秽的时光――或者至少是有性影射的时光,由于是影射,应该是作为我们私生活和公共生活之间压力的美好释放。早在有电臀舞之前,就有了埃尔维斯(Elvis)的扭胯舞,人们对这种舞感到震惊,因为扭胯更多的是和女人联系在一起(臀部向前推则有一种男子气概的暗示)。但埃尔维斯在舞台上的动作都是暗示,就像他的歌词一样:Touch it, pound it, what good does it do触摸它,敲打它,能有什么用There#39;s just no stoppin#39; the way I feel for you没有什么能阻挡我对你的感觉Cos#39; every minute, every hour you#39;ll be shaken因为每一分钟,每个小时你都会By the strength and mighty power of my love被我强烈和坚定的爱所震颤The relative subtlety stimulates the imagination, while casual obscenity drowns it out. And such allusiveness maintains social norms even as they are being violated -- that#39;s sexy. The lyrics of Elvis#39;s #39;Power of My Love#39; gave him authority as a respected social figure, which made his asocial insinuations all the more gratifying.含蓄的暗示会刺激人的想像,而随随便便的淫秽会将想像力淹没。即使正在侵害着社会规范,但这种暗示仍维持着社会规范的存在――这很性感。埃尔维斯的《我的爱的力量》(Power of My Love)的歌词给了他成为受人尊敬的公众人物的权威,从而让他对社会的各种暗讽愈加令人愉悦。The same went, in a later era, for the young Madonna: #39;Two by two their bodies become one.#39; It#39;s an electric image because you are actively engaged in completing it. Contrast that with the aging Madonna trash-talking like a kid:后来,年轻的麦当娜(Madonna)也是如此:“成双成对的,他们的身体合二为一。”这是一个鲜活的画面,因为你在积极地完成它。这和上了年纪的麦当娜像孩子一样的废话形成了鲜明对比:Some girls got an attitude有些女孩喜欢摆架子Fake t--- and a nasty mood有一对假胸还有糟糕的情绪Hot s--- when she#39;s in the nude脱光的时候性感火辣(In the naughty naked nude)(调皮地脱光光)It#39;s the difference between locker-room talk and the language of seduction and desire. As Robbie Williams and the Pet Shop Boys observed a few years ago in their song #39;She#39;s Madonna#39;: #39;She#39;s got to be obscene to be believed.#39;这就像是偷偷讲黄色八卦和裸勾引欲望的区别。正如罗宾#12539;威廉姆斯(Robbie Williams)和“宠物店男孩”(Pet Shop Boys)几年前在《她是麦当娜》(She#39;s Madonna)里所唱的:“她变得粗俗得让人难以置信。”Everyone remembers the Rolling Stones#39; #39;Brown Sugar,#39; whose sexual and racial provocations were perfectly calibrated for 1971. Few, if any, people can recall their foray into explicit obscenity two years later with #39;Star Star.#39; The earlier song was sly and licentious; behind the sexual allusions were the vitality and energy to carry them out. The explicitness of #39;Star Star#39; was for bored, weary, repressed squares in the suburbs, with their swingers parties and #39;key clubs.#39;大家都记得滚石(Rolling Stones)的《Brown Sugar》,里面关于性和种族歧视的挑 语言堪称为1971年量身打造。很少有人能回想起两年后他们在《Star Star》中对露骨污秽内容的尝试。第一首歌是狡猾而放纵的,性暗示背后展现的是活力和能量。《Star Star》的直白是给郊区那些无趣、疲倦、压抑的土包子们听的,与之伴随的还有他们的性伴交换派对和“钥匙俱乐部”(key clubs)。Just as religious vows of abstinence mean nothing without the temptations of desire -- which is why St. Augustine spends so much time in his #39;Confessions#39; detailing the way he abandoned himself to the #39;fleshpots of Carthage#39; -- violating a social norm when the social norm is absent yields no real pleasure. The great provocations are also great releases because they exist side by side with the prohibitions that they are provoking. Once you spell it all out, the tension between temptation and taboo disappears.就像没有欲望诱惑时,节欲宗教誓言便毫无意义一样――这就是为什么 奥古斯汀(St. Augustine)会花那么多时间在他的《告白》(Confessions)中详细描述他是如何屈于“迦太基的奢侈生活”的――在社会规范缺失时,侵犯它也不会有真正的快感。好的挑 也是好的释放,因为它们和被挑 的禁忌是相辅相成的。一旦直白地讲出来,诱惑和禁忌之间的张力就消失了。The open secret of violating a taboo with language that -- through its richness, wit or rage -- acknowledges the taboo is that it represents a kind of moralizing. In fact, all the magnificent potty mouths -- from D.H. Lawrence to Norman Mailer, the Beats, the rockers, the proto-punks, punks and post-punks, Richard Pryor, Sam Kinison, Patti Smith, and up through, say, Sarah Silverman and the creators of #39;South Park#39; -- have been moralizers. The late Lou Reed#39;s #39;I Wanna Be Black#39; is so full of racial slurs, obscenity and repugnant sexual imagery that I could not find one meaningful phrase to e in this newspaper. It is also a wryly indignant song that rips into the racism of liberals whose reverence for black culture is a crippling caricature of black culture.用承认禁忌存在的语言――通过丰富的语义、机智或愤怒――来违反某个禁忌,公开的秘密在于它代表着某种道德说教。事实上,所有那些满嘴脏话的大人物――从D.H.劳伦斯(D.H. Lawrence)到诺曼#12539;梅勒(Norman Mailer),到the Beats乐队、摇滚歌手、原型朋克、朋克和后朋克,理查德#12539;普莱尔(Richard Pryor)、山姆#12539;金尼逊(Sam Kinison)、帕蒂#12539;史密斯(Patti Smith),再近一点有莎拉#12539;西尔弗曼(Sarah Silverman)和《南方公园》(South Park)的制作人――都是说教者。已故的路#12539;瑞德(Lou Reed)的《我想回去》(I Wanna Be Black)充斥着种族歧视语、污言秽语和令人厌恶的性画面,我甚至无法从中找到一句有意义的话在这里进行引述。这也是一首带有挖苦式愤怒的歌,猛烈抨击了自由主义者的种族主义,他们对黑人文化的崇敬是黑人文化的一副扭曲的讽刺画。Though many of these vulgar outlaws were eventually warily embraced by the mainstream, to one degree or another, it wasn#39;t until long after their deaths that society assimilated them, still warily, and sometimes not at all. In their own lifetimes, they mostly existed on the margins or in the depths; you had to seek them out in society#39;s obscure corners. That was especially the case during the advent of new types of music. Swing, bebop, Sinatra, cool jazz, rock #39;n#39; roll -- all were specialized, youth-oriented upheavals in sound and style, and they drove the older generation crazy.尽管这些粗俗之徒中有很多人最终都在一定程度上被主流文化小心翼翼地接受了,但直到他们离世后很久,社会才对其进行吸收,依然是小心翼翼,有时甚至根本就没吸收。他们在有生之年大都存在于边缘地带或藏在深处;你得在社会的昏暗角落里找寻。在新的音乐类型出现时尤其如此。摇摆乐(swing)、咆勃爵士乐(bebop)、Sinatra、冷爵士(cool jazz)、摇滚――这些音乐都在声音和风格上更加专门化并且以年轻人为主导,它们让老一代人抓狂。These days, with every new ripple in the culture transmitted, commented-on, analyzed, mocked, mashed-up and forgotten on countless universal devices every few minutes, everything is available to everyone instantly, every second, no matter how coarse or abrasive. You used to have to find your way to Lou Reed. Now as soon as some pointlessly vulgar song gets recorded, you hear it in a clothing store.如今,每隔几分钟就有一股新的文化浪潮在无数平台上传播、被、被分析、被模仿、被混杂和被遗忘,每个人时刻都能立即接触到所有东西,无论这些东西有多么粗俗或粗糙。以前得想法设法才能找到路#12539;瑞德,而现在一旦某一首空洞粗俗的歌曲被录制,在装店就能听到。The shock value of earlier vulgarity partly lay in the fact that a hitherto suppressed impulse erupted into the public realm. Today Twitter, Snapchat, Instagram and the rest have made impulsiveness a new social norm. No one is driving anyone crazy with some new form of expression. You#39;re a parent and you don#39;t like it when Kanye West sings: #39;I sent this girl a picture of my d---. I don#39;t know what it is with females. But I#39;m not too good with that s---#39;? Shame on you.早期粗俗内容之所以如此有冲击力,部分原因在于当时被压抑已久的冲动爆发进入了公共领域。而如今,Twitter、Snapchat、Instagram及其他社交网站已经让冲动变成了一种新的社会常规。没有谁会再为新的表达形式感到抓狂。当已为人父母的你听到坎耶#12539;韦斯特(Kanye West) 唱“我给这个女孩发了一张我‘小弟弟’的照片。我不知道女人会感觉怎么样。但我跟那个贱人的感觉不怎么样”的时候,你表示不喜欢,那我真替你脸红。The fact is that you#39;re hearing the same language, witnessing the same violence, experiencing the same graphic sexual imagery on cable, or satellite radio, or the Internet, or even on good old boring network TV, where almost explicit sexual innuendo and nakedly explicit violence come fast and furious. Old and young, high and low, the idiom is the same. Everything goes.事实是,你会听到同样的语言,看到同样的暴力,会在电视、电台、网上甚至在无聊的怀旧频道上看到同样的性画面,近乎裸的性暗示和暴力迅速激烈地袭来。无论是上了年纪的人还是年轻人,高声还是低吟,说的话都一样。什么都一样。Graphic references to sex were once a way to empower the individual. The unfair boss, the dishonest general, the amoral politician might elevate themselves above other mortals and abuse their power, but everyone has a naked body and a sexual capacity with which to throw off balance the enforcers of some oppressive social norm. That is what Montaigne meant when he reminded his ers that #39;both kings and philosophers defecate.#39; Making public the permanent and leveling truths of our animal nature, through obscenity or evocations of sex, is one of democracy#39;s sacred energies. #39;Even on the highest throne in the world,#39; Montaigne writes, #39;we are still sitting on our asses.#39;对性的形象暗示曾经是赋予人权力的一种方式。不公的老板、不诚实的将军、无道德感的政客可能会把自己提到高于其他普通人的高度上并且滥用权力,但人人都有一个裸露的身体和扰乱社会规范执行者的性能力。这正是蒙田(Montaigne)在提醒读者“国王和哲学家都要排便”时所要表达的意思。通过淫秽粗俗或性唤起,将人类之动物本性这一事实永恒而地公之于众,是民主的一种神 能量。蒙田写道:“即使是世界上最高的宝座,也是被屁股坐着的。”But we#39;ve lost the cleansing quality of #39;dirty#39; speech. Now it#39;s casual, boorish, smooth and corporate. Everybody is walking around sounding like Howard Stern. The trash-talking Jay-Z and Kanye West are superwealthy businessmen surrounded by bodyguards, media consultants and image-makers. It#39;s the same in other realms, too. What was once a cable revolution against treacly, morally simplistic network television has now become a formulaic ritual of #39;complex,#39; counterintuitive, heroic bad-guy characters like the murderous Walter White on #39;Breaking Bad#39; and the lovable serial killer in #39;Dexter.#39; And the constant stream of Internet gossip and brainless factoids passing themselves off as information has normalized the grossest references to sex and violence.然而“脏话”已经丧失了 化我们的能力。现在它们已变得随便、粗鲁、流畅和官方。每个人说话都像是霍华德#12539;斯特恩(Howard Stern)。废话连篇的Jay-Z和坎耶#12539;韦斯特都是超级有钱的商人,被保镖、媒体顾问和形象制作人团团包围。其他行业也是一样。曾经针对甜腻的、道德单纯化节目的电视革命现在成了“复杂的”、违背常理的、充满英雄色的坏人角色的公式化惯例,比如《绝命毒师》(Breaking Bad)里残忍的沃特#12539;怀特(Walter White)和《嗜血法医》(Dexter)里讨人喜欢的连环杀手。无休止的网上八卦和愚蠢传闻被伪装成有用的信息,让最恶心的提及性和暴力的内容变成了正常。Back in the 1990s, growing explicitness and obscenity in popular culture gave rise to the so-called culture wars, in which the right and the left fought over the limits of free speech. Nowadays no one blames the culture for what the culture itself has become. This is, fundamentally, a positive development. Culture isn#39;t an autonomous condition that develops in isolation from other trends in society.回首1990年代,流行文化中露骨和淫秽内容的增多导致了所谓文化战争的产生,左翼和右翼群体就自由言论的界限展开了争论。现在没有人会因为文化本身的演进而批评文化。这从根本上来说是一种积极的发展。文化并不是孤立于社会上其他趋势自主发展的东西。The JFK assassination, the bloody rampage of Charles Manson and his followers, the incredible violence of the Vietnam War -- shocking history-in-the-making that was once hidden now became visible in American living rooms, night after night, through new technology, TV in particular. Culture raced to catch up with the straightforward transcriptions of current events.约翰#12539;肯尼迪(JFK)被暗杀、查尔斯#12539;曼森(Charles Manson)及其追随者的血腥屠杀、越南战争(Vietnam War)骇人听闻的暴力――曾经不为人知的令人震惊的事件,现在出现在了美国家庭的客厅里。通过新科技,尤其是电视机,人们每晚都能看到。文化加速赶上了直截了当记录时事的速度。And, of course, the tendency of the media, as old as Lord Northcliffe and the first mass-circulation newspapers, to attract business through sex and violence only accelerated. Normalized by TV and the rest of the media, the counterculture of the 1970s was smoothly assimilated into the commercial culture of the 1980s. Recall the 15-year-old Brooke Shields appearing in a commercial for Calvin Klein jeans in 1980, sping her legs and saying, #39;Do you know what comes between me and my Calvins? Nothing.#39; From then on, there was no going back.当然,那些像诺思克利夫勋爵(Lord Northcliffe)和首批大规模发行的报纸一样古老的媒体,他们通过性和暴力来吸引业务的癖好有增无减。被电视及其他媒体正常化后,1970年代的反主流文化顺利地融入了1980年代的商业文化。回想当时15岁的布鲁克#12539;希尔兹(Brooke Shields)出现在1980年Calvin Klein牛仔裤广告中,她张开双腿说道:“知道我和我的Calvin之间有什么东西吗?什么都没有。”从那以后便一发不可收拾。Today, our cultural norms are driven in large part by technology, which in turn is often shaped by the lowest impulses in the culture. Behind the Internet#39;s success in making obscene images commonplace is the dirty little fact that it was the pornography industry that revolutionized the technology of the Internet. Streaming , technology like Flash, sites that confirm the validity of credit cards were all innovations of the porn business. The Internet and pornography go together like, well, love and marriage. No wonder so much culture seems to aspire to porn#39;s depersonalization, absolute transparency and intolerance of secrets.如今,我们的文化规范在很大程度上受到科技的推动,而科技常常源自文化中最低层次的冲动。互联网成功将淫秽图片变成司空见惯的东西,这背后是色情行业将互联网科技彻底改革的肮脏事实。流媒体视频、Flash等技术、还有验信用卡有效性的网站都是色情业的创新产品。互联网和色情业就像是爱和婚姻的关系。难怪会有那么多的文化会渴望实现色情片的去人性化和绝对透明,不允许秘密的存在。An essay like this typically ends with a set of prescriptions to solve the problem laid out in the previous paragraphs. But when the culture of vulgarity is produced by so many different factors -- commercial, economic, social, aesthetic -- there is no end in sight. One can only hope that, as happens so often in America, restless impatience with the status quo will carry the day and the pendulum will swing to the other side -- not toward censorship and repression but toward the sacred power of sexual self-assertion and outlaw imprecations.这样一篇文章,一般会以列出一套解决前文所述问题的方案为结尾。但是当粗俗文化的产生源自诸多不同因素时――商业、经济、社会、美学――目前还看不到解决办法。我们只能希望,人们对现状的焦躁和不耐烦最终会战胜一切,天平会倾向另一边――并非是向审查和压制倾斜,而是向性的自我肯定的神 力量以及对法外之徒的谴责之情倾斜。在美国,人们常常只能抱有这样的希望。From Miley Cyrus#39;s brilliant, purposeful, repeated travesties of her wholesome image -- #39;This is what culture is really about now,#39; she seems to be saying -- to songs by Eminem, Lady Gaga, Kanye West and others that express disgust with their own celebrity and wealth, pop culture itself seems to yearn for a time when obscenity and graphic sexual images were morally potent rather than merely titillating and profitable. So maybe there is hope, and we will find, after all, some relief from the relentless hum of casual coarseness and vulgarity.从麦莉#12539;赛勒斯(Miley Cyrus)刻意重复塑造的耀眼健康形象――她似乎在说:“这才是当前文化的本质”――到艾米纳姆(Eminem)、蕾迪#12539;卡卡(Lady Gaga)、坎耶#12539;韦斯特及其他对自己的名气和财富表达厌恶的人,流行文化本身似乎也在怀念那个曾经的年代,那时污秽和性画面具备精神性的强大能量,而不仅仅能用来挑逗观众并从中牟利。所以或许还是有希望的,我们最终能部分摆脱粗俗低级的无休止吟唱。Or maybe not. I#39;ll still be keeping my finger on the off-button of whatever device I happen to be using in case my children happen by. Celebrity Six is a game I hope they never learn to enjoy, even as adults.不过也很难说。无论使用什么设备,我都会准备着随时立刻关闭它们,以防我的孩子碰巧路过看到。我希望“六个名人”是一个他们永远都不会想要玩的游戏,即便长大成人后也不会。 /201401/272940The ed Kingdom ranks as one of the most successful marriages in history. England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have survived ancient hatreds, tribal rivalry and war. Each nation has been enriched by a journey of enlightenment, empire, shared energy and enterprise.联合王国(ed Kingdom)是史上最成功的联姻之一。英格兰、苏格兰、威尔士和北爱尔兰经历过历史恩怨、部落敌对和战争,却最终走到了一起。启蒙运动、帝国的辉煌、共同的活力与进取,这段旅程让其中的每个民族都得到了丰富。In seven days, this splendid mess of a union, to e Simon Schama, the British historian, risks being separated into its national parts. Scotland will vote in a referendum to decide whether to stay in the UK or sunder bonds stretching back to 1707. Opinion polls suggest the result is too close to call, a prospect which has alarmed financial markets, wrongfooted allies and sent a complacent coalition government scrambling to find a last-minute sweetener to win over the Scots.几天后,这个“伟大而混乱的联盟”(借用英国历史学家西蒙#8226;沙玛(Simon Schama)的说法)就有可能分裂为不同的民族国家。苏格兰将在9月18日举行公投,投票决定是继续留在英国,还是割裂苏格兰与英格兰自1707年起结成的联盟。民意调查结果显示,持和反对独立的票数可能过于接近、难有清晰的胜负。这一前景让金融市场陷入了动荡,让英国的盟友慌了神,让原本自命不凡的英国联合政府急急忙忙寻找最后时刻的笼络手段,以争取苏格兰人留下。Empires and nation states are not immune to break-up, but there is little precedent for a hitherto stable modern democracy splitting in peacetime, in the middle of an economic recovery. This is not the time for recrimination. For the moment, it is enough for this newspaper to declare that the path of separation is a fool’s errand, one fraught with danger and uncertainty.帝国和民族国家有时不免会分裂,但一个迄今为止稳定的现代民主国家,在和平时期和经济复苏进程中分裂,这样的先例少之又少。眼下不是相互指责的时候。就目前而言,英国《金融时报》认为,仅仅这样说就足够了——分裂是一件徒劳无益、充满了危险和不确定的事情。Scotland is a proud and vibrant nation. Scots have contributed disproportionately to the union. They have played a leading role in arts, commerce, literature, the military, politics and sport. But a vote in favour of secession would be an irreversible act with profound consequences, not merely for 5m Scots but also for the other 58m citizens of England, Wales and Northern Ireland (including 750,000 Scots living and working outside Scotland who under the terms of the referendum have no say on the future of their country).苏格兰是一个充满了自豪和活力的民族。苏格兰人对联盟的贡献远远超过了其在英国总人口中所占比例。苏格兰人在艺术、商业、文学、军事、政治和体育中发挥着领先的作用。但投票决定独立是一件无法回头的事情,会产生深远影响——不仅会影响到500万苏格兰人,还会影响到其他5800万生活在英格兰、威尔士和北爱尔兰的英国人(其中包括75万在苏格兰以外生活和工作、根据公投规则无法为自己国家的未来投上一票的苏格兰人)。The act of separation would diminish the UK in every international body, notably the EU. It would raise complex – and still unanswered – questions about the common defence of the British Isles, the future of the currency and political arrangements for the rest of the UK. Above all, a Yes vote would ignore the lessons of the 20th century, a chapter in European history indelibly scarred by narrow nationalism.分裂会削弱英国在每一个国际机构中的地位,特别是在欧盟(EU)中的地位。随之而来的还有各种复杂、且仍然无解的问题,比如不列颠群岛的共同防卫、英镑的未来、以及英国其余地区在政治上的安排。最重要的是,如果投票结果持独立,那将是忽视20世纪的教训——狭隘的民族主义在欧洲的这一历史篇章中留下了永恒的伤疤。A union born of a now-lost empire is one entirely suited to the world of the 21st century. The nation states that prosper in the age of globalisation are ones that bind themselves together in mutual endeavour. The experience of small states in the wake of the financial crisis is far from happy. Iceland and Ireland were left cruelly exposed. Further east, the Baltic states, brave and resourceful as the Scots, are members of the EU and Nato but still feel vulnerable to the bear’s paw of a revanchist Russia.脱胎于如今已消逝的大英帝国的英格兰与苏格兰的联盟完全适合于21世纪的世界。在全球化时代蓬勃发展的民族国家,是那些通过共同努力实现民族联合的国家。金融危机后那些小国的经历堪称悲惨。冰岛和爱尔兰当时都非常无助。往东,与苏格兰人一样勇敢和足智多谋的波罗的海国家,尽管是欧盟和北约(Nato)成员国,但在复仇主义俄罗斯的熊爪面前仍然自觉脆弱。The case against secession cannot rest on nostalgia, though the Better Together campaign has been lamentably short of passion compared with the energetic, well-funded Yes effort run by Alex Salmond, the beguiling first minister of Scotland. It must rest first on an understanding of the political forces which have made independence a tempting prospect for Scots, as well as a hard-nosed assessment of the risks involved for all concerned.反对分裂不能只打怀旧牌,但令人扼腕的是,“在一起更好”(Better Together)运动与“独立苏格兰”(Yes Scotland)运动相比太缺乏了。富有迷惑力的苏格兰首席大臣亚历克斯#8226;萨尔蒙德(Alex Salmond)领导的“独立苏格兰”运动则充满活力,且资金充裕。要有理有据地反对分裂,首先要理解是哪些政治作用力使得独立成为苏格兰人向往的前景,并对涉及所有相关方的风险进行注重实际的评估。The debate about devolving power to Scotland goes back more than a century. Keir Hardie, the Scottish Labour leader, proposed home rule in 1888 but his call carried little resonance. Scots were playing a leading role in ruling one-quarter of the world’s population. Glasgow was famed as the “second city of the empire”.关于向苏格兰下放权力的辩论可追溯至一个多世纪以前。1888年,当时的苏格兰工党领袖基尔#8226;哈迪(Keir Hardie)曾呼吁苏格兰自治,但反响不大。那时的大英帝国统治着全世界四分之一的人口,而苏格兰人正积极参与这种统治。格拉斯哥在当时被誉为“大英帝国第二大城市”。The ties that bind have loosened over the past 70 years. The empire is gone, and the workshop of the world is no more. Scotland’s transition to a post-industrialised economy has been painful, though its overall economic performance over recent decades has been strong.曾经紧密的纽带在过去70年中渐渐松弛。大英帝国已逝去,英国也不再是“世界工厂”。苏格兰经济在后工业时代经历了痛苦的转型,不过在近几十年,其经济一直整体表现强劲。England and Scotland have grown apart politically. In the 1950s, the Conservative and Unionist party – to remind David Cameron’s party of its proper name – had an absolute majority of parliamentary seats in Scotland. Today, the Tory party’s representation has shrunk to a single MP, partly a legacy of Margaret Thatcher’s ill-judged poll tax and the benign neglect of a strong pound which devastated manufacturing north and south of the border. The discovery of North Sea oil in the 1960s further reinforced Scottish nationalism.英格兰和苏格兰在政治上渐行渐远。上世纪50年代,在英国国会里代表苏格兰各选区的议席中,保守与统一党(Conservative and Unionist party,保守党的现任首相戴维#8226;卡梅伦应注意,这才是保守党的全称)占绝对多数。如今,托利党(Tory party,保守党的别称——译者注)议席缩减为仅1席。这在某种程度上要归罪于玛格丽特#8226;撒切尔(Margaret Thatcher)当年失策的人头税,以及对英镑走强的善意忽视(强势英镑摧毁了苏格兰和英格兰的制造业)。上世纪60年代北海发现石油,进一步助长了苏格兰人的民族主义。Tony Blair believed he could stymie the nationalist movement with more devolution of powers. His Labour government established a Scottish parliament at Holyrood. In retrospect, devolution did nothing to halt the secular decline of Labour in Scotland. Too many of the party’s heavyweights treated Scotland as a rotten borough to help them to power in London. Devolution may have encouraged further divergence on policies such as pensions, social care or university education from those in England.托尼#8226;布莱尔(Tony Blair)以为他可以通过加大权力下放来阻止民族主义运动。他领导的工党政府在爱丁堡的圣路德(Holyrood)建立了苏格兰议会。回过头来看,权力下放丝毫未能阻止工党在苏格兰的长期衰落。工党太多重量级人物都曾将苏格兰当作“烂行政区”(rotten borough,指《1832年改革法案》(Reform Act 1832)出台前,英国的一些选民数量极少、因而选票容易纵的行政区——译者注),借之帮助自己在伦敦高升。权力下放或许促使了苏格兰与英格兰在养老、社会保障、大学教育等政策方面的差异进一步扩大。Mr Salmond, a seasoned operator, has exploited the populist mood. Voters are angry about austerity caused by the financial crisis and alienated from the political establishment. Mr Salmond casts himself as an insurgent representing a new brand of civic nationalism in which the Scots will have control over their fate in a fresh young democracy.萨尔蒙德是个老道的操纵者,他一直在利用这种民粹主义情绪。选民对金融危机导致的紧缩政策感到愤怒,与政治当权派产生了隔阂。萨尔蒙德将自己塑造为一个反叛者,代表一种新的公民民族主义,跟随这种民族主义,苏格兰人将通过一个崭新的新生民主国家掌握自己的命运。Mr Salmond can tug on the emotions of his fellow countrymen but he has given few credible answers about the challenges – economic, social and international – which would face Scotland. His Panglossian pitch is that the Scots can have the best of all possible worlds: independence, the monarchy and the pound, and that a Scotland which retreats into a narrower nationalist identity will somehow be better equipped to prosper in a world of globalisation.萨尔蒙德可以利用同胞的感情,但对于苏格兰可能面临的经济、社会和国际方面的挑战,他没有给出多少可信的。他的论调洋溢着过分乐观主义,说苏格兰可以拥有一切最好的——独立、君主制、还有英镑;他还说,苏格兰在退回更狭隘的民族主义身份之后,将以某种方式变得更适于在全球化世界中蓬勃发展。His argument contains glaring inconsistencies. A currency union demands a political union. The eurozone’s travails show us as much. Mark Carney, governor of the Bank of England, made clear again this week that political independence is incompatible with maintaining sterling as the currency of choice. Mr Salmond insists the English establishment is bluffing. This is no bluff. The currency uncertainty will blight every aspect of the Scottish economy, from commercial lending to mortgages. Without total clarity, every Scottish citizen is left exposed.他的主张有显而易见的矛盾之处。货币联盟要求政治联盟。欧元区的痛苦经历就充分表明了这一点。英国央行(BoE)行长马克#8226;卡尼(Mark Carney)上周已明确表示,政治独立与保留英镑为法定货币,两者不可兼得。萨尔蒙德坚称,英格兰当权派是在危言耸听。但这不是危言耸听。货币方面的不确定将让苏格兰经济的每个方面蒙上阴影,从商业贷款到抵押贷款。没有充分的确定性,每个苏格兰公民都面临风险。Mr Salmond claims that separation is the best guarantee of future prosperity. His calculations are based on much wishful thinking covering vital matters such as the future oil price and how much of the UK’s debt would be assumed by the Scots. He presumes that it serves no one’s interest to be unreasonable about the terms of divorce, but he under-estimates the psychological shock. No one can predict the consequences.萨尔蒙德宣称,独立是未来繁荣的最佳保。他打的算盘大都基于一厢情愿的想法,掩盖了未来石油价格、苏格兰将承担多大份额的英国债务等关键问题。他认为,提出离谱的分家条款对任何人都没有好处,但他低估了心理的冲击。没有人能预测到这会产生何种影响。Nor is it obvious why Scotland will gain early and automatic entry into the EU. Other European states with their own separatist movements – notably Spain – have little incentive to agree to a quick deal. The only certainty is uncertainty, at a high cost to Scotland and the UK. The shift of deposits and money out of Scotland this week is a harbinger.苏格兰为何将能尽早和“自动”加入欧盟也令人费解。其他存在分裂运动的欧盟国家,特别是西班牙,没有多少动力同意迅速达成苏格兰入盟协议。唯一确定的事就是不确定,这对苏格兰和英国都意味着高昂的代价。上周存款和资金流出苏格兰,就是一个兆头。There must be a better way. Britain needs a new political settlement that implements at home what it preaches in Europe: subsidiarity. For too long, the British government has imposed a “Whitehall-knows-best” policy on the nations and regions. More devolution is the answer, but not at any price. Mr Cameron and his London-based colleagues should t carefully in the coming days. It is far from clear how England, the preponderant power, would fit into a federalised union in which Scotland enjoyed all political gifts short of independence.必然存在更好的方式。英国需要新的政治安排,将其在欧洲鼓吹的辅助原则(subsidiarity,即中央权力机构应起辅助作用,只履行地方机构不能履行的职责——译者注)应用到自己身上。太长时间以来,英国政府对各民族和各地区都实行“白厅最懂”政策。加大权力下放是解决方法,但不是不惜代价。未来几天,卡梅伦和他的伦敦同僚们应该小心行事。在一个让苏格兰享有除独立以外的一切政治好处的联邦制联盟中,占有优势的英格兰该如何摆正自己的位置,这一点还远不清楚。Everything turns on the vote on September 18. It is not too late to remind the Scots and the rest of the UK how much they have benefited from being British. Great Britain stands for an expansive and inclusive view of the world. The union is something precious, not a bauble to be cast aside. In a week’s time, the Scots can vote with a sense of ambition to build on those successes. Rather than retreat into tribalism, they can continue to be part of a nation rooted not just in history and culture but a common destiny which over three centuries has served all so well.9月18日投票那一天,一切都会改变。我们应该提醒苏格兰人和其他地方的英国人,英国人的身份带给了他们多少好处,现在提醒还不晚。大不列颠代表一种视野开阔、具有包容性的世界观。英国这个联盟是宝物,不是什么可以随便扔掉的小玩意。几天后,苏格兰人就可以带着续写成功的豪情投票了。与其退回部落主义,他们可以继续做联合王国的一部分,这个国家不仅根源于历史和文化,还根源于三个多世纪以来带给所有人福祉的共同目标。 /201409/328390在泉州眼皮抽脂多少钱

泉州欧菲纹眉#39;I#39;M A CAPITALIST, I#39;m a CEO, I run a big business, I#39;m an employer,#39; says Sophia Amoruso, the 29-year-old head of Nasty Gal, the online fashion retail empire that she transformed from an eBay vintage store into a 0 million company in just seven years. #39;But it#39;s all secondary to the way it happened, because I could be anything.#39; 在线时装零售帝国Nasty Gal的29岁老板索菲娅?阿莫鲁索(Sophia Amoruso)说:“我是资本家,我是CEO,我开有一家大公司,我是雇主。但这一切都没有过程更重要,因为我感觉自己可以心想事成。”仅用七年时间,阿莫鲁索就把Nasty Gal从一家eBay上的旧衣网店打造成一家价值2.4亿美元(约合人民币14.7亿元)的公司。 Sitting in the back garden of New York#39;s Crosby Street Hotel dressed in a crocheted lace dress and a trench draped over her shoulders, Amoruso is reflecting on the period of her life between age 17-when she left home in Sacramento to dumpster dive, work in record stores and side with anarchism while she floated up and down the West Coast-and 22, when she started Nasty Gal. She named the company after the song by funk musician Betty Davis, the second wife of Miles Davis. #39;I#39;ve accepted what I have, and I feel like I#39;ve completely done it on my own terms,#39; says Amoruso, who is now based in Los Angeles. 阿莫鲁索坐在纽约克罗斯比街酒店(Crosby Street Hotel)的后花园里,身穿一件针织蕾丝裙,肩上披着一件风衣,回味着她从17岁到22岁间的那段人生。17岁时,她离开萨克拉门托(Sacramento)的老家,一边捡破烂、给唱片店打工、持无政府主义,一边在西海岸晃荡。22岁时,她创办了“Nasty Gal”(脏女孩)公司。公司名字取自放克乐艺人、迈尔斯?戴维斯(Miles Davis)第二任妻子贝蒂?戴维斯(Betty Davis)的同名歌曲。现在常驻洛杉矶的阿莫鲁索说:“我已经接受了自己所拥有的一切,而且感觉完全是按照我自己的想法来做的。” What Amoruso has created is a sizeable niche business in the high-margin fast-fashion space. Her company sells edgy, retro-inspired looks at reasonable prices- tops, dresses-and some actual vintage items to a rabidly loyal customer base of young women, frothed up by almost constant social media interaction. (Detractors might say the hemlines are too high and necklines too low.) Nasty Gal has been experiencing a growth spurt, with no advertising and little discounting. That its successes-and Amoruso-are difficult to characterize has made its ascent all the more enthralling. So what is Nasty Gal, exactly? 阿莫鲁索创办的是快速时尚这个高利润行业里一家规模可观的小众化公司。她的公司出售前卫、复古的衣装,价格适中,上衣50美元(约合人民币307元)一件,连衣裙70美元(约合人民币429元)一件,另外公司还出售一些真正有年头的衣。客户群体是一群越来越忠实、几乎不断与社交媒体互动的年轻女性。(批评者或许会说下摆太高、领口太低。)在不打广告、很少有折扣的情况下,Nasty Gal依然经历了急剧增长。这家公司以及阿莫鲁索本人的成功很难被特征化,这使得它的成长过程更加让人着迷。那么Nasty Gal究竟是什么呢? It began humbly. In 2006, Amoruso had just dropped out of photography school. She turned her passion for vintage clothes into a small business, run from her Mac laptop in her bedroom of her ex-boyfriend#39;s San Francisco apartment, reselling key finds on eBay and promoting them via Nasty Gal#39;s Myspace page. The entire looks Amoruso constructed, using models and her own styling, were far from the bad photos of an old rock T-shirt on a mannequin that comprises the majority of visual presentation on eBay. She#39;d sell a Chanel leather jacket she bought for at the Salvation Army for over ,000. These margins, matched with her careful eye, made for a booming cottage business. 它出身寒微。2006年,阿莫鲁索刚刚从摄影学校退学,她以自己对陈年衣的热爱创办了一家小公司,在前男友旧金山公寓的卧室里用一台Mac笔记本电脑运营。她倒卖eBay上淘到的重要物件,并通过Nasty Gal的Myspace页面推广。阿莫鲁索利用模板加上自己的风格设计制作了公司的Myspace页面,整个视觉效果完全不同于那种假人模特身穿一件旧摇滚T恤的劣质照片――eBay上的大多数图片广告都属于这种。她在宗教慈善组织“救世军”(Salvation Army)买到一件8美元(约合人民币49元)的香奈儿(Chanel)皮上衣,转手一卖就卖出了1,000美元(约合人民币6,130元)以上。这样的利润率加上她的慧眼形成了这个红红火火的作坊式企业。 #39;In the beginning, I was basically paying the models with hamburgers,#39; she says. #39;They were normal high school girls that you find on Myspace. I would buy them lunch and maybe give them a day.#39; Using approachable-looking models has persisted with Nasty Gal#39;s growth. #39;We#39;re cool, but we#39;re inclusive, which I think in fashion is not that common.#39; 她说:“刚开始时,我基本上只能请模特吃汉堡包。她们都是Myspace上的普通高中女生。我会请她们吃午饭,一天可能会给她们20美元(约合人民币123元)。”在Nasty Gal不断扩张的过程中,聘用平易近人的模特这一点一直没有改变。“我们很酷,但也很包容,这点我觉得在时装界就没那么常见了。” Eventually, the demand from her 60,000 Myspace friends outgrew what she could supply with vintage finds and her eBay store. She bought the site nastygalvintage.com (nastygal.com was, at the time, a pornography site; she#39;s since purchased the domain name) and began approaching labels with a provocative edge, like MinkPink and Jeffrey Campbell, to participate. 最终,由于六万个Myspace友邻的需求越来越大,阿莫鲁索淘到的陈年衣和她的eBay店已经供不应求,于是她买下了网站nastygalvintage.com(当时nastygal.com还是一个色情网站,她把域名买了下来),开始邀请MinkPink和Jeffrey Campbell等有着性感冲击力的大品牌参加。 By 2010, equity firms and venture capitalists were banging down her door, but Amoruso barely entertained them. #39;I built a huge profitable business with no debt,#39; she says. #39;I put every drop of profit from this business back into it. That#39;s why it#39;s successful.#39; 到2010年时,私募和风投已经在猛敲阿莫鲁索的房门,而她只是很勉强地接待了他们。她说:“我不背债就建立了一家利润丰厚的大公司。我把这家公司赚到的每一丁点利润又投入回去,这正是它成功的原因。” When she finally did need help expanding, in 2012, Amoruso took million from Danny Rimer of Index Ventures-an early investor in success stories like Asos, Net-A-Porter and Farfetch-and leased a 500,000-square-foot fulfillment center in Kentucky. Like most of Nasty Gal#39;s new endeavors, the decision to go with Rimer came from Amoruso#39;s gut. #39;I don#39;t really have any mercenary relationships in the business, and Danny is someone I really like as a person, who I#39;m friends with, who is like family,#39; she says. #39;No one was investing in Net-A-Porter, no one was investing in Asos [when Rimer approached them]. Index is contrarian in their thinking, which I am.#39; 2012年,阿莫鲁索终于需要有人来帮忙做扩张了,于是她从Index Ventures公司的丹尼?里默尔(Danny Rimer)――Asos、Net-A-Porter和Farfetch成功故事背后的早期投资者――那里拿了5,000万美元(约合人民币3亿元),在肯塔基州租了一个50万平方英尺(约合4.6万平方米)的配送中心。和Nasty Gal的大多数新尝试一样,与里默尔合作的决定也是出自阿莫鲁索的本性。“这里面几乎没什么惟利是图的关系,丹尼这个人是我真正喜欢的,他跟我是朋友,像家人一样。”她说:“当里默尔与前述几家公司接触的时候,还没人打算投资Net-A-Porter,也没人投资Asos。Index公司的思维是一种反向思维,我也是这样。” One way Nasty Gal has kept margins thick is through its approach to promotion. Until recently it didn#39;t advertise. The company has little to no overstock, thanks to the limited runs it offers to those customers eagerly awaiting Facebook updates-a rarity in a business that relies on discounting (though, more recently, discounting has been featured on the site). Since 2011, its number of Facebook fans has increased tenfold, to nearly 831,055. The company has even more Instagram followers. #39;Nasty Gal really emerged from a conversation,#39; says Amoruso. #39;I#39;ve probably spent more time than any other brand ing every last comment. To listen to people the way you#39;re able to online is very powerful. I think other companies are just starting to figure that out.#39; Nasty Gal保持丰厚利润率的一个窍门在于它的推广方法。它直到最近才开始打广告。公司存货很少,甚至没有存货,它向那些焦急等待Facebook更新的客户们提供小批量产品――在一个依靠打折生存的行业里,这是非常少见的(不过后来Nasty Gal网站上也推出了打折活动)。公司的Facebook粉丝数量已经增至831,055人,是2011年的10倍,Instagram上的粉丝比这还多。阿莫鲁索说:“Nasty Gal其实是在对话中产生的。我阅读每一条最新留言,在这上面花的时间估计比其他任何品牌都多。利用你在网上能够利用的途径听别人说话,是非常有用的。我觉得别的公司才刚刚开始明白这一点。” Rimer agrees: #39;What led us to Nasty Gal was the fact that Sophia had created something extremely special in terms of a connection between what she was doing and her customer base.#39; 里默尔也是这么认为的。他说:“吸引我们去找Nasty Gal的,是索菲娅创造了某种极其特殊的东西,其特殊之处就在于她所做的事情与她的客户群体之间的某种关联。” Sharon Langlotz, a 25-year-old producer at the ad firm Anomaly, found Nasty Gal when she was looking for a Cheap Monday dress. #39;I found it on Pinterest first,#39; she says. #39;I tracked it to the Nasty Gal site,#39; where her eye was caught by the #39;trendy#39; apparel that was #39;not too pricey#39; and reminded her of the stylish clothing she sees on street-style fashion blogs. She now follows Nasty Gal on Instagram, Pinterest and Facebook, checking in with the site twice a week. #39;I fill up my shopping cart and dream,#39; she says, adding that Nasty Gal has changed the way she views online shopping. Anomaly广告公司 25岁的制作人沙伦?朗洛茨(Sharon Langlotz)在找一件“Cheap Monday”(瑞典装品牌“廉价星期一”)裙子的时候发现了Nasty Gal。她说:“我先是在Pinterest上面看到了它,然后顺藤摸瓜找到了Nasty Gal网站。”在这个网站上,她被那些“不是很贵”、让她想起街拍时尚客上那些时髦着装的“潮流”衣吸引住了。现在她在Instagram、Pinterest和Facebook上都关注了Nasty Gal,并且一个星期两次登陆Nasty Gal网站签到。她说:“我装满了购物车,然后开始做梦。”她还说,Nasty Gal改变了她对网上购物的看法。 But the social media component would be nothing if the clothes themselves weren#39;t selling. #39;This is the embodiment of the high-low phenomena-women wearing a Chanel dress with the Banana Republic T-shirt underneath-in a way I#39;ve never seen before,#39; says Mortimer Singer, CEO of Marvin Traub Associates, which works in business development for top fashion brands. #39;They can keep a fashion edge by having something vintage, which is luxury by nature and, on the flip side, have a reaction to what is happening in the marketplace. They can have their cake and eat it-that#39;s the genius here.#39; 但如果衣本身卖不动,社交媒体部分就会一文不值。Marvin Traub Associates是一家为顶级时装品牌做业务开拓的公司,其CEO莫蒂默?辛格(Mortimer Singer)说:“这是‘高低混搭’现象的体现,也就是女士穿着香奈儿的裙子,里面再穿一件香蕉共和国(Banana Republic)的T恤――这种穿法我以前从未见过。”她说:“穿戴些复古装束,可以让她们走在时尚前列,因为穿陈年饰本身就很奢侈;而另一面,这样穿又是对市场流行的一种反动。鱼与熊掌就能兼得――这就是高明之处。” Amoruso is attempting another move: in-house designs; this season will mark the third collection by Nasty Gal. #39;Designing was the natural next step for us. It#39;s going on seven years for me that I#39;ve been selling clothing to the same awesome girl. And we#39;ve understood the kind of silhouettes and cuts that she likes over time,#39; says Amoruso. To spearhead the in-house label, she poached her vice president of design, Sarah Wilkinson, from Asos and hired a print designer, Lauren McCalmont, who had worked for Nicholas Kirkwood and Peter Pilotto. She restricts the majority of her input to final say over concepts. #39;I approve it or say it needs to be sexier.#39; Currently, the Nasty Gal label and collection comprise 30 percent of its sales. 阿莫鲁索又在做新的尝试了:自主设计。本季将有Nasty Gal设计的第三个系列推出。阿莫鲁索说:“设计是我们顺水推舟的下一步。七年来我一直是在向同一个了不起的女孩卖衣,随着时间的推移,我们理解了她所喜欢的轮廓与剪裁。”为给自主品牌开路,她从Asos挖来莎拉?威尔金森(Sarah Wilkinson)当设计副总裁,又聘请曾为Nicholas Kirkwood和Peter Pilotto效力的劳伦?麦卡尔蒙特(Lauren McCalmont)当平面设计师。她把自己的大多数精力都限定在对概念的定夺上。“我会来批准,或者会跟他们说,需要设计得更性感些。”目前Nasty Gal的自主品牌装占其销售额的30%。 In 2012, Nasty Gal claimed those sales hit almost 0 million, more than quadrupling revenue from two years before, though the company now calls those numbers speculative. Much of that success is owed to their customers#39; intense engagement: 550,000 shoppers check out the site for an average length of six minutes once a day. Nasty Gal claims that their top 10 percent of users look at the site more than 100 times a month. And yet half of its sales come from 20 percent of its customers. Nasty Gal girls might not be loyal to any one label, but they sure are loyal to Nasty Gal. Next up, the company is building 65,000 square feet of office space in Los Angeles. 2012年,Nasty Gal声称自主品牌的销售额接近1.3亿美元(约合人民币8亿元),超过两年之前的四倍。不过现在该公司说这些数字只是猜测。这样的成功,很大程度上归功于客户的深度参与:5.5万名顾客平均每天要花六分钟的时间在其网站上找东西。Nasty Gal声称,前10%的用户一个月登陆网站的次数超过100次,而半数销售额都来自前20%的顾客。“Nasty Gal女孩”或许不会忠于任何唯一的品牌,但她们肯定忠于Nasty Gal。接下来,该公司要在洛杉矶建设6.5万平方英尺(约合6万平方米)的办公场所。 In her personal life, Amoruso is making moves as well. She is dating a man she knew from when #39;I was a scruffy, grimy, little anarchist dumpster diver in Seattle,#39; and pitching a book about #39;the business world from an outsider#39;s view.#39; (She plans to title one chapter #39;Living the Rap Dream.#39;) While she retains her independence and attitude from those days, her personal aesthetic has taken a upmarket turn. She is remodeling her new home and recently bought a Porsche, though when doing so, she found her former life creating a small stumbling block: The dealership would not offer her financing (until recently, she had trouble even getting credit cards). #39;I was willing to put half down on a loan, and they wouldn#39;t let me finance the other half,#39; she says. #39;I had to pay cash.#39; 阿莫鲁索的个人生活也在不断取得进展。她正在同一个男人交往,两人相识于“我还是西雅图一个邋邋遢遢、脏兮兮、小小的无政府主义拾荒者”的时候。另外她还在推销一本“从局外人角度看商界”的书。(她打算将其中一章的标题写为“说唱之梦成为现实”。)虽然阿莫鲁索仍保留着她当年的独立与态度,但其个人审美还是在向上流靠拢。她正在改造新买的住宅,前不久她还买了一辆保时捷,不过在买车的时候,她才发现自己以前的人生造成了一个小小的绊脚石:经销商不给她提供贷款。(其实之前她连信用卡都很难办下来,直到最近才有所改善。)她说:“我都肯付五成首付了,他们就是不肯让我贷另外一半。我不得不付全款。” /201309/258343泉州欧菲整形医院是什么时候成立的 福建泉州妇女医院要预约吗

泉州市欧菲医学美容医院是私立Leopard prints have always played an important role in fashion,豹纹其实一直都在时尚中占有不败的地位,whether it#39;s spring, summer, fall or winter,不论春夏秋冬,we can always use leopard prints to mix and match.大家都可以用不同的方式穿搭豹纹,Leopard shoes, bags, tops/jackets, skirts/pants or scarves,豹纹鞋、豹纹包、豹纹裙、豹纹上衣/夹克、豹纹裙/裤子或是豹纹围巾,they are all perfect items for outfit styling.都是很好画龙点睛的单品。This time, I tried to match a wardrobe staple, white shirt, with a leopard print skirt,这次我就用最百搭的白衬衫搭配一件画龙点睛的豹纹裙或搭配,the classic and wild combo somehow made it work.Guess wild animal prints can also be elegant 。让看似狂野的动物纹单品也可以显得很优雅。 /201409/329987 Not long after moving to the University of Southampton, Constantine Sedikides had lunch with a colleague in the psychology department and described some unusual symptoms he#39;d been feeling. A few times a week, he was suddenly hit with nostalgia for his previous home at the University of North Carolina: memories of old friends, Tar Heel basketball games, fried okra, the sweet smells of autumn in Chapel Hill.搬到英国南安普顿大学之后(University of Southampton)不久的一天,康斯坦丁·斯蒂基特(Constantine Sedikides)和一个心理学系的同事共进午餐,讨论他最近一些不同寻常的感觉:每周里总有那么些时间,他会突然被怀旧之情所击中,想念他之前在美国北卡罗来纳州立大学(University of North Carolina)的家、老朋友、大学著名的Tar Heel篮球队的比赛、炸秋葵,还有教堂山城中秋天甜美的气息。His colleague, a clinical psychologist, made an immediate diagnosis. He must be depressed. Why else live in the past? Nostalgia had been considered a disorder ever since the term was coined by a 17th-century Swiss physician who attributed soldiers#39; mental and physical maladies to their longing to return home — nostos in Greek, and the accompanying pain, algos.斯蒂基特的同事是一位临床心理学家。他迅速给斯蒂基特做了个诊断:一定是抑郁症。还有什么其他原因会让你沉浸在过去呢?自从17世纪的瑞士医生发明“怀旧”这个单词以来,怀旧一直被认为是一种心理紊乱。这位瑞士医生将士兵们的精神与身体疾病都归咎于他们急切回家的心理,这在希腊语中被称为nostos——“怀旧”的英文单词nostagia的前半部分词根。而后半部分词根的algos,则意为“随之而来的痛苦”。But Dr. Sedikides didn#39;t want to return to any home — not to Chapel Hill, not to his native Greece — and he insisted to his lunch companion that he wasn#39;t in pain.但斯蒂基特士并不想回家——至少不是美国教堂山的家,也不是他的老家希腊。他坚持己见,告诉他的同事:他并没有痛苦的感觉。;I told him I did live my life forward, but sometimes I couldn#39;t help thinking about the past, and it was rewarding,; he says. ;Nostalgia made me feel that my life had roots and continuity. It made me feel good about myself and my relationships. It provided a texture to my life and gave me strength to move forward.;“我告诉他我是一个向前看的人。有时我确实忍不住会怀念过往,但这是有好处的。”他说,“怀旧让我觉得生活有根源与连续性。它让我喜欢自己和身边的人,将我的生活历程编织理顺,给我前进的勇气。”The colleague remained skeptical, but ultimately Dr. Sedikides prevailed. That lunch in 1999 inspired him to pioneer a field that today includes dozens of researchers around the world using tools developed at his social-psychology laboratory, including a questionnaire called the Southampton Nostalgia Scale. After a decade of study, nostalgia isn#39;t what it used to be — it#39;s looking a lot better.他的同事还是表示怀疑,但最终斯蒂基特士赢得了辩论。1999年的这顿午餐给予他启发,使他开创了一个新领域。他在其社会心理学实验室里研制了一套工具,包括一个叫“南安普顿怀旧量表”的调查问卷,如今世界上许多研究者依然在使用这些工具进行研究。经过十余年的研究后,怀旧已经不像人们当年所想的那样糟糕,它的形象变得好多了。Nostalgia has been shown to counteract loneliness, boredom and anxiety. It makes people more generous to strangers and more tolerant of outsiders. Couples feel closer and look happier when they#39;re sharing nostalgic memories. On cold days, or in cold rooms, people use nostalgia to literally feel warmer.从研究结果看来,怀旧可以减少孤独、无聊与焦虑。它让人们对陌生人更加慷慨,对外人更加容忍。当夫妻们拥有共同的怀旧记忆,他们会感觉更亲密快乐。在寒冷的房间里,怀旧会使人们感觉温暖。Nostalgia does have its painful side — it#39;s a bittersweet emotion — but the net effect is to make life seem more meaningful and death less frightening. When people speak wistfully of the past, they typically become more optimistic and inspired about the future.怀旧确实也有痛苦的一面。这是一个苦中带甜的体验,但将利弊权衡来看,怀旧依然能让生活显得更加有意义,让死亡感觉不那么可怕。当人们无限依恋地谈论着过往时,他们通常会对未来更加乐观与富有信心。;Nostalgia makes us a bit more human,; Dr. Sedikides says. He considers the first great nostalgist to be Odysseus, an itinerant who used memories of his family and home to get through hard times, but Dr. Sedikides emphasizes that nostalgia is not the same as homesickness. It#39;s not just for those away from home, and it#39;s not a sickness, despite its historical reputation.“怀旧使我们更人性。”斯蒂基特士说。他认为第一个伟大的怀旧者是奥德修斯(Odysseus,《荷马史诗》中的希腊伊卡岛王,流浪十年终回故土与亲人团聚——译注),曾用亲人与家庭的回忆以撑他度过痛苦的岁月。但斯蒂基特士强调,怀旧并不等同于思乡病,它并不只作用于离家的游子。即使其历史声誉不良,怀旧也不是一种病。Nostalgia was originally described as a ;neurological disease of essentially demonic cause; by Johannes Hoffer, the Swiss doctor who coined the term in 1688. Military physicians speculated that its prevalence among Swiss mercenaries abroad was due to earlier damage to the soldiers#39; ear drums and brain cells by the unremitting clanging of cowbells in the Alps.约翰森·贺佛尔(Johannes Hoffer),那个最初在1688年发明“怀旧”单词的瑞士医生,将它定义为“可导致器质恶性疾病的神经系统疾病”。军队医生们猜测,派驻外国的瑞士雇佣兵中无比流行的怀旧病,是因为他们的耳膜与脑细胞有过早期损伤。受伤的来源则是阿尔卑斯山上永不停息的声声牛铃叮当。A Universal Feeling同样的感受In the 19th and 20th centuries nostalgia was variously classified as an ;immigrant psychosis,; a form of ;melancholia; and a ;mentally repressive compulsive disorder; among other pathologies. But when Dr. Sedikides, Tim Wildschut and other psychologists at Southampton began studying nostalgia, they found it to be common around the world, including in children as young as 7 (who look back fondly on birthdays and vacations).19到20世纪时,怀旧曾被归于“移民精神疾病”、“抑郁症中的一种”、”脑部压抑强迫症”等各种疾病里。但当南安普顿大学的斯蒂基特士、提姆·维尔德舒特(Tim Wildschut)与其他心理学家开始研究怀旧后,他们发现这在世界范围内是一个很正常的现象,甚至年幼如7岁的孩子们,就已经有怀旧现象(他们会愉快地怀念生日与假期)。;The defining features of nostalgia in England are also the defining features in Africa and South America,; Dr. Wildschut says. The topics are universal — reminiscences about friends and family members, holidays, weddings, songs, sunsets, lakes. The stories tend to feature the self as the protagonist surrounded by close friends.“英国对怀旧特征的定义,和在非洲与南美是相同的。”维尔德舒特说。它们拥有共同的主题,如对朋友家人、假期、婚礼、歌曲、落日、湖泊等的怀念。每个故事里都倾向将自己定义为主角,有亲密朋友环绕四周。Most people report experiencing nostalgia at least once a week, and nearly half experience it three or four times a week. These reported bouts are often touched off by negative events and feelings of loneliness, but people say the ;nostalgizing; — researchers distinguish it from reminiscing — helps them feel better.大部分人称每周内至少会经历一次怀旧感受,而几乎一半人每周会有3至4次怀旧体验。研究者们将“怀旧”与“思乡”加以区别,怀旧情绪通常由消极事件与孤独感受唤起。但人们说,怀旧能帮助他们情绪变好。To test these effects in the laboratory, researchers at Southampton induced negative moods by having people about a deadly disaster and take a personality test that supposedly revealed them to be exceptionally lonely. Sure enough, the people depressed about the disaster victims or worried about being lonely became more likely to wax nostalgic. And the strategy worked: They subsequently felt less depressed and less lonely.南安普顿的研究者们也在实验室里测试了这些影响。他们让人们阅读一篇描述致命事故的文章,另外用性格测试找出那些有极度孤独情绪的受试者。果不其然,那些为事故受害者伤心的人与害怕孤独的人们,相比而言更容易沾染上怀旧情绪。而怀旧确实有所作用:他们会感觉并不那么抑郁与孤单了。Nostalgic stories aren#39;t simple exercises in cheeriness, though. The memories aren#39;t all happy, and even the joys are mixed with a wistful sense of loss. But on the whole, the positive elements greatly outnumber the negative elements, as the Southampton researchers found by methodically analyzing stories collected in the laboratory as well as in a magazine named Nostalgia.但这些怀旧的体验并不只有积极的一面。我们的回忆里并不全是笑声。而回忆带给我们的欢乐中,也总掺杂着若有所失的怅惘。但总体而言,怀旧的益处还是大大超越其害处。南安普顿的研究者们进行了系统分析,他们在实验室中采集数据,还分析了一本叫《怀旧》(Nostalgia)的杂志中刊登的故事,得到这一结论。;Nostalgic stories often start badly, with some kind of problem, but then they tend to end well, thanks to help from someone close to you,; Dr. Sedikides says. ;So you end up with a stronger feeling of belonging and affiliation, and you become more generous toward others.;“怀旧的故事通常有很不好的开头,一般都带着一些问题,但它们总能有个好的结局,因为有亲近的人给予你帮助,”斯蒂基特士说,“所以你能以一种强烈的归属感结束怀旧体验,而会对他人更宽容慷慨。”A quick way to induce nostalgia is through music, which has become a favorite tool of researchers. In an experiment in the Netherlands, Ad J. J. M. Vingerhoets of Tilburg University and colleagues found that listening to songs made people feel not only nostalgic but also warmer physically.音乐可以很快引发怀旧,于是它成为研究者们最喜欢的工具。在荷兰蒂尔堡大学(Tilburg University)的一个实验里,研究者文格霍特(Ad J. J. M. Vingerhoets)与其同事发现,听音乐不仅可以让人怀旧,还能感觉到身体更温暖。That warm glow was investigated in southern China by Xinyue Zhou of Sun Yat-Sen University. By tracking students over the course of a month, she and colleagues found that feelings of nostalgia were more common on cold days. The researchers also found that people in a cool room (68 degrees Fahrenheit) were more likely to nostalgize than people in warmer rooms.在中国南方的中山大学里,周欣悦仔细探索了这种温暖效应。她和她的同事花了一个月时间追踪记录学生们,结果发现在寒冷天气里,这种怀旧情绪更为常见。研究者们也发现,当人们呆在20度的凉爽房间里时,他们比呆在暖和房间里更容易怀旧。Not everyone in the cool room turned nostalgic during the experiment, but the ones who did reported feeling warmer. That mind-body link, Dr. Wildschut says, means that nostalgia might have had evolutionary value to our ancestors long before Odysseus.在实验中,并不是所有呆在凉爽房间里的人都会怀旧,但那些怀旧的人确实表示感觉更温暖了。斯蒂基特士说,这个心理与身体的联系表示,也许早在奥德修斯之前,怀旧已经对我们的祖先产生进化上的意义。;If you can recruit a memory to maintain physiological comfort, at least subjectively, that could be an amazing and complex adaptation,; he says. ;It could contribute to survival by making you look for food and shelter that much longer.;“如果回忆可以至少让你自我感觉身体舒适,这都会是一种神奇并复杂的环境适应,”他说,“它让你可以坚持更长时间以寻觅食物与庇护,这有助于生存。”Finding a Sweet Spot寻找甜蜜的时刻Of course, memories can also be depressing. Some researchers in the 1970s and #39;80s suggested that nostalgia could worsen a problem that psychologists call self-discontinuity, which is nicely defined in ;Suite: Judy Blue Eyes,; by Stephen Stills: ;Don#39;t let the past remind us of what we are not now.; This sense of loss and dislocation has repeatedly been linked to both physical and mental ills.当然,回忆也可能让人绝望。20世纪七八十年代的研究者们认为,怀旧可以恶化“自我中断”(self-discontinuity)这种疾病。史蒂芬·史提斯(Stephen Stills,美国歌手——译注)在《组曲:朱迪蓝色的眼睛》(Suite: Judy Blue Eyes)中准确地描述了这个问题:“不要让过去来提醒我们现在已不再如此。”这种怅然所失与情绪错位经常与身体或脑部疾病相联系。But the feeling of discontinuity doesn#39;t seem to be a typical result of nostalgia, according to recent studies. In fact, people tend to have a healthier sense of self-continuity if they nostalgize more frequently, as measured on the scale developed at Southampton. To understand why these memories seem reassuring, Clay Routledge of North Dakota State University and other psychologists conducted a series of experiments with English, Dutch and American adults.但根据新近研究结果,这种自我中断的感觉并不一定是怀旧体验的结果。事实上,根据南安普顿怀旧量表问卷,如果人们增加怀旧频率,他们会倾向于拥有一种更健康的自我中断情绪。为了了解记忆令人欣慰的原因,北达科他州州立大学(North Dakota State University)的克雷·罗德里奇(Clay Routledge)与其他心理学家在英国、荷兰与美国成人中进行了一系列实验。First, the experimenters induced nostalgia by playing hit songs from the past for some people and letting them lyrics to their favorite songs. Afterward, these people were more likely than a control group to say that they felt ;loved; and that ;life is worth living.;在实验中,部分受试者先听了一些过去的流行歌曲,并读了一些他们所喜爱歌曲的歌词,使他们产生怀旧情绪。相比起对照组,这些受试者更可能感觉“被爱”与“生活有意义”。Then the researchers tested the effect in the other direction by trying to induce existential angst. They subjected some people to an essay by a supposed Oxford philosopher who wrote that life is meaningless because any single person#39;s contribution to the world is ;paltry, pathetic and pointless.; Readers of the essay became more likely to nostalgize, presumably to ward off Sartrean despair.接着,这些研究者尝试唤起受试者的焦虑,以测试怀旧在另一个极端的作用。他们让部分受试者阅读一篇由所谓牛津哲学家写作的文章,文章里讲述因为个人对世界的作用“微不足道、悲惨与无意义”,生活只是虚无。结果表明,文章的读者们更容易产生怀旧情绪,这也许是为了驱赶这种萨特(Sartre)式的绝望。Moreover, when some people were induced to nostalgia before ing the bleak essay, they were less likely to be convinced by it. The brief stroll down memory lane apparently made life seem worthwhile, at least to the English students in that experiment. (Whether it would work with gloomy French intellectuals remains to be determined.)另外,如果这些被试者的怀旧情绪被唤起后,再来阅读这篇讨论人生荒凉的文章时,他们比较不容易被作者说。至少对接受实验的英国学生们而言,在记忆隧道中流连体验能让他们认识到生活的价值。(这是否能对忧郁的法国文人起作用则有待分解。);Nostalgia serves a crucial existential function,; Dr. Routledge says. ;It brings to mind cherished experiences that assure us we are valued people who have meaningful lives. Some of our research shows that people who regularly engage in nostalgia are better at coping with concerns about death.;“怀旧对于存在感至为关键,”斯蒂基特士说,“它唤起了珍贵的记忆,让我们相信个人的价值,觉得我们拥有有意义的生活。我们的一些研究表明,那些经常沉入怀旧情绪的人更能面对死亡这一概念。”Feeding the Memory Bank在记忆里储存The usefulness of nostalgia seems to vary with age, according to Erica Hepper, a psychologist at the University of Surrey in England. She and her colleagues have found that nostalgia levels tend to be high among young adults, then dip in middle age and rise again during old age.怀旧的效果似乎取决于年龄。这是英国萨里大学(University of Surrey)心理学家爱丽克·何派(Erica Hepper)的研究结果。她和同事发现,年轻人的怀旧程度相对较高,中年人程度偏低,而老年人则又重新回到较高的怀旧程度中。;Nostalgia helps us deal with transitions,; Dr. Hepper says. ;The young adults are just moving away from home and or starting their first jobs, so they fall back on memories of family Christmases, pets and friends in school.;“怀旧可以帮助我们面对生活的转折期。”何派士说,“当年轻人刚刚搬离家乡,开始他们第一份工作时,他们会沉浸于圣诞节家庭团聚、宠物和学校朋友的回忆里。”Dr. Sedikides, now 54, still enjoys nostalgizing about Chapel Hill, although his range has expanded greatly over the past decade. He says that the years of research have inspired strategies for increasing nostalgia in his own life. One is to create more moments that will be memorable.斯蒂基特士现在54岁了,他依然很享受对美国教堂山城的怀旧,虽然他的怀旧范围已经在过去十年中被大大扩展了。他说,多年的研究给予他一些启发,以增加自己生活中的怀旧对象,其中一项是:创造更多值得回忆的时光。;I don#39;t miss an opportunity to build nostalgic-to-be memories,; he says. ;We call this anticipatory nostalgia and have even started a line of relevant research.;“我不愿意错过任何机会,以制造值得怀旧的记忆。”他说,“我们管这个叫可预期的怀旧,我们甚至已经开始这个相关研究了。”Another strategy is to draw on his ;nostalgic repository; when he needs a psychological lift or some extra motivation. At such moments, he tries to focus on the memories and savor them without comparing them with anything else.斯蒂基特士从研究中还得到了另一个启发。当他需要让自己快乐起来,或者需要一些心理激励时,他便从其“怀旧储备”中汲取能量。在这样的时刻里,他会试着让自己专注于回忆,细细品尝往事,而不去将它们与其他事情做对比。;Many other people,; he explains, ;have defined nostalgia as comparing the past with the present and saying, implicitly, that the past was better — ‘Those were the days.#39; But that may not be the best way for most people to nostalgize. The comparison will not benefit, say, the elderly in a nursing home who don#39;t see their future as bright. But if they focus on the past in an existential way — ‘What has my life meant?#39; — then they can potentially benefit.;“许多其他人,”他解释道,“将怀旧定义为用往事与现状对比,然后自我暗示地认为过去的生活更美好,感叹着‘那些年#39;。”但对于大多数人而言,这都不是最好的怀旧方法。比如当老年人在养老院里对比现状与过往,这并无法让他们觉得未来无限美好。但如果他们将往事看成一种人生存在的方式,思考‘我的生活意味着什么?#39;,他们则可能从怀旧中获益。This comparison-free nostalgizing is being taught to first-year college students as part of a study testing its value for people in difficult situations. Other experiments are using the same technique in people in nursing homes, women recovering from cancer surgery, and prison inmates.这种不做对比的怀旧已经作为研究的一部分,用于一年级本科生,以测试人们在不同情况下时怀旧的作用。其他实验则采用相同的方法,用以测试养老院中的老人、刚从癌症手术中恢复的妇女与监狱的囚犯。Is there anyone who shouldn#39;t be indulging in nostalgia? People who are leery of intimate relationships — ;avoidant,; in psychological jargon — seem to reap relatively small benefits from nostalgia compared with people who crave closeness. And there are undoubtedly neurotics who overdo it. But for most others, Dr. Sedikides recommends regular exercises.有没有完全无法陷入怀旧的人呢?有的,相比起渴望亲近的人,那些对亲密关系持怀疑态度的人便在怀旧中收获较少,他们在心理学术语中被称为“回避型人格”。当然也有神经病患者会过分沉浸于怀旧之中。然而对大部分人而言,斯蒂基特士建议我们可以对此做有规律的练习。;If you#39;re not neurotic or avoidant, I think you#39;ll benefit by nostalgizing two or maybe three times a week,; he says. ;Experience it as a prized possession. When Humphrey Bogart says, ‘We#39;ll always have Paris,#39; that#39;s nostalgia for you. We have it, and nobody can take it away from us. It#39;s our diamond.;如果你没有神经机能病,也没有回避型人格,我觉得如果你一周怀旧两到三次,会对你有帮助。”他说:“将怀旧的体验作为一种珍贵的经历,亨弗莱·鲍嘉(Humphrey Bogart)说:‘我们会永远拥有巴黎#39;(电影《卡萨布兰卡》的经典台词——译注)时,怀旧便是我们的‘巴黎#39;。我们拥有这些记忆,没有人能将它们夺去。这是我们的无价之宝。” /201410/334696泉州自体脂肪填充额头泉州怎么治眼袋

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