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2019年06月18日 19:53:30 | 作者:网上专家 | 来源:新华社
I go to Rome and I know that there will be prosciutto in my days, bucatini in my nights. I go to Lisbon with an uncontestable agenda of the shellfish and the sausage that the Portuguese cook so enviably.我去罗马的时候,知道自己应该白天吃意大利熏火腿,晚上吃意大利细条面。我去里斯本的时候,确定无疑地将葡萄牙喷香诱人的贻贝和香肠纳入旅行计划。I go to Hong Kong with no foregone conclusions, just a blank to be filled any number of ways. That’s what I love about it.但我去香港的时候却什么美食计划也没做,因为我知道有太多的东西可以填充我空白的菜单,这也是我喜欢香港的原因。Technically, Hong Kong’s cuisine is Cantonese, and you should fit some dim sum into your dining. But what really distinguishes this electrifying city is its almost unrivaled culinary internationalism. It’s not just a global crossroads for business. It’s a global crossroads for food, one of a handful of commercial capitals, like New York and London, that have no particular concentration of ambitious, accomplished restaurants in any one genre. The most appealing and important places cut across all traditions.理论上讲,香港美食属于粤菜,所以游客总会品尝些点心。但让这个活力之城与众不同的是它无与伦比的美食国际化。香港不只是个国际贸易的集散地,更是全球美食的融合之所。像纽约、伦敦等少数几个商业大都市一样,各种风格的美食都有,但又没有任何一种凌驾于其他流派之上。那些最吸引人、最重要的餐馆,都是超越传统的。That’s the case in Hong Kong partly because it’s a setting where many of the best-known chefs from other countries establish outposts, sometimes even exporting versions of the enterprises that made them famous. Sushi superstars from Tokyo have planted flags here. As in Manhattan, there’s a Motorino for Neapolitan pizza lovers and a Carbone for fans of Italian-American cooking. As in Paris, there’s a L’Atelier de Jo#235;l Robuchon.香港的美食现状正是如此,部分原因是许多国家的知名大厨都选择到香港开业,有些大厨的事业甚至是从香港起家的。来自东京的著名寿司品牌,纷纷在香港安营扎寨。就仿佛在曼哈顿,既有供应正宗那不勒斯披萨的Motorino披萨店,也有定位美式意大利菜的Carbone饭店。或者像巴黎的L’Atelier de Jo#235;l Robuchon米其林餐厅。During a visit I made to Hong Kong in 2013, two of the new spots drawing the most chatter were a Mexican restaurant, Brickhouse, and a Japanese yakitori, Yardbird.我2013年造访香港的时候, 名气最大的新晋饭店有两家,一家是墨西哥饭店“砖房”(Brickhouse),另一家是日式烤肉店“新兵”(Yardbird)。When I returned recently and took a fresh inventory of newcomers that had generated significant enthusiasm, the list included many restaurants with Mediterranean moorings — Spanish, French, Italian or an amalgam of those. One restaurant advertised a melding of Italian and Japanese. A spot specializing in upscale American hamburgers was a big hit, as was one specializing in Japanese curry.趁着这次再访香港,我对当地美食界的新秀又做了一次盘点。这些在吃货中引发巨大热情的饭店,很多都供应地中海饮食——包括西班牙菜、法国菜、意大利菜或融合多种风味。有一家饭店的广告声称自己既有意大利菜,又有日本菜。一家专注于高端美式汉堡的饭店非常火爆,同样火爆的另一家餐馆专做日本咖喱饭。And that’s not counting the five standouts described in more detail below. Suffice it to say that in this one polyglot city across one hungry week, I ate the whole wide world.但本文详细描述的几家优秀餐馆,却不在上述行列。一言以蔽之,在这个包罗万象的城市停留一星期,我尝遍了整个世界。NurNurThe main dining room opens to a terrace several stories above the streets of central Hong Kong, and on the night when I dined here, a gentle breeze blew in.位于香港中环,主要就餐区正好对着一个高出地面好几层的露台。我去吃饭的那晚,有习习凉风吹过。But that wasn’t all that the terrace provided. Time and again, regarding dish after dish, our server noted that some leaf, shoot or blossom had come from the greenery out there, mere strides away. Forget farm-to-table, this was patio-to-table — and a vivid illustration of Nur’s stated commitment to local products.但这不是露台能提供的所有好处。一次又一次,在上菜间隙,给我们上菜的务员提到,不断有来自周边环境的树叶、竹叶或花朵从我们身边飞过。忘掉“从农场到餐桌”的口号吧,Nur是“从露台到餐桌”的,这同时也是饭店坚持使用本地食材的生动体现。I had sat down to my dinner here with some doubts. The restaurant’s name recognizes the first syllable of the chef’s (Nurdin Topham) as well as the Arabic word for “light.” Its website lays out both Mr. Topham’s belief in a restrained, healthful discipline he calls “nourishing gastronomy” and his past involvement in “a somewhat unorthodox project — the deliciousness of insects.” I braced for preciousness and strange critters. I needn’t have.我刚开始吃饭的时候,心里还有些犹疑。饭店的名字Nur是首席大厨诺丁·托普汉姆(Nurdin Topham)名字的第一个音节,它在阿拉伯语中的意思是“光芒”。饭店网站不仅强调了托普汉姆先生对节制型健康饮食的信念 “滋养型美味”,还讲到他以前参与的一个“非传统项目——作为食物的昆虫之美”。所以我刚到的时候,猜测这里的饭菜大约是剑走偏锋那种,充满奇特物种。但品尝之后发现自己多虑了。There are traces of molecular gastronomy in some of Mr. Topham’s artfully composed dishes, which reduce certain ingredients to concentrated pastes or broths of intense flavor. And there’s a vigorous nod to the Copenhagen culinary temple Noma, where Mr. Topham briefly worked, and to its locavore ethos. For that reason, Nur has sometimes been called a New Nordic restaurant.在托普汉姆先生精心烹制的食物中,有些颇能体现“分子美食”的追求,风味浓郁的面团和肉汤集中了多种配料的精华。此外,饭菜不仅明显体现出对哥本哈根美食圣殿诺玛(Noma)的致敬(托普汉姆曾在这家饭店工作过一段时间),更明确表达对本地饮食风格的重视。所以,Nur有时会被归入“新北欧”风格饭馆。But it’s more original than that. With a scrupulous emphasis on the best vegetables, fish and meat available and with absolutely flawless cooking, at least when I visited, Mr. Topham produces food that’s sensationally robust without being the least bit rich. It’s almost oxymoronic, packing a light wallop, with a clearness and purity of effect that I’ve seldom encountered. And it’s bug-free! If this is nourishing gastronomy, put me down for ceaseless gastronomic nourishment.但这家饭店的创意远超过人们的归类。它全面表现了自己对优质果蔬、鱼类和肉类以及烹调技术无微不至的强调——至少在我去的那天如此。托普汉姆先生为我烹制的食物精致可口,滋味微妙,新鲜至极。说起来自相矛盾,但这里奉上的食物既微妙又极具冲击力,纯净程度平生罕见。而且没有虫子!如果这就是滋养型美食,就给让我永远沉浸在这无穷无尽的滋养中吧。Nur doesn’t give you any choices. It serves just one tasting of nine courses including dessert, and they came in rapid enough succession and sensible enough measure that I never felt impatient or overwhelmed (though, by the end, I felt amply filled).Nur饭店不许食客点菜,只提供包括九道菜的品味套餐。上菜的速度很快,上菜的顺序和方式也很合理,整个过程我从未感觉不耐烦或压力(当然最后,我发现自己吃得过饱)。There were orbs of heirloom tomato with a texture almost like sorbet and a pool of tomato water around them. A subsequent dish combined salmon eggs with walnuts and horseradish yogurt. Squid, paired with charred onions and lemon basil, was exquisitely supple and sweet, and dessert was a fitting, fetching cap to a meal with such a vegetal, herbaceous bent: ice cream that tasted like French onion soup.菜品包括:几只传统方法烹制的质感仿佛冰沙的西红柿,周围是一汪西红柿汁;接下来是一道融合了鲑鱼卵、胡桃和山葵酸奶的小菜;鱿鱼搭配微火碳烤的洋葱和柠檬罗勒,尝起来滋味柔甜,微妙无比;餐后甜点是尝起来像法式洋葱汤的冰淇淋,回味丰厚,对以果蔬为主的清爽美食进行了适当而及时的补充。Although that terrace accommodates a few diners, I sat at a spacious and relatively quiet table just inside, within view of an open kitchen more fully and pleasantly integrated into the dining room than such stages often are. And I had a glass of white Burgundy, followed by a glass of Barolo, from a wine list that covered many of Europe’s highlights.尽管露台上能容纳好几桌食客,但我的餐桌位于室内,一个宽敞而相对安静的所在,可以看到完整且与就餐区和谐融合的开放式厨房。至于酒水,我先喝了一杯意大利巴罗洛干红,然后是一杯勃艮第白葡萄酒。酒水单上的选项,大都是来自欧洲的好酒。#173;Nur, 1 Lyndhurst Terrace, Third Floor, Central; nur.hk. Dinner for two, without drinks or tip, comes to about 2,375 Hong Kong dollars, or 5, at 7.50 Hong Kong dollars to the U.S. dollar.Nur,地址1 Lyndhurst Terrace,三楼正中间; nur.hk。两人份晚餐约2375港币,不含酒水和小费,根据美元对港币7.50的汇率约315美元。SouvlaSouvlaThe white granite tables are rimmed in bright red. The booths and benches are upholstered in deep purple. There’s a long, long bar that rests atop a long, long rectangle of pale stones held together by a mesh cage. As visually arresting as all of this is, I’m not sure what it has to do with Greece, which is the country whose cooking Souvla pays tribute to.白色花岗岩餐桌镶着红边,包间和座椅都包有深紫色的软垫。长长的吧台设在一块形状狭长、用网笼箍好的灰色石板上。这家饭店的第一印象很是吸引眼球,但我不知道它与希腊有什么关系,而店名Souvla(字面意思为“希腊烤肉”)显然表达了对希腊烹饪的致敬。But the would be instantly recognizable to any Athenian. The food would pass muster as well. Greeks like to think that they have some special secret for octopus that’s tenderer than anywhere else, but they’d be hard-pressed to outdo the kitchen here, which sculpted and arranged the thin columns of pale pink flesh into a sort of pyramid. It was octopus Legos.但只要看到菜单,任何雅典人都会承认这家饭店的正宗。端上来的菜也非常符合要求。希腊人总认为自己有某种秘密手段,能将章鱼肉烹得比其他地区更为柔嫩,但他们如果看到这家饭店就会备感压力,因为这里的厨师能将章鱼幼细浑圆的浅粉色腕足精心雕塑,再排成金字塔的性状——简直就是章鱼肉拼成的乐高玩具。I’m an ardent lover of taramosalata, that Greek (and Turkish) sp of smoked fish roe and olive oil, and Souvla’s achieved the perfect pitch of saltiness, along with an ethereal creaminess. It sp like a cloud across triangles of toasted pita that were glossed with oil and still warm.我非常喜欢希腊(以及土耳其)红鱼籽沙拉,一种由烟熏鱼籽拌上橄榄油而成的菜品。Souvla的红鱼籽沙拉不仅做到了完美的咸度,还有一丝若有若无的奶油味。将这种鱼籽抹在微温且略带油香的三角形皮塔饼上,仿佛一层轻柔的云朵。Those two dishes came toward the start of our meal, and I figured that they’d be the high points. But there were taller peaks ahead. One was gemista, a hearty, earthy casserole of potatoes, tomato sauce and peppers stuffed with rice. The other was the slow-cooked lamb, ribbons of meltingly soft leg meat placed next to a glittering relish of pomegranate and a tiny glass bottle filled with a tangy yogurt dressing.以上是我们那一餐的两道头盘,我以为它们就是当天的亮点。但后面其实有更大的惊喜。土豆青椒炖香米(gemista)是一种分量十足的砂锅类炖菜,主料是土豆、番茄酱和塞满米饭的青椒。另一道菜是小火慢炖的羊肉,一条条羊腿肉被烹得软糯无骨,搭配的小菜由亮晶晶的石榴籽做成,蘸料则是盛在小玻璃杯里的浓香酸奶。As I looked at the artful presentation of the lamb and thought back to the octopus, the décor suddenly made sense. It was an announcement that Souvla would respect Greece but reinterpret it with fillips all its own. So while Souvla covers the hoary classics — spanakopita, moussaka — it gives some of them a face-lift, and it tacks on a long list of elaborate specialty cocktails, the focal point of a lively bar scene.#173;看着眼前充满艺术气息的羊肉摆盘,刚才章鱼肉的摆放方式忽然有了意义。这是Souvla饭店的自我宣言——它尊重希腊本土烹饪,但也用多种有趣的创造对传统进行重新解释。所以,Souvla烹制菠菜派(spanakopita)和穆萨卡(moussaka)等经典菜品的同时,也对它们进行了升级换代。此外,精心调配的多种鸡尾酒也让这家饭店别具特色,营造出一种轻松愉快的酒吧氛围。#173;Souvla, 1/F Ho Lee Commercial Building, 40 D’Aguilar Street, Central; conceptcreations#173;.hk#173;. Dinner for two, without drinks or tip, averages 1,150 dollars.Souvla,地址:1/F Ho Lee Commercial Building, 40 D’Aguilar Street, Central;conceptcreations.hk。两人份晚餐,均价1150港币,不含酒水和小费。ChachawanChachawanWhile Souvla and Nur are tucked away, almost invisibly, in tall buildings, Chachawan opens wide to the street, with the sidewalk almost acting as its vestibule. This befits its air of scruffy, ragtag informality and a that’s inspired in part by street food from Thailand, or, to be more specific, the northeastern Thai province of Isan. That’s how narrowly focused this restaurant is, and that’s how ethnically ambitious Hong Kong can get.Souvla和Nur藏匿在高楼大厦之间,从远处几乎看不到,Chachawan就在街面上,人行道如同它的门廊一般。这也颇符合它凌乱无章、不拘礼节的底层特质。它的菜单部分来自泰国的路边摊,或者更准确地说,来自泰国东北的伊森省。这家餐厅的专营范围就有这么窄,或者说香港美食在民族层面就有这样丰富。With the cooking of Isan you get ample spice. You get serious fire. One dish almost brought me to my knees. It looked so innocent, so pretty, a salad with a bright, approachable medley of colors and textures, courtesy of green papaya, cherry tomatoes, dried shrimp, peanuts. But there were a few small chiles lurking in there, and they soon enough registered their presence in my throat and in my gut, which was suddenly a caldron. It seethed and bubbled for hours to come.伊森的烹饪需要加入大量香料。这定能给你带来兴奋刺激。其中一道菜令我深深折。它看上去只是一道漂亮无害的沙拉,各种明亮的色与亲切的质地混合在一起,似乎是青木瓜、樱桃番茄、虾仁和花生的混合。但是里面还潜伏着少许辣椒,很快就开始在我的喉咙与肺腑之内彰显它们的存在,我觉得自己简直变成了一个大汽锅,其后几个小时都在一直沸腾冒泡。Chachawan was worth the burn. Not every dish carried that risk, but nearly every dish had the interplay of contrasting effects that are at the heart of Southeast Asian cooking. In the “Larp Moo,” a loose, wet mix of chopped pork, pork skin, shallots and mint needed something dry and firm, so it got that, from leaves of crisp, cool iceberg to be used as wraps.Chachawan完全值得你为之沸腾。每一道菜都有这样的危险,而且每一道菜中都有鲜明的反差效果,这是东南亚烹饪的精髓。“Larp Moo”是把猪肉馅、猪皮、小葱和薄荷混合在一起,松软多汁,需要配合干硬的东西一起吃,因此外面包着又冷又脆,如同冰山的叶子。Sweet and sour, sugar and spice, cold and hot: These were the currents that ran through most of the dishes, including a garlicky, boneless chicken thigh on a stick: a supersized satay. Sweet and salty were the playmates in an excellent dessert of coconut rice dumplings in a salted coconut cream.绝大多数菜肴里贯穿着甜与酸、糖与香料、冷与热的口感,比如用大蒜调味的无骨鸡腿,用签子串着——这是一份特大号的沙茶烤肉。椰米饺子是一道美味的甜点,要蘸着咸味的椰酱食用,甜与咸仿佛成为一对玩伴。Chachawan is routinely thronged, but it’s not for everyone. Situated in the increasingly trendy neighborhood of Sheung Wan, it doesn’t take reservations. Some of its servers are better at striking hipster poses than seeing to your needs. The seating is on the awkward side of snug.Chachawan通常都很拥挤,而且不是所有人都能来想用。它坐落在日益时尚的上环,不接受定位。有些侍者与其说照顾客人,不如说更擅长摆出时髦姿态。座椅也不舒。But there’s no arguing with the food that the chef, Adam Cliff, produces. And if the self-consciously scruffy setting isn’t exactly relaxing, you can use Chachawan’s vivid, creative cocktails and its smart international selection of beers to unwind.但是大厨亚当·克利夫(Adam Cliff)烹制的食物无可挑剔。如果你在这种刻意的凌乱环境中感到不自在,那么享用一杯Chachawan新颖可口的鸡尾酒,或者来自世界各地的精的啤酒,你就会放松下来。#173;Chachawan, 206 Hollywood Road, Sheung Wan; chachawan.hk. Dinner for two, without drinks or tips, averages 675 dollars.Chavchawan,206 Hollywood Road,上环,chachawan.hk,两人份晚餐,均价675港元,不含酒水和小费。Aberdeen Street SocialAberdeen Street SocialThis restaurant is as polished and refined as Chachawan is hectic. It sps out over two stories that include a downstairs bar, outdoor terraces and an upstairs dining room that’s dominated by dark woods and brings to mind the inside of a chest of drawers. The servers are numerous, proper and hovering.如果说Chachawan是忙乱的,这家店则是风雅而又精致。它占了两层楼,楼下是酒吧,还有个露天平台,楼上的用餐区以深色木质装潢为主,令人感觉置身五斗橱中。侍者人数众多,举止得体,在四处走来走去。And the prices reflect this. Especially if you order wine from Aberdeen’s widely ranging list, the bill can climb high.这些特点也体现在价格上。这里的菜单虽然价格多样,但如果你点了红酒,可能就得付天价账单了。The restaurant is affiliated with the English chef Jason Atherton, a Gordon Ramsay protégé with a rapidly growing international roster, including several previous places in Hong Kong. His here has been called “modern British,” a culinary phrase that, like “new American,” tends to be elastic. In Aberdeen’s case, it means the existence of British staples and British conventions complemented by Asian, Mediterranean influences. So while the starters I encountered included a pig’s trotter with black pudding for the Anglophile, there was also tuna tataki with ponzu dressing, not to mention a tomato salad with Italian burrata cheese.这家餐厅与英国大厨杰森·阿瑟顿(Jason Atherton)关系密切,他是戈登·拉姆齐(Gordon Ramsay)的学徒,迅速积累起在世界各地工作的经验,其中也包括上面提过的几家香港餐厅。他将自己的菜单称之为“现代英式菜”,这个烹饪术语和“新美国菜”一样,非常灵活。在Aberdee这里,他为英国主餐与英国传统菜赋予少许亚洲与地中海气息。比如我吃到的开胃菜中就有英国血肠配猪脚和金鱼刺身蘸柚子醋,更不必说番茄沙拉搭配意大利布拉塔奶酪。I was especially impressed with two entrees, a sublime pork chop served with a red pepper relish and slices of lamb rump dusted with a “kidney powder” that teased out the meat’s muskiness. My companions and I savored these at a spacious table next to a glass wall that let just the right amount of light onto our meal.主菜中我特别喜欢的有两道,搭配红辣椒调料的猪排令人赞叹不已;搭配“肾脏粉末”的切片羊羔后臀肉散发着麝香般的气息。我和同伴在宽敞的桌前用餐,阳光从身边的玻璃幕墙射进来,照在道道佳肴之上。#173;Aberdeen Street Social, JPC G/Floor, 35 Aberdeen Street, Central; aberdeenstreetsocial#173;.hk. Dinner for two, without drinks or tip, averages about 1,450 dollars.Aberdeen Street Social, JPC G/Floor, 35 Aberdeen Street,中环;aberdeenstreetsocial.hk. 两人份晚餐,均价约为1450港元,不含酒水和小费。Ho Lee FookHo Lee FookIf the pork at Aberdeen Street Social was sublime, the pork at Ho Lee Fook was nearly life-changing. I mean the strips of pork char siu, which refers to a Cantonese method of cooking the meat over fire and giving it a sweet red glaze. Char siu is a staple of Chinese takeout, but I’ve never had takeout that uses Berkshire pigs from Japan. When that caliber of flesh meets this method of preparation, the results are a fatty, flavorful knockout.如果说Aberdeen Street Social的猪肉令人赞叹,那么Ho Lee Fook的猪肉简直能够改变人生。我指的是这里的叉烧猪肉,这是一种粤式烹饪方法,把猪肉放在火上炙烤,为它赋予甜美的红色光泽。叉烧本是中国外卖餐馆中的主菜,但外卖不会提供用日本的德克夏猪制作的叉烧。在这里,用这种高质猪肉制成的叉烧肥美可口,令人着迷。Then again, most everything I had at Ho Lee Fook wowed me. The restaurant fuses Cantonese with other Asian traditions as well as any flourishes that the chef, Jowett Yu, deems appropriate. It’s thrillingly unbound, never letting precedent get in the way of deliciousness.Ho Lee Fook把粤菜和亚洲传统菜融为一炉,几乎所有菜都让我赞叹。此外还有不少大厨乔伊特·于(Jowett Yu)拿手的小菜。它们无拘无束,不拘一格而又美味之极。My favorite dish, even better than the pork, comprised slices of wagyu short rib that were arranged on one side of the bone, a green shallot kimchi on the other side and a jalape#241;o purée through which either or both could be swept. The way the heat of that purée cut the richness of the beef was exhilarating.我最喜欢的还要算是神户小牛排,甚至超过了猪肉:餐盘一边放着肉骨,一边放着青葱泡菜和一墨西哥青椒,你可以两边分别吃,也可以一起吃,青椒的辣味绝好地反衬出牛肉的肥腴。The sprawls across a half-dozen categories, including “raw,” “roast meat” and “vegetables.” There are fried chicken wings as well as hot-and-sour steak tartare, cabbage-and-pork dumplings as well as clams cooked in a Thai basil and tamarind broth. My companion and I ate twice as much as any two people should, longed to eat more and seriously thought about coming back the next night to do precisely that.菜单分为六大类,包括“生食”、“烤肉”和“蔬菜”等。你可以品尝到炸鸡翅、酸辣鞑靼牛肉末、猪肉白菜馅饺子和罗勒与罗望子调味的泰式蛤蜊汤。我和同伴吃了双份的食物还意犹未尽,盘算着第二天晚上再来一次。The restaurant’s setting is sexy: a dark underground room with just a few riveting pieces of art, including a white and gray dragon along one wall. This is what a Chinese drug lord’s rec room might look like.餐厅的布置非常优美:光线幽暗的地下室,墙上悬挂着若干饶有趣味的艺术作品,包括一条灰白色的龙,在墙壁上蜿蜒而过。感觉中国毒品大亨的室就应该是这样的。The tables aren’t jammed too close together, even though people clamor for seats. Reservations are taken only for groups of five or more; others wait at nearby bars for the hostess to summon them back. It can take an hour or more.这里不算拥挤,但仍然有很多人等位。只接受五人以上(含五人)的预定,其他人可以在附近的酒吧等候迎宾女招待的通知,可能需要等待一个小时甚至更长时间。And it’s worth it, for a feast that’s a bevy of culinary traditions in one — much like Hong Kong.#173;但是为了一顿融汇了各种传统的盛宴,等待是值得的,而香港也是如此。#173;Ho Lee Fook, 1-5 Elgin Street, Central; holeefook.com.hk. Dinner for two, without drinks or tip, averages 1,050 dollars.Ho Lee Fook, 1-5 Elgin Street,中环;holeefook.com.hk,两人份晚餐,均价1050港元,不含酒水或小费。 /201502/357845

Japan is looking into installing toilets and emergency drinking water in buildings#39; lifts in case people are trapped after earthquakes。日本考虑在大楼电梯内配装马桶,并提供紧急饮用水,以备有人在地震后被困电梯时使用。Officials from the country#39;s infrastructure ministry met industry representatives to discuss the proposals in the aftermath of Saturday#39;s 7.8-magnitude undersea quake, which was felt across the country, the Kyodo news agency reports. One idea is that lifts could be fitted with portable toilets featuring a waterproof bag or other absorbent material inside a collapsible cardboard structure。据日本共同社报道,在5月30日日本海域发生7.8级地震后,日本国土交通省官员紧急会见了工业界代表,商讨上述提议。此次地震在日本全国都有震感。商讨中提出的一个安装想法是,电梯内可安装配有防水袋或其它类型高吸水性材料的便携马桶,整个马桶用可折叠纸板结构制成。In the capital, Tokyo, almost 20,000 lifts stopped after Saturday#39;s quake, with 14 of them trapped between floors. In one case, people were stuck inside for more than an hour before being rescued. After the country#39;s devastating 2011 earthquake, some people were trapped in lifts for more than nine hours. About 60% of Japanese lifts are designed to detect tremors and stop at the closest floor before automatically opening their doors。上周地震发生后,日本首都东京约有两万部电梯停止工作,其中有14部停在了楼层中间。有乘客被困于电梯中一个多小时才获救。在2011年日本灾难性大地震后,甚至有乘客被困电梯长达九个小时。日本约60%的电梯都具备地震探测功能,可在地震时快速停在最近的楼层并自动开门。Japanese regularly shaken by earthquakes, but seismologists say it#39;s likely the capital will be hit by a major quake - referred to as the ;big one; - within the coming decades. The government estimates that as many as 17,000 people could be trapped inside lifts in the capital#39;s high-rises if that happens。日本常年遭受地震困扰,有地震学家称,未来十年内,东京可能会遭受一次十分剧烈的地震。日本当局估计,若大地震真的发生,可能将有多达1.7万名乘客会被困在首都高楼的电梯内。 /201506/379929

Two years ago, Elizabeth Millard discovered a way to put fresh produce into car food. No, she’s not the one who smuggled shredded lettuce into the Doritos Cheesy Gordita Crunch-Fiery, a 490-calorie, zero-noun snack from Taco Bell. Rather, Ms. Millard, a sustainable farmer outside the Twin Cities, did something even more unlikely: she grew a crop of microgreens on the passenger-side floor mat of her 2005 VW Beetle convertible.两年前,伊丽莎白·米勒德(Elizabeth Millard)发现了一个方法,可以让新鲜的农产品成为车载食品。别多想,她可不是在Taco Bell快餐店出售的那种490卡路里、0营养的小食“多力多滋奶酪玉米片”(Doritos Cheesy Gordita Crunch-Fiery)里,偷偷放进碎生菜的人。不过,这位在双城市(Twin Cities)的市郊从事可持续农业生产的农夫,所做的事要离谱得多:在自己那辆2005年大众甲壳虫敞篷车的副驾座位地垫上,种出了一小块微型菜园(microgreen)。“We were shuttling our box of seeds back and forth from our rented greenhouse space to our house,” she said the other day. “And I tripped and they fell all over the place.” Cress, mustards, a little purple mizuna.“当时,我们正从租用的温室里来来回回往家搬运一箱箱的种子,”她那天说了起来,“然后我绊了一跤,把那些种子撒得满地都是。”其中有水芹、芥菜,和一点紫色日本色拉菜。Ms. Millard added: “Being frustrated and lazy, I decided I would clean them up some time in my lifetime. Which means never.”米勒德继续道:“我心烦意乱,也懒得收拾,就决定另外再找个时间把它们清理干净。其实就是再也不管了。”It rained the next day. Ms. Millard, now 46, and Karla Pankow, her partner in life and in their C.S.A. business, called Bossy Acres, tracked mud into the car. After that, the June sun busted loose and they threw down the top. I think you can see where this is going.第二天下起了雨。今年46岁的米勒德和她的人生伴侣兼C.S.A.生意伙伴、Bossy Acres公司的合伙人卡拉·潘科(Karla Pankow),把满脚的泥带进了车里。再然后,六月里的炎炎烈日让他们放下了车顶棚。我想你能猜到后来发生了什么吧。“About five days after the incident, I came out to my car in the morning and there was a beautiful flush carpet of microgreens on the passenger side,” Ms. Millard said. “It looked like a Chia Pet.”“那次意外之后大约过了五天,我早上去开车门,发现副驾座位下面,有块整齐漂亮的微型蔬菜地毯,”米勒德说,“看起来就像芡欧鼠尾草娃娃(Chia Pet)。”The accident fed the philosophy behind her new book “Indoor Kitchen Gardening: Turn Your Home Into a Year-Round Vegetable Garden” (Cool Springs Press). This is a how-to guide that describes Ms. Millard’s experiments raising crops — sun-loving outdoor plants like herbs, carrots, radishes, potatoes and tomatoes — in her Minneapolis bungalow.这次意外事件充实了她的种植理念,成就了她的新书《室内厨房园艺:把你的家变成四季菜园》(Indoor Kitchen Gardening: Turn Your Home Into a Year-Round Vegetable Garden,由Cool Springs出版)。这是一本操作指南,描述了米勒德在自己那栋位于明尼阿波里斯市(Minneapolis)的平房里,是如何尝试在室内种植一些喜欢阳光的户外作物的,例如各种香草、胡萝卜、水萝卜、土豆和番茄。I, for one, have daydreamed about owning a conservatory: a bright, climate-controlled growing space with windows, supplemental lights and a handy watering source. And here was Ms. Millard to tell me that I aly possessed such a space, and it was called my condo.其实我本人就幻想过拥有一间温室:一个明亮的、可控制气候影响的生长空间,有几扇窗户、有补充光源、还有方便取用的水源。但米勒德郑重其事地告诉我,我已经拥有一个这样的地方了,那就是我的共管公寓。You don’t have to be a plant whisperer to enjoy success in this endeavor. Although, occasionally, you do have to be the bee. In a quest for bug-less indoor pollination, Ms. Millard stimulated the tomato’s reproductive parts with her electric toothbrush. (Talk about forbidden fruit.) But what she discovered, and what the book illustrates, is that it’s possible and even easy to cultivate shoots, greens and the odd root crop with almost no special equipment.你不必成为一名花语者(plant whisperer),也能在这一领域有所作为。不过有时候,你的确得充当一只蜜蜂。为了探索室内无虫授粉的问题,米勒德用她的电动牙刷来刺激番茄的生殖器(还谈起了禁果什么的)。但她在实践中发现——也在这本书中谈到,栽培芽类植物、绿叶植物和那些奇怪的块茎类作物,不但有可能、而且是很容易做到的,几乎无需特别的设备。The VW microgreens did not become the stuff of a piquant salad. “I can’t imagine the carpet of your car is a food-safe environment,” Ms. Millard said. (What vinaigrette goes with road salt?) Instead, it became a proof of concept. “The lesson is: Don’t worry about it so much,” Ms. Millard said of her indoor garden. “If the conditions are right, it will happen.”不过,她在甲壳虫车上栽培的那些微型植物,并没有成为一份鲜美色拉的配料。“我没法想象车上的地垫是食品安全级的环境,”米勒德说(谁能想象把香醋色拉汁和道路化冰盐搭配起来,会是什么味道呢?)。不过,这是一次理念的验。“经验是:别想太多,”米勒德谈起她的室内种植工作,“只要条件合适,该发生的自然会发生。”In many ways, the gardening conditions in the northland are best suited to ornamental berries, red-barked shrubs and alcoholism. The professional eschatologists (known elsewhere as meteorologists) were predicting scattered frosts for the night after Ms. Millard paid me a house call. It was early September.从许多方面来看,北部地区的种植条件最适宜具有装饰性的浆果类植物、红皮灌木丛,以及酗酒。这天晚上,米勒德到我家上门务后,那些专业的末世论者(在其它地方又称气象学家) 开始预测哪儿会有霜降了。这才刚刚九月初呢。The parsley and sage in my backyard could hang on until Thanksgiving. But if I didn’t bring the basil inside now, I wouldn’t see it again until May or June.我后院里种的欧芹与鼠尾草还可以坚持到感恩节;但我现在如果不把罗勒移到屋里来的话,到明年五、六月之前,我可就别想再看见它了。While I was outside, I noticed a volunteer tomato seedling and a stray mint. What would be the harm in digging them up and converting them into house pets? (Ms. Millard recommends converting the garage or a three-season porch into a kind of halfway house where the plants can get acclimated.)我在外面忙活的时候,注意到了一株跃跃欲试的番茄幼苗和一株流浪的薄荷。如果把它们都挖出来变成室内宠物,会有什么坏处吗?(米勒德建议我把车库或三季门廊[three-season porch,类似于玻璃阳光房的门廊——译注]改成临时的种植园,让这些植物有个适应过程。)I asked Ms. Millard about what may still be growing at her house across town. But she had moved out soon after finishing a draft of the book. While she and Ms. Pankow shopped for farmland of their own, they were dwelling in a downscale version of that VW Microgreen: a 25-year-old Coachman fifth-wheel camper they bought from friends for ,000. The quarters were homey; a previous owner had gone through the effort of painting the wallpaper.我问米勒德,还有些什么植物仍然生长在她那位于小镇另一边的屋子里。但她把这本书的初稿写完不久,就搬了出来。她与潘科在购买她们自己的农场期间,就住在那辆甲壳虫微型植物基地的简约版里:一辆车龄25年的马车夫(Coachman)五轮野营车,是他们花2000美元(约合人民币12259元)从朋友手里买来的。车里舒得像在家一样;一位前车主还劳心劳力地绘制了壁纸。“It’s surprisingly spacious,” she said. “It’s like a New York apartment.”“那辆车宽敞得惊人,”她说,“就像一套纽约公寓。”Except, presumably, in New York it would have cost .65 million in an all-cash transaction and another million for a parking spot.只不过,在纽约购买这样一套公寓,大概得花265万美元(约合人民币1624万元),不仅是现金全款交易,还得再花100万美元(约合人民币613万元)去买个停车位。Ms. Millard has good news for the yardless metropolitan. Much of the equipment you need for indoor kitchen gardening is aly in the kitchen. Sprouts should grow in a Mason jar with a screen lid for air and drainage. Soak the seeds (Ms. Millard likes the flavor of broccoli). Then, after a day or two, turn the jar upside down and wait.米勒德给那些没有院子的都市人带来了喜讯。这项室内厨房园艺所需的设备,多数都已经在厨房里了。幼苗应该生长在一只梅森罐(Mason jar——一种玻璃食品罐)里,罐子要有网盖,可以透气和排水。把选好的种子(米勒德喜欢西兰花的味道)浸湿,然后等上一、两天,把这只罐子倒转过来,再继续等待。Are the white filaments edible food or some type of brassica thrush? Ms. Millard was noncommittal. “I will sprout things if people ask me to,” she said. “But I have not been a huge fan.”这些白色的纤维到底是可以吃的食物,还是某种芸苔属的病态植物呢?米勒德含糊其辞地说,“反正我会让东西长出芽来,只要有人要我这样做,”她说,“但我也不会特别沉迷于这些事。”Farther down in the cupboards, pie plates or baking sheets make satisfactory planters to grow microgreens or shoots. At the start, plastic wrap can keep the seeds humid. You may even have the shoot seeds in the bulk bin: say, dried peas, raw sunflower seeds or untreated popcorn.橱柜的很下方有几只馅饼盘或烤盘,可供那些能干的种植者们种植一些嫩茎类或芽类的蔬菜。刚开始的时候,用塑料袋包裹,可以让这些种子保持湿润。你甚至可以用散粒储存箱来装这些嫩芽植物的种子:比如干豌豆、生的向日葵籽,或是没经处理的玉米粒。Germination isn’t a sign of spoilage; it’s the goal here. Ms. Millard recommends soaking the seeds for a day or two beforehand, changing the water now and again. “If you leave them longer than that, they’ll give off a really vile smell,” she said, “like burning moldy feet.” At this point, you’re not raising food but developing a biological weapons program.发芽并不是变质的标志,而恰是我们此时此刻的目标。米勒德建议大家把种子提前浸泡一、两天,不时换换水。“如果你浸泡的时间再长一点,它们就会发出相当难闻的气味,”她说,“就像在燃烧发霉的脚一样。”这样的话,你就不是在种植可食用的东西、而是在研发一种生化武器了。The easiest indoor gardening projects look a lot like seed-starting. You don’t need much dirt: an inch and a half for sprouts, and maybe half an inch for microgreens (a regular lettuce mix, harvested early). “You can do that on a paper towel,” she said. “They’re not going to grow into their fullest expression of what they could be.” But then, who among us hasn’t thought about their own dirt nap and harbored the same self-doubt?在室内栽培项目中,最简单的似乎就是让种子发芽了。你不需要太多土壤:铺上1.5英寸(约合38毫米)厚的土用来发芽,再铺半英寸(约合13毫米)用于那些嫩茎菜的生长(这是一种常见的混合生菜食材,很早就被采摘下来)。“这些活儿,你在一张纸巾上照样能做,”她说,“它们不会长成其成熟植株本来会是的样子。”但是仔细想想,我们当中有谁从没想过自己最终的结局,然后抱有同样的自我怀疑呢?Ms. Millard had dragged a full bag of vermiculite as big as a pillowcase up the three flights of stairs. This, of course, was a bit of a sight gag: the white filler looks like Styrofoam and weighs no more. The idea was to mix it with a bagged organic compost she likes, called Cowsmo. But any indoor potting mix with a little fertilizer would do.米勒德拖着枕头套那么大的一袋蛭石,爬了三段楼梯。这确实有点像滑稽表演:袋子里那些白色的东西看起来好像泡沫塑料,实际却沉重无比。她打算把这些“泡沫”和她喜欢的科兹(Cowsmo)袋装有机堆肥混在一起。不过任何室内盆栽混合土壤,只要含一点肥料,都是可以的。“You want something that drains really well,” Ms. Millard said. “Dirt from your garden is too dense.” As a no-pesticide farmer, she welcomed the chance for a clean start. There’s a book to be written about how to breed common garden bugs in the house, but let’s leave that to the newspaper’s entomology expert.“你要的是那种排水非常好的东西,”米勒德说,“从自己花园里挖来的土壤,密度太大。”她是一位不使用杀虫剂的农夫,喜欢从一开始就保持土壤的纯净。至于如何在屋里养殖常见的花园昆虫,这个话题可以写出一本书来,我们还是留给本报的那些昆虫学专家们吧。Ms. Millard totes a stack of 20-inch black plastic planting flats almost everywhere she goes, the same way a real estate agent seems to bleed a trail of lawn signs. Get the ones with the bottom watering slits and the translucent lids. They are a masterful piece of industrial design, they cost about .50 each and they look just like garbage.米勒德不管到哪儿,都拖着一堆20英寸(约51厘米)厚的黑色塑料种植板,就像一名房地产经纪人不管到哪儿都会竖起一连串草坪标牌那样。去购买这些底部裂口、带透明盖子的东西吧。它们是工业设计的杰作,每个大约1.5美元(约合人民币9元),看起来就像垃圾一样。A Pyrex casserole dish makes a smarter display. “It may help with the drainage to put a low layer of gravel in the bottom,” Ms. Millard said, prepping the planter. A few handfuls of soil mix flew into the trays. She was no more delicate with the pea seeds and the popcorn kernels, scattering a single layer over the surface. Being housebound, they wouldn’t need a coat of dirt on top.用派热克斯(Pyrex)烤盘则要气派得多。“在底部铺上薄薄一层碎石,可以帮助排水,”米勒德说,她正准备播种。几把混合土壤撒进了这些托盘里。她不再小心翼翼地处理这些豌豆种子和爆米花硬核,而是粗略地在土壤表面撒了薄薄一层。反正是在室内,它们不需要在顶上再铺一层土。You’ll want to sow at the kind of density you would see in front of the stage at Bonnaroo. Once the sprouts come up, Ms. Millard said, “you could have someone crowd surf without falling in.”你播撒种子的密度,要像你在波纳罗音乐节(Bonnaroo)舞台前方看到的人群密度一样。等这些幼苗长出来,米勒德说,“你都能让一个人在上面玩人体冲浪,也不会掉下去了。”At this point, Ms. Millard mentioned a piece of look-for-it-in-the-basement gear: a box fan. A little airflow helps ward off disease and stiffens a plant’s resolve.说到这,米勒德提起一件“要去地下室里找”的装置:一台箱式电扇。一点气流可以帮助植物避免疾病,并增强植株的抵抗力。My summer corn crop in the yard had been a mixed success. By that I mean it was a success for the squirrels that stripped the stalks clean and a total failure for me, who waited 80 days and got nothing.我夏天在院子里种的玉米算是成败参半吧。我的意思是,对于松鼠来说是成功的,它们把玉米杆子剥得一干二净;但对我而言则是彻头彻尾的失败,等待了80天,结果一无所获。“Depending on your conditions in here, after about two weeks you should be able to harvest them,” Ms. Millard said. “Cut them like you’re giving them the worst haircut in the world.”“这取决于你这里的天气状况,再过大约两周吧,你应该就能有收获了,”米勒德说,“收割玉米的样子,就像你要给它们剪全世界最难看的发型。”I said, “I think I’ve given someone that haircut.”我说,“我大概给人剪过那样的发型。”Ms. Millard said, “I think I’ve had that haircut.”米勒德说,“我大概被人剪过那样的发型。”What about lights? This is the question that every lay agronomist seems to ask, Ms. Millard said. It’s as if she has proposed a suspect workaround: school without homework, say, or an affair without text messaging (I mean, sex).那么光照呢?这似乎是每位外行的农学家都会提出的问题,米勒德说。那语气就好像她已经提出了一个可疑的变通方案:就像是,比方说不留家庭作业的学校,或是不发短信(我指的是,性)的外遇。Ms. Millard dutifully runs through the options in the book. A window with southern exposure will get you somewhere. But the plant will need to be close to the pane, where conditions may be drafty. Incandescent bulbs give off more heat than light. Ms. Millard doesn’t spend too much time on specialty lighting systems: HID, LED or plasma. This kind of expertise and budget are the province of the marijuana cultivator. We have a lot to learn from them.米勒德很负责地把书中的选项都浏览了一遍。一扇向南的窗户会对你有所助益,但是植物得靠近窗格,那里的环境可能比较通风。一些白炽灯泡会比自然光发出更多热量。米勒德没有在如何布置专门的光照系统上花太多HID啦、LED啦,或者等离子什么的。这种光照系统的专业程度和预算花销,是大麻栽培者熟悉的范畴。我们有许多东西得向他们学习。Ultimately, Ms. Millard recommends cheap shop lights, with full-spectrum bulbs (t5 or t8) and reflective hoods. The adjustable fixtures are better still: You can start them a couple of inches above the newly sprouted seeds and raise them as your plants grow.最终,米勒德建议大家采用廉价的店铺照明,这种照明系统有全光谱的灯泡(光管直径t5或t8[t5直径约16mm,t8直径约25.4mm——译注])和反光罩。最好让那些可调节灯具保持固定:你可以一开始把它们装在新发芽的种子上方几英寸的位置,然后随着植物的生长逐渐升高。We’d moved on to planting herbs and root crops. Untreated potatoes from the farmers’ market would turn into suitable plants. Just wait for the eyes to form. Ms. Millard suggested putting five or six in a 15-gallon pot. “They should get some light during the day,” she said. But, “potatoes do well with the whole benign-neglect situation.” They’re like children that way.我们又谈到了种植香草和根茎类作物。从农贸市场上买来的、未经处理的土豆,就会长成适合栽培的植株,只要等待芽眼形成就可以了。米勒德建议在每个15加仑大小的锅里,放五至六个土豆。“它们应该在白天得到一些光照,”她说。但是,“土豆很会适应被完全善意忽视的情境。”在这方面,它们就像孩子一样。Rounded carrots and radishes wouldn’t outgrow their Procrustean beds. She mentioned French baby carrots (“carefully bred in France!”) and a favorite radish called Parisienne, which had the soul of a carrot. Alas, indoors, they would grow about as fast as the European economy. “Carrots take forever,” Ms. Millard said. “About two months, if you’re lucky.”圆滚滚的胡萝卜和小萝卜,生长过程中都不会超出它们那张“普罗克汝斯忒斯之床”(Procrustean beds,源自希腊神话,形容强求一致的标准——译注)。她还提到了法国小胡萝卜(French baby carrots)(“在法国悉心栽培的!”),和一种叫做“巴黎女子”(Parisienne)、的讨人喜欢的小萝卜,它拥有一根胡萝卜的灵魂。唉,养在室内的话,它们的生长速度就能快得堪比欧洲经济了。“胡萝卜的生长周期很长,”米勒德说,“大约要两个月吧,如果你幸运的话。”In the end, she harvested maybe 10 carrots — not the kind of bounty to run through a juicer. “When you spend that much time and love,” she said, “you slice them up and eat them raw like carpaccio.”最后,她收获了大约十根胡萝卜——绝不舍得放进榨汁机里。“当你花了那么多的时间与爱心,”她说,“你只会把它们切成薄片,然后生吃,就像吃生牛肉片一样。”She wouldn’t blame anyone who concluded that indoor kitchen gardening is impractical. “There’s something of the hobbyist to it,” she said.如果有谁得出室内厨房园艺不切实际的结论,她也不会责怪他们。“这只是某种偏好。”她说。Before I forget, then, here’s a reminder. In New York City, the outdoor planting date for carrots is only 150 days away.以免我到时候忘了,先在这里提个醒。在纽约市,再过150天,就到了该在户外种植胡萝卜的日子了。 /201412/345438

On a cold, dark street in Tijuana, Mexico, I asked Eddie Huang a question that many people were sure to ask him in the months to come. “What did you expect?”在墨西哥提华纳一条阴冷黑暗的街道上,我问了黄颐铭(Eddie Huang)一个几个月来大家都会问的一个问题:“你的期望是什么?”For the past week in December, Huang had been venting about his tortured ambivalence toward “Fresh Off the Boat,” the A sitcom based on the memoir he wrote about growing up as a child of Taiwanese immigrants in Orlando, Fla. He deployed his gift for pithy, wounding invective against the show’s producers and writers — before professing gratitude and love for the same people he just vilified. He described what he took to be the show’s falseness and insensitivity to nuance — before praising its first episode as the best sitcom pilot he had ever seen. He lamented the choice he had made to sell his life rights to a major network — before insisting that the premiere of “Fresh Off the Boat” on Feb. 4 would be a milestone, not just in the history of television but in the history of the ed States.十二月的过去一周里,黄一直在发泄他对《初来乍到》(Fresh Off the Boat)所持有的那种令人纠结的矛盾心态。这部美国广播公司旗下的情景喜剧改编自黄的回忆录,讲述了他作为台湾移民的孩子在佛罗里达州奥兰多的成长经历。说起该剧的制作人和编剧们的时候,黄充分发挥了他那说简洁有力的恶毒脏话的天分。可是坏话刚说完,他接着又表达了对这些人的感激和喜爱之情。他批评该剧虚伪,没有传达出原著的精妙之处,可是马上又对第一集大加赞赏,说那是他看过的最好的情景喜剧试播集。他对于把自己人生故事的版权卖给一个大电视网的这一决定后悔不已,但接着又坚称二月四日《初来乍到》的首播不但将是电视历史上,也是整个美国历史的一个里程碑。He had a point. “Fresh Off the Boat” would be the first network sitcom to star an Asian-American family in 20 years and only the third attempt by any major network in the history of the medium. Huang chose to sign with A in deference to the residual power of network television to alter mass perceptions about race, and he had hoped to portray the Asian-immigrant experience without equivocation or compromise.他有理由这么说。《初来乍到》是二十年来在美国电视网播出以亚裔美国家庭为主角的第一部情景喜剧。在美国电视史上,所有的主要电视网加在一起只有三次这样的尝试。黄选择跟A合作,是觉得电视网还有一定的残余影响力,可以改变公众对种族的看法。他希望能够毫不含糊、毫无妥协地描绘亚洲移民的生活经历。“What did I expect?” Huang responded. “I expected I could change things.” He told me that he thought his story was powerful enough for A to allow him to tell it his way. “I thought that people in network television had their own conscience about things.”“我期望什么?”黄回应了我的问题,“我期望能够改变一些事。”他告诉我他本来相信他的故事足够震撼,能够说A不做任何干涉,以他的方式讲述。“我原本是相信电视网的人还是有一点良心的。”Huang, 32, was dressed in an acid-wash denim jacket and a black fur hat with its earflaps folded up, which lent his large, round baby face a not-at-all-coincidental resemblance to a certain East Asian dictator. (Huang likes to give himself nicknames — Kim Jong Trill, the Rotten Banana, the Human Panda, the Chinkstronaut — all of which, like the name of his show, repurpose and reclaim slurs and stereotypes.) He was sitting on the back fender of a Vice Media van, in which a five-man crew was preparing its equipment to shoot. We were waiting for two young female marijuana dealers whom Huang would be interviewing for “Huang’s World,” the gonzo food and travel show he hosts for Vice.黄今年32岁。他穿着一件做旧的牛仔夹克。黑色皮毛帽子护耳上翻,加上他那张又大又圆的娃娃脸,这形象似乎是在有意模仿某位东亚独裁者 。(黄喜欢给自己起诸如“金正雀”、“烂香蕉”、“熊猫人”、“中国佬宇航员”这样的外号。这些外号像他节目的名字一样,重新利用种族侮辱和种族定型,赋予它们新意)黄坐在一辆Vice传媒面包车的后保险杠上。在车里,五位工作人员正准备设备开拍。我们在等两位女大麻贩子。黄将要为《黄的世界》(Huang’s World)采访她们,这是他给Vice主持的一档怪诞的美食旅行节目 。He had, he admitted, been extremely na#239;ve about the realities of network television. By way of explanation, Huang reviewed for me the string of previous triumphs that induced him to overrate his ability to set his own terms in the world. “You have to remember how unlikely all of this was. With Baohaus, for instance,” he said, referring to the basement hole-in-the-wall Taiwanese sandwich shop that took Huang to the forefront of a new generation of hip young New York chefs, “I had never worked in a New York City restaurant. I came out of nowhere. And I did it!” After a brief dalliance with the Cooking Channel, Huang started the Vice show, which at the time was called “Fresh Off the Boat.” “When had there been a television host with an identity like mine — a hip-hop Asian kid? I was the first! And the show was a huge success!” In 2013, he published a memoir, the story that Huang had always wanted to tell, and it became a national best seller. “And so I said, We can do this one more time! But network television wasn’t what I thought it was.”黄承认,他此前对电视网节目的现实情况的认识极度天真。作为解释,他向我列举了自己此前一系列的成功,这些经验使他高估了自己可以在与电视网合作过程中自作主张的能力。“我之前的成功真是不可思议。拿Baohaus来说”——这是他经营的一家开在地下室的台式刈包店,这个简陋小店使黄成了新一代纽约年轻新潮厨师的领军人物——“我没有在纽约市任何餐厅的工作经历。我没有任何背景,但我却成功了!”在跟美食频道的短暂合作后,黄开始在Vice主持他的节目。那时这个节目就叫做《初来乍到》。“之前没有任何一个电视主持人有我这样的身份——一个嘻哈亚裔小子?我是第一个!我的节目大获成功!”2013年,他出版了一本回忆录,讲述了他一直就想讲的故事,而这部回忆录也成了全国畅销书。“所以我会说:‘我们可以再来一次!’但是电视网节目并不是我想象的那回事。”Huang feels that by adulterating the specificity of his childhood in the pursuit of universal appeal, the show was performing a kind of “reverse yellow#173;face” — telling white American stories with Chinese faces. He doesn’t want to purchase mainstream accessibility at the expense of the distinctiveness of his lived experiences, though he is aware of how acutely Asian-#173;Americans hunger for any kind of cultural recognition. “Culturally, we are in an ice age,” he said. “We don’t even have fire. We don’t even have the wheel. If this can be the first wheel, maybe others can make three more.”黄认为,为了迎合大众口味而减弱他童年故事的独特性,会使《初来乍到》变成“反向黄面孔”——利用中国人的面孔讲述美国白人的故事。虽然他很清楚亚裔美国人非常渴望得到任何文化承认,但是他不想为了打入主流而牺牲掉他个人经历的独特性。“我们在文化上还处于冰河世纪,”他说,“我们连火都不会生。连轮子也还没发明。如果《初来乍到》能成为第一个轮子,也许别人可以做出另外三个。”Then, he added, “we can get an axle and build a rice rocket.”接着,他又说道:“我们可以弄个轮轴,造一辆‘亚洲小跑车’。”The story Huang tells in his memoir is one of survival and struggle in a hostile environment — a prosperous neighborhood in Orlando. Though the picaresque book is written in Huang’s jaunty mash-up of hip-hop lingo and conspicuously learned references to American history and literature, it is also an extraordinarily raw account of an abused and bullied child who grows to inflict violence on others. The racism Huang encounters in Florida is not underhanded, implicit or subtle, as it often is for the many Asians from the professional classes living in and around the coastal cities where the American educated elite reside. It is open, overt and violent.黄在回忆录中讲述的是一个在奥兰多某富裕社区中生存和斗争的故事。对他来说那是一个充满敌意的环境。黄在这一充斥着流氓小混混的作品中生动地夹杂了嘻哈语言。与之形成强烈对比的是他对美国历史和文学典故的旁征引。但他的作品远不止于此。黄用异常朴实震撼的笔触描写了一个饱受虐待和欺辱的孩子学会如何以牙还牙的故事。和许多住在教育精英聚集的东西海岸地区的亚裔职业人士不一样,黄在佛罗里达遭受到的种族歧视不是偷偷摸摸、暗示性的,或是含蓄的。在这里,种族歧视是公开的,没有任何掩饰的,甚至是暴力的。“Up North and out West, you have a bit more focus on academics, and there are accelerated programs for high-achieving kids,” said Emery Huang, reflecting on the tumultuous upbringing he shared with his brother. “Down South, you’ve got football and drinking, and that’s it. If you weren’t fighting, you were a nerd and a victim.” In response to this bullying, the Huang brothers did not conform to the docile stereotypes of Asian-American youths, in large part because of the influence of their father, Louis. A hardened, street-smart man, Louis had been sent by his own father to the ed States to get him away from the hoodlums he had been running with in Taipei. “We wouldn’t get in trouble with our dad if we got into a fight,” Emery said. “We would get in trouble if we didn’t win.”“在北部或是西部,人们更重视学业。他们有很多给优等生的快进课程,”黄的弟弟埃莫瑞·黄(Emery Huang)回忆起他和哥哥的成长经历时说道。“在我们南部,除了橄榄球和喝酒,没有别的了。如果你不打架,那你就是个书呆子,就会被别人欺负。”在欺凌面前,黄家兄弟并没有符合亚裔美国孩子的温顺典型,这在很大程度上是受了他们父亲路易的影响。路易是一个坚毅精明的角色。为了不让他在台北和小流氓们混,路易在年轻时被自己的父亲送到了美国。“如果我们打架的话,父亲并不会找我们麻烦,” 埃莫瑞说。“但是如果我们打架输了,那就有麻烦了。”Huang’s memoir records an unusual life trajectory: from tormented outsider, to angry adolescent who would twice be arrested on assault charges, to marijuana dealer, to high-end street-wear designer (under the “Hoodman” label, which eventually led to a lawsuit from Bergdorf Goodman), to corporate lawyer, to successful restaurateur. The book fixates on themes of pain and punishment. As a teenager, Huang was commanded by his father to kneel and bow to police officers after he was caught stealing from neighbors. Later, he would find himself surrounded by cops with guns drawn after he drove his car into a crowd of frat guys who were menacing him and several friends (after one of his own broke a window at their house).黄的回忆录记录了他不同寻常的生活历程:他从一个受欺负的外来者、一个因受到袭击指控被逮捕两次的愤怒少年、一个大麻贩子,成长为一位高端街头时尚设计师(黄的品牌“Hoodman”最终遭到了波道夫·古德曼[Bergdorf Goodman]的侵权诉讼)、一位公司律师、一位成功的餐厅业主。苦难和惩罚是该回忆录的两大主题。在他十来岁的时候,黄因为偷邻居的东西被抓获。他父亲命令他向警员们下跪鞠躬。这之后,他因为开车冲撞了威胁他和他朋友们的一群兄弟会成员而被持的警察围堵(事情的起因是黄的一位朋友砸碎了兄弟会房屋的窗户)。At times, Huang comes across in his memoir as a dutiful son who admires and reveres his parents and feels the enormous weight of obligation to them — “I wasn’t mad at my dad,” he writes after being forced to remain kneeling on his asphalt driveway for several hours, “I deserved it” — and at others as an enraged teenager, rebelling against constant assaults on his self-esteem to which he was subjected in the home — he recalls “constantly being told I was a fan tong (rice bucket), fat-ass or waste of space.” He finds in hip-hop a language for his alienation, citing Tupac Shakur’s “Me Against the World” as the cathartic soundtrack of his youth. (“Our parents, Confucius, the model-minority [expletive] and kung-fu-style discipline are what set us off,” he wrote. “But Pac held us down.”)在回忆录中,黄有时把自已描绘成一个敬重父母、知道自己责任重大的孝顺儿子。有一次,父亲让他在沥青车道上跪了好几个小时。黄这样写道:“我没有生父亲的气, 我是活该。”但在另一些段落里,他却显得是一个愤怒少年,反抗在家中不断受到的对自尊心的打击。他回忆说:“我不断地被叫做饭桶、肥仔或是废物。”黄在嘻哈乐中找到了表达自己疏离感的语言。图派克·夏库尔(Tupac Shakur)的《反抗世界》(Me Against the World)是他青年时代的宣泄之声。(“我们的父母、儒家哲学、少数群体典范和功夫般的严明纪律让我们吃不消,”他说,“是派克给了我们持。”)In Los Angeles later in December, while driving with Huang in his canary yellow Porsche Boxster to his Malibu apartment, I asked him what his parents thought of his portrayal of the abuse they inflicted on him.我再后来见到黄是在12月的洛杉矶。我们开着他那辆鲜黄色的保时捷驶向黄在马里布的公寓。我问他,他的父母对于他在回忆录中描写的他们对他的虐待有什么看法。“My parents have never acknowledged that it was abuse — because in their culture and their country it wasn’t,” he said. Huang believes that the psychological and physical harm that was done to him was largely a matter of context. “I think the abuse had extra meaning that I gave to it, because I saw that it wasn’t happening to other kids.” For a time, every Friday afternoon, Huang said, social workers would take him out of class to inspect him for cuts and bruises. “And I knew that I was weird and different and was made to feel like I had done something wrong, like there was something wrong with us.”“我父母从来不承认这是虐待,因为在他们的文化和国家里这不是,”黄说。他认为他受到的心理和生理的伤害在很大程度上跟周围环境有关。“我看到别的孩子并没有受到跟我一样的遭遇,所以我对我受到的虐待赋予了更多的含义。”他解释说有一段时间,在每个周五下午,会有社工把他从教室里领出来查看他身上有没有伤口或淤青。“这让我觉得我是个与众不同的怪胎,或是我做错了什么,或是我们亚裔本身就有什么不对头的地方。”The book proposal for “Fresh Off the Boat” was sent to publishers not long after an excerpt from Amy Chua’s memoir, “Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother,” appeared in The Wall Street Journal. The commercial prospects of Huang’s proposal were almost certainly enhanced by this coincidence: Chua’s book indirectly addressed the chief preoccupation of the American upper-middle class — getting their children into top-tier colleges — and therefore generated one of the infrequent moments in which Asian-#173;Americans aroused the fascination of the wider American public. Chua made Asian-Americans matter just long enough for Huang’s proposal to sell as a counternarrative to hers.在《华尔街日报》登出蔡美儿(Amy Chua)的《虎妈战歌》(Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother)节选后不久,黄就找到出版商,提出了想写《初来乍到》这样一本书。这一巧合大大提升了他的作品的商业前景。蔡的书间接地回应了美国中上产阶层最关心的一个问题——如何把他们的孩子们送到一流大学,从而激起了更大范围内的美国大众对亚裔美国人群体少见的兴趣。蔡让亚裔美国人成为话题中心,而黄正好搭上了东风,可以标榜为《虎妈战歌》的反调作品来营销。The Journal excerpt, titled “Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior,” gave what Chua would later claim was a misleading impression of the overall arc of her book, which chronicled the crisis that ensued when her younger daughter revolted against “Chinese” parenting methods that might seem “unimaginable — even legally actionable” to Western parents. But the marketing campaign, of which the excerpt was a part, appealed to an underlying (and not entirely unjustified) concern among white American parents that they had grown too indulgent toward their children. Huang found the book repellent. “She Kumon-ized our existence,” he told me, referring to the popular Japanese after-school learning program. “This is something that 50- and 60-year-old Asians are still dealing with.”蔡后来声称,《华尔街日报》的节选《为什么华裔母亲更胜一筹》 误导读者以偏概全,她的书其实是描写了小女儿对中国式的教子方法产生逆反心理后发生的危机。这些方法在西方父母看来“不可想像,甚至会有法律问题”。但是《虎妈战歌》的营销活动——节选也是营销活动的一部分——迎合了白种美国父母对于自己是不是太溺爱孩子的担忧(这担忧不是没有一定道理)。黄对《虎妈战歌》深恶痛绝,“她把我们都给公文式化了,”他告诉我说。公文式是一个流行的日本课后学习教程。“五六十岁的亚裔都有这个问题,”他说。When I spoke to Huang’s parents, they didn’t deny his claims, but they emphasized that there was a cultural and generational gap. They were young at the time, they said, and they had reverted to parenting practices they saw in Taiwan. “I wanted to make them tough,” his father said, “and I think that I did.” Emery, however, claims that his brother’s harsh depiction of their childhood in the book seemed “sugarcoated.”当我采访黄的父母时,他们并没有驳斥黄在书中的描写。但是他们强调和儿子之间有文化和年龄的鸿沟。他们说,自己当时还年轻,教育儿子的时候就沿袭了他们在台湾看到的那套。“我想让他们坚强。”黄的父亲说,“我想我做到了。”但是埃莫瑞却说,哥哥的书对他们的严酷童年仍旧有些轻描淡写。Still, Huang is quick to say that he never thinks of his parents as bad people. “I do think about getting hit, though,” he said. “And I definitely am the way I am because of it. I am quick to react. I am quick to protect myself. I am very comfortable with people yelling at me. And I am very comfortable telling people exactly what I think. I am very comfortable getting personal.”尽管如此,黄还是马上指出他从来没有认为父母是坏人。“但是我仍旧会想起挨打的事,”他说。“这肯定对我的性格有影响。我反应快。会很快地采取行动保护自己。当别人骂我的时候我一点儿也不在乎。我很乐于告诉别人我的想法。我也不在乎互相进行人身攻击。”This mixture of love and loathing toward parents will be familiar to generations of immigrants of every color, but Asian-Americans feel this tension with an unusual acuteness, in part because Confucian tradition is so explicitly directed toward the breaking of individual autonomy in favor of the demands of the family. This tension is compounded by the fact that, as a result of the federal Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, which eased national-#173;origin as, Asians began arriving in the ed States in large numbers just as the cultural upheaval of the 1960s was drastically loosening American manners and mores. Today the means that many Asian-Americans apply to achieve academic success (a narrow emphasis on rote memorization and test preparation) could not be more out of step with the attitudes and practices of the socially liberal elite that Asians aspire to join. The ensuing cultural dissonance generates an awkward silence around the topic of Asian-Americans — Asian-#173;Americans don’t want to portray their parents as backward, and white liberals don’t want to be seen as looking down on people of other races and cultures whose parenting practices seem primitive. Huang hates this silence.所有种族的移民都有这种对父母爱恨交加的情感。但是这种情感在亚裔美国人身上体现更为强烈,这其中一部分原因来自提倡牺牲自我以顾全家庭的儒家传统。而在1965年的《移民与国籍法》放宽了国籍配额后,亚裔移民在六十年代文化动荡对美式习俗和道德观念造成巨大冲击的同时大批地来到美国。在这一背景下,亚裔子女更容易对父辈生出矛盾心理。如今,许多亚裔美国人用以取得优异学业的方法(死记硬背和应试学习)与他们期望融入的社会自由派精英的理念和做法格格不入。这种文化上的不协调使亚裔美国人成了一个让人缄口的话题:亚裔美国人不想把他们的父母描述成落后于时代,而白种自由派人士又不想显得看不起别的种族和文化——尽管他们认为后者的教育方式过于原始。黄讨厌在这一话题上的沉默。It is no paradox that Huang’s brazen attitude resembles nothing so much as that of his brash immigrant mother. As we arrived at his apartment in Malibu, Huang casually mentioned that his mother had on more than one occasion turned the wheel of her car sharply into oncoming traffic to terrorize her children into compliance. But Huang would later insist that he owes everything he has become to her. “Every morning, whether it was weekdays or weekends, she would get me up and start demanding: ‘What are you going to do with yourself today? What is the plan? What is the itinerary?’#8201;” Huang credits this with instilling in him the drive that made him relentless in his pursuit of success.黄的坦诚态度跟他泼辣的母亲如出一撤。我们到了他在马里布的公寓以后,黄很随意地提起,他母亲好几次把车突然转向马路对面的车流以吓唬孩子们就范。但是黄后来又说他有今天的成就都要归功于母亲。“每天早上,不论是工作日还是周末,她都会叫我起床,然后问我:‘你今天要做什么?有什么计划?什么行程?’”黄说母亲的唠叨给了他不屈不饶追求成功的冲劲。In fact, his mother’s haranguing inadvertently helped jump-start his writing career. In 2010, his attempt at a second restaurant, Xiao Ye, received a zero-star review in The New York Times. The restaurant’s included facetiously racist items, including an “Everything but the Dog Meat Plate” and “Princeton Review Bean Paste Noodles.” In the write-up, Sam Sifton lamented that “if Mr. Huang spent even a third of the time cooking that he does writing funny blog posts and wry Twitter updates, posting hip-hop s and responding to Internet friends, rivals, critics and customers, Xiao Ye might be one of the more interesting restaurants to open in New York City in the last few months.” Huang’s blog went viral when he published an email his mother sent him after the review came out.实际上,母亲喋喋不休的指教不经意间启动了黄的写作生涯。在2010年,他的第二家餐馆“宵夜”被《纽约时报》评了零分。餐馆的菜单罗列了各种滑稽的、带有种族歧视意味的菜名,包括“非肉大杂烩”和“普林斯顿豆酱面”。在《纽约时报》的食评文章里,作者山姆·西弗敦(Sam Sifton)惋惜地写道:“黄先生的时间都用在写作搞笑客,发幽默推文,上传嘻哈音乐,和他的网上朋友、竞争对手、批评者和顾客互动了。如果他能拿出三分之一的时间来做菜,‘宵夜’没准还能成为纽约市过去几个月新开张的比较有趣的餐馆之一。”在这一发表后,黄在他的客上登出了母亲给他的电子邮件,引来众多人的点击。“Trust me, you much keep your bar license active just in case you need it,” his mother wrote. “You do not even understand your own strength or the whole scope of this business, and you are not even willing to listen. YOU MUST GET BURNT BEFORE YOU WILL HEAR YOUR MOM. Please calm down, analyze yourself, and be honest. You have a lot of potential, but you must make good choice and stick to it with the best choice. With all the staff, and your korean friend, no one was able to point out or warn you the mistakes, or problems you have?”邮件是这样写的:“相信我,你一定要保住你的酒吧执照,说不定以后还会有用。你不知道自己的强项,也不了解这一行业的深浅,而且你从来也听不进去别人的意见。你一定要吃了亏才知道要听你妈的话。现在你应该平静下来,诚实地评估自己。你有潜质,但是你必须做出正确的决定并且以正确的方式坚持下去。你的雇员们,还有你那个韩国朋友,难道他们没有一个人向你指出你的错误或问题吗?????????????”Huang closed the restaurant after repeat visits from the State Liquor Authority, which might have been peeved by his “Four Loko Thursday” deal, when the high-alcohol, caffeinated beverage was sold at a steep discount. (Huang had also floated the idea of an all-you-can-drink deal.) But Sifton grasped something important in his observation that the blog posts and Twitter updates mattered more to the chef than the food did. Huang’s true ambitions always had more to do with writing than with feeding people. He told me he opened the restaurant “because no one wanted to listen to me.”“宵夜”的“星期四Four Loko大狂欢”可能是惹恼了纽约州酒类。Four Loko是一种含咖啡因的酒精饮料,每周四在“宵夜”以超低价出售(黄原来还打算定价不定量出售)。在酒类的多次巡查后,“宵夜”彻底关张。但是西弗敦在他的文章里提到了关键的一点:对于黄大厨来说,更新客和推特比食物更重要。比起美食,黄真正的野心一直在于表达自己。他告诉我开餐厅是因为“没有人愿意听我倾诉”。Huang’s cocky social-media personality kept getting him in trouble, but it only seemed to swell his fame. His inability to censor himself, combined with his talent for speaking frankly and intimately to a mass public, aligned him perfectly with the mood of social media. When the Cooking Channel signed Huang to host a show called “Cheap Bites” — the kind of opportunity that most dedicated chefs would hold on to for dear life — the deal fell apart after Huang lashed out at the network’s biggest stars on Twitter. Huang has no regrets about the dust-up. (“The show looked like trash.”) He was later named a TED fellow, a potential gateway into the world of highly compensated corporate speaking, but quickly got himself booted from the program when he skipped some of the events to appear on a podcast with the graffiti artist David Choe and the porn star Asa Akira. Choe declared it to be a meeting of the “worst Asians in the universe.” Huang would later denounce TED as a “cult.”黄在社交媒体上桀骜不驯的形象给他惹了不少麻烦,但是这反而使他的名气看涨。他说话口无遮拦,并且有一种贴近大众坦诚交流的天赋,这些特点使他能和社交媒体完美契合。当美食频道签下他主持“廉价美食”(Cheap Bites)后,他却在推特上抨击频道所属电视网的大明星们。黄不得不和美食频道解约——而大多数兢兢业业的厨师会对这种机会倍加珍惜。黄对此一点也不后悔(“那个节目一团糟”),后来他又被任命为TED研究员,这个机会本来可能让他步入高薪职业演讲者的殿堂,但是不久他就被炒了鱿鱼。原因是他为了和涂鸦艺术家大卫·崔(David Choe)和日裔美国色情女星阿萨·阿基拉(Asa Akira)出现在一档播客节目中,而好几次爽约TED活动。崔说那次节目是“全宇宙最烂亚裔”大聚会。而黄之后指责TED是“邪教”。Huang’s utter lack of instinct for self-preservation has had the curious effect of preserving himself against any harm. While the established institutions he railed against had myriad vested interests to balance and secrets to hide, Huang has always taken the inherently sympathetic role of the only honest man, refusing to compromise with arbitrary or corrupt authority. This has made Huang a particularly good fit with Vice Media, whose food channel, Munchies, seeks to appeal to young hipsters turned off by bourgeois “foodie-ism” but interested in educating their palates. Tricked out in big sunglasses, high-top sneakers and flashy street wear, Huang#39;s on-screen persona often resembles an Asian Ali G — easy to mock, were it not a deliberate self-#173;caricature. Much of the pleasure of Huang’s Vice show comes from watching him slyly emerge from his buffoonish character to make incisive comments revealing an agile, literary mind — and then lapse back into the role of the pot-addled numbskull.黄完全没有自我保护的意识,但这却不可思议地一直使他免受伤害。他所抨击的那些根基稳固的机构企业既要平衡各种既得利益,又要保守行业秘密。 在它们目前,黄是唯一说实话的人,拒绝和专横腐败的当权机构妥协——这是一个总是让人同情的角色设定 。这使得黄和Vice传媒一拍即合。Vice的美食频道Munchies的目标观众是那些对小资“美食主义”并不感冒,但却希望有美食好品味的年轻潮人。黄的电视形象——大墨镜、高帮运动鞋、花哨的街头时装——经常让他看上去像一个亚裔版的阿里·G(Ali G) 。这一形象要不是黄有意的自我嘲弄,倒真会招致讥讽。黄的这档节目带给人最大的乐趣就是看着这个小丑一样的人物灵机一动,说出一些展露他敏捷渊思维的精辟妙语,然后又看着他逐渐回到那个好像吸了大麻、昏头昏脑的傻瓜形象。I met Huang in Los Angeles during a time of high tension surrounding his show, a few weeks after he exploded in a Twitter tirade, accusing the network of neutering his book, and a week before shooting would wrap. The executive producers were, at this point, careful to emphasize that the show was not a biography of Eddie Huang and his family. It was a loose adaptation “inspired” by, rather than “based” on, Huang’s book. The series borrows the setting and the characters but applies them to a plot that was invented almost entirely by a professional writing staff, led by the showrunner Nahnatchka Khan. Though Huang lived the life depicted in the show, 20th Century Fox Television (which produces the show for A) retains creative control over it.当我在洛杉矶见到黄的时候,《初来乍到》的制作正处于一个非常紧张的时刻。几个星期前,黄在推特上突然发难,指责A阉割了他的书。而这时离拍摄结束只有一周时间了。该剧的执行制作人们很小心地强调电视剧并不是黄和他的家人的传记。他们说剧本是受到了“启发”,而不是“基于”黄的著作,改编并不完全忠于原著。电视剧只不过借用了书中的场景和人物,整个情节差不多都是出自该剧主创人娜娜查卡·汗(Nahnatchka Khan)领导的一个职业编剧团队的手笔。虽然电视剧讲述的是黄的生活经历,但是为A制作该剧的二十一世纪福克斯电视公司却掌握着该剧的创意权。Melvin Mar, the producer at Fox who bought the rights to the book, told me that Huang’s arrangement with the studio is atypical. Usually, a production company will pay an author for a book it options and neither seek nor offer further participation. But Huang insisted on being brought on as a producer as a condition of the sale. So, Mar told me, “we decided we would all do this together, like a family.”梅尔文·马(Melvin Mar)是福克斯的一位制作人,正是他购买了黄的著作改编权。马告诉我,黄和电视公司的合作是不同寻常的。通常,一家制作公司在买了一位作者的作品后, 并不会寻求或是提议和作者进一步的合作。但是作为购买条件,黄坚持要成为电视剧的制作人。所以,马告诉我说:“我们决定一起做这件事,就像一家人那样。”More than anything, the fraught dynamic that emerged between Mar and Huang resembles that of Huang’s actual family. The ambivalence Huang feels toward his parents tends to manifest itself in all his dealings with authority, Mar most emphatically not excepted. Huang sometimes describes Mar as a mentor, someone who has taught him about when to pursue confrontation and when to acknowledge the necessity for accommodation. But these sincere expressions of respect often segue quickly to contempt for the compromises endemic to the entertainment industry. “It’s a system that is kind of similar to the Asian upbringing,” Huang told me. By giving up so much autonomy for his career’s sake, Huang said, Mar “got a second set of parents in network television.”黄和马之间的复杂情感像极了黄的和他家庭的关系。黄对父母的那种矛盾心理往往在他与权威人物打交道时显现出来,而马正是这样一个角色。黄有时说马是他的导师,教导他该何时寻求对抗,何时承认合作的必要。但是这些出自肺腑的尊敬之词很快变成了对整个业妥协风气的藐视。“这个体制就像亚裔受到的教育,”黄告诉我。他说马为了自己的职业而放弃了太多的自主权。现在“电视网成了他的第二父母”。Mar and Khan met at a symposium for Asian-Americans interested in the popular arts, where they dealt with a familiar crowd of activists demanding to know why Hollywood seemed so uninterested in casting people who looked like themselves. (Mar’s family is from China; Khan’s is from Iran.) “You go to these conferences, and there’s always people saying, ‘You should do more for Asian people,’#8201;” Mar said. “And my response is, ‘Yes, I agree with you.’ But it’s easier said than done. I have to bring actual projects that are viable and convince the executives that there’s a real business case for making it.”马和汗是在一次主题为流行文化艺术的研讨会上认识的。与会的积极分子他们并不陌生。这些人都想弄明白,为什么好莱坞对亚裔这么不感兴趣。(马是华裔,汗是伊朗裔)“每次去这样的会议,都会有人告诉我:‘你们应该多给亚裔做些东西,’马说,“我的回应是:‘对,我同意。’但是说起来容易做起来难。我得有具体可行的项目来说领导们制作这个东西确实具有商业价值。”The business case for making an Asian-American show is simple: Asian-Americans are the fastest-growing ethnic group in the country, they earn and spend more than the average American and they are overrepresented in the advertiser-coveted 18-to-34-year-old demographic. But if the case were really so strong, surely two decades would not have passed without some network making a bid for this audience. Perhaps the reason is that the so-called Asian-American demographic (some 18 million viewers) is actually made up of many different nationalities with no common culture or language.制作一部关于亚裔美国人电视剧的商业价值显而易见:亚裔美国人是美国发展最快的族群,他们的收入和花销都在平均美国人之上。在广告商最看中的18到34岁这个年龄段,他们的人数也超过其他族裔的比例。但是,如果情况真的这么有说力的话,在过去这二十年里肯定早有电视公司打起这一观众群体的算盘了。但事实是却并非如此。原因可能是所谓的亚裔美国人这一人口群体(也就是1,800万观众)实际上是由很多不同的民族组成,他们之间并没有共同的文化和语言。Moreover, comedies about nonwhite people generally must navigate a trap-laden path between offending the group represented and neutering the comedy to avoid doing so. And they suffer from having to be approved and produced by people who are overwhelmingly white, and thus unfamiliar with the nuances of the stories they are telling, and also intensely wary of giving offense — but all this does is increase the likelihood that these shows will be dull, though still capable of offending their audience. This is exactly what happened to “All-American Girl,” the sitcom starring the comedian Margaret Cho and the last significant attempt to make an Asian-American TV show. The series was disowned by the Korean-American community that it tried to portray and was eventually rejected by the wider audience for being unfunny. It was canceled after just one season, two decades ago.此外,关于非白种人的喜剧作品总是得避免各式各样的陷阱,既不能得罪所描述的种族,又得小心不能牺牲喜剧效果。批准和制作这些作品的大多数还是白人。他们不熟悉故事的微妙之处,又非常小心不要冒犯到任何人。这样的结果就是他们制作出来的东西有很大可能既沉闷无趣,还又冒犯了观众。由玛格丽特·曹(Margaret Cho)主演的情景喜剧《全美女孩》(All-American Girl)正是如此。这是《初来乍到》之前关于亚裔美国人的电视节目的一次重要尝试。《全美女孩》试图描绘韩裔美国人群体,却没有得到他们的认可。更多的观众觉得该剧并不好笑。播放了一季后该剧被叫停。这是二十年前的事了。“Fresh Off the Boat” was meant to be different. Not only is the production staff diverse, but the source material helps indemnify the show against criticism of many of its outlandish elements, which are rooted in Huang’s actual life. For example, the ferociously uninhibited and heavily accented mother portrayed in the series might appear to be an offensive caricature if it were a generic “Tiger mom” conjured out of thin air.|《初来乍到》不想重蹈覆辙。不但它的制作团队来自不同种族背景,而且素材来源也令剧中很多出格内容免遭批评,毕竟,这些内容源自黄的真实生活。例如,剧中那位泼辣不羁、口音极重的母亲,如果只是凭空虚构出来的一位“虎妈”角色的话,就可能如同一个闹剧形象,冒犯很多人。In fact, Constance Wu, the actress who plays Jessica Huang on the show, told me that she underplays her character in relation to the actual woman. “I don’t actually think they would believe she was real,” Wu said. “That’s what reality television is for — to show you people who no one would actually believe were real.” To preserve the appearance of reality, the show has had to depart from it — while also claiming that same reality as its license to go as far as it does in presenting a raw slice of immigrant life.实际上,剧中扮演黄母洁西卡的演员康斯丹丝·吴(Constance Wu)对我说,与原型相比,她在表演中有意弱化了这一角色。“我觉得观众会觉得这个形象太不真实,”她说。“那是真人秀节目做的事——展示那些令人难以置信的形象。”为了保外表的真实性,剧集不得不脱离现实——同时又要以现实来为该剧对移民生活的种种震撼描写提供合理性。When Mar asked Khan to sketch out her vision for the show, she described what would become the opening scene of the series: a tight focus on someone in hip-hop garb that pulls out to reveal .#8201;.#8201;. a short, chubby Asian boy. The apparent incongruity (more apparent than real) is at once a joke for the prime-time network audience and a wedge that protects the series from recapitulating “model minority” representations of Asian-Americans. It is also the sore point that offends Huang more than any other aspect of the show.马请娜娜查卡·汗描述一下她希望此剧达成的效果,她的描述后来成了本剧开篇的一幕:对一个身着嘻哈饰的男子的近距离特写,然后镜头拉开,观众发现…他不过是个矮墩墩胖乎乎的亚裔男孩。这种略显夸张的反差既是讨好黄金时段电视观众的笑话,也为观众打了预防针:本剧讲的可不是“模范少数族裔”的亚裔。但是,这也正是让黄最为不满的一处情节。Hip-hop had been the emblem of Huang’s alienation from his own household and the violence he encountered at school. It provided a language through which to reject the role of the eager assimilator that his own culture seemed to urge onto him. It was, as Huang described it in his book, a means of survival — not some glib, touristic fascination, or even a way of being cool. Huang identified with the black kids at school because they, too, were enduring beatings in their households in a way that white kids weren’t. “It’s a funny position being an Asian in America,” Huang wrote. “You’re the dude who can cross the union line. Your community actually wants you to sell the [expletive] out and work in law, accounting or banking. But I realized then that I wasn’t going to cross the picket line.” (Though he was briefly a corporate lawyer.) “I was down with the rotten bananas who want nothing to do with that.”嘻哈音乐是黄与自己的家庭疏离,并在学校遭受暴力的标志。它为黄叛离自己的文化强加给他的“努力融入美国主流社会”的形象提供了表达的语言。正如黄在书中写的,嘻哈成了他生存的手段,而不是浅薄的、过客般的兴趣,或是扮酷的噱头。黄与学校里的黑人孩子称兄论弟,是因为他们也在自己家中挨打,而白人孩子则没有这种遭遇。“亚洲人在美国处于一种有趣的地位。”黄在书中写道:“大家都认为你会跨越阶层。你的社群指望着你他妈出人头地,进入法律、会计或业工作。但我那时意识到,我不会背离我的阶层。(尽管他的确曾经做过公司律师)我跟那群不成器的‘烂香蕉’们混在一起,他们根本不在乎出人头地。”Huang’s appropriation of the language of racialized resistance might seem intrinsically noncredible to many white, black and even Asian interlocutors, who — implicitly or explicitly — regard Asian-Americans as the minority group that gets ahead by working hard and eschewing the politics of racial grievance. Not Huang, who likes to analogize his relationship with Mar to that of the “field Chinaman” to the “house Chinaman.” (Mar called this comparison “heightened,” which was his diplomatic way of saying “fantastically overwrought.” If there is a class distinction between the two men, it’s this: Mar’s family worked in the bean-sprout business in Los Angeles’s Chinatown, while Huang’s father become a millionaire many times over in Orlando.)黄使用的这种种族化抗争的语言,对于很多关注这个话题的白人、黑人或亚裔人士来说,可能从本质上显得虚假,因为这些人有意无意地仍旧把亚裔美国人当做那个通过努力工作、回避种族政治而获得成功的群体。但黄可不是这样的人。他喜欢把自己跟马之间的关系比作“田地里的中国佬”和“房子里的中国佬”。(马称这种比喻有些“夸张了”,这就是他对“胡言乱语不知所云”的委婉说法。但假如两人之间真的有阶层区别的话,实际是这样的:马的家族在洛杉矶唐人街经营豆芽生意,而黄的父亲则成了奥兰多的千万富翁)Huang especially took issue with the second episode in the series, in which a youthful Eddie develops a protosexual fascination with a blond, large-breasted trophy wife who has just moved into the neighborhood. It includes a scene in which Eddie fantasizes himself into a rap . He “makes it rain” and squirts Capri Sun onto models. Though test audiences found the scene to be innocuously funny, Huang considered the thrust of the episode outright offensive. In his estimation, it denigrates hip-hop culture by portraying it as a vector for adopting sexist attitudes — a perversion of what, for him, had been a vital emotional outlet. His analysis is credible but, as the writers and producers told him, way too abstruse for anyone in the audience to think about.黄对剧集中的第二集尤其不满;其中,少年时代的黄颐铭对邻家刚刚搬来的金发大胸已婚花瓶女萌生“性趣”。剧中有这样一个场景:少年黄颐铭幻想自己拍摄了一部嘻哈MTV,他在其中唱到自己“爱如雨下”,并且用浓缩橙汁喷洒到模特们的身上。尽管在公映前测试剧情时,观众感觉剧情滑稽而不低俗,但黄认为第二集的主要情节非常令人不快。他认为,剧情把嘻哈文化描写为性别主义的载体,从而贬低了他视之为抒发情感关键渠道的嘻哈文化。他的分析不无道理,但是编剧和制片人们对他说,这种想法对于观众们来说太过高深,无法体会。“It’s so interesting, what he’s going through,” Khan told me. “Most people never get the opportunity to experience what he’s experiencing. So now he’s rebelling and manifesting the angst, and that’s what makes him him, and that’s why he wrote the memoir in the first place. Part of me just wants to say, ‘Sit back and enjoy this.’#8201;”“他所经历的情感变化非常有趣,” 娜娜查卡·汗对我说。“多数人根本没有机会体会他现在的处境。他现在处在反叛阶段,在表达他内心的焦虑,这正是他的独特之处,这也是他当初写自传的原因。我有时想说:‘放松点,试着享受这一刻吧。’”When I told Huang that Khan wanted him to sit back and enjoy the ride, he had an immediate response: “That’s what pedophiles tell children.”当我告诉黄,汗认为他应该放松点,尝试享受这个过程时,他脱口而出:“这是恋童癖们对孩子说的话。”Even if Huang’s attraction to black culture is played for cheap laughs, to him it is an essential element of his person. It provides the missing half of the fully human entity that the Asian-American who consents to the model-minority myth has to relinquish. A model minority is a tractable, one-#173;dimensional simulacrum of a person, stripped of complexity, nuance, danger and sexuality — a person devoid of dramatic interest. Huang is something else: a person at war with all the constraints that would fetter him to anything less than an identity capacious enough to contain all his contradictions and ambivalence.尽管黄对黑人文化的向往在剧中不过是廉价的搞笑噱头,对他来说,这可是他个人身份的重要部分。作为排斥了“模范少数族裔”神话的亚裔美国人,他所抛弃的这一半则由黑人文化填补,让他重新成为一个完整的人。所谓“模范少数族裔”是个缺乏自主的、单维度的人像,被剥夺了复杂性、微妙性、危险和性别,是缺乏戏剧色的人。而黄则截然不同:他与所有那些束缚羁绊他的因素斗争,他的身份一定要足够广阔善变,能够容纳下他所有的矛盾和模棱两可的性格。At the hotel on our last day in Tijuana, Huang spent the morning managing his Manhattan restaurant, Baohaus, by Skype. Besides traveling 24 weeks of the year for Vice, writing a second memoir and working on the A series, Huang continues to manage his restaurant. He often finds himself in fights with one cook in particular, an older Cantonese-speaking veteran of Chinatown restaurants. Huang is as exacting a boss as he is an insubordinate employee, but he is often forced to suffer the rebelliousness of his staff. He and the cook argued about how to properly cut chicken. The cook wanted to slice the chicken, which he believed white people prefer. Huang wanted it done the proper way, diced. “He never really accepts what I tell him,” he said. “And as soon as I turn my back, he starts doing it his own way.”我们在蒂华纳酒店的最后一天,黄用了一上午通过Skype电话打理他在曼哈顿的餐馆Baohaus的生意。他在Vice的工作让他每年要有24周到处旅行,而他还在写第二本自传,同时参与A剧集的制作;即便如此,他仍旧要管理自己的餐馆。他跟自己的一位厨师尤其合不来;那是一位讲粤语的老厨师,在唐人街的中餐馆行业工作多年。作为老板,黄的苛刻程度与他作为雇员的刺头程度相比有过之而无不及,但他也经常要忍受自己手下的叛逆。这次,他与厨师吵架的缘由是如何正确地切鸡肉:厨师想切片,认为白人顾客喜欢这样;而黄则要正确的切法:斩块。“他从来不真正听我的,”黄说,“我一转身,他就开始按照自己的办法来。”“I’ve wanted to fire him so many times,” he said. “The problem is, you can’t teach American kids the speed this guy has or his ability to problem-#173;solve on the fly.”“多少次我都想炒掉他,”他说,“问题是,这家伙干活的速度,还有他现场解决问题的能力,美国孩子是学不会的。”As he thought about it, Huang hit on a comparison between Hollywood executives and the typical Chinatown restaurant. Each, he said, think they know what people want and strive to give them exactly that. But it never occurs to either of them to sell people the authentic thing itself — Chinese food the way Chinese people make it for themselves or, in the case of Hollywood, stories that don’t rely on formulaic contrivance to be funny.说着说着,他又想到了好莱坞经理人们与任何一家唐人街餐馆的类比:他说,两者都认为他们了解别人需要什么,并且不遗余力地提供这些东西。但两者都没有意识到,应该卖给顾客真实正宗的东西:对于中餐馆来说,就是中国人吃的菜;而对于好莱坞来说,就是无需为了好笑而陷入巢臼的故事。“I really feel that people don’t always know what’s good for them,” he said. “When you have a strong conviction, you have a duty not to tell people what they want. At least represent yourself and say: ‘Yo, this is what I’m into, and this is what I’m seeing in the world. Let me take your hand and guide you through it, so you can see through my eyes.’#8201;”“我真的觉得,人们并不总是知道什么才是真正适合他们的。”他说。“当你有强烈的信念时,你有责任不告诉人们他们需要什么。至少应该表达你自己,然后说,‘嘿,这是我喜欢的东西,这是我眼中的世界。让我牵着你的手,领你走过这一切,你就可以体会到我的视角了。’” /201502/361298

Some people see showers as a necessary (and lovely) ritual that all decent human beings do daily…  有些人把洗澡当成一个必要(和美好)的仪式,所有得体的人每天都洗澡....。.  While others believe it’s a chore to avoid until the last possible minute and then do as quickly as humanly possible。  而其他人则认为洗澡是项琐碎的事,直到最后一分钟才洗,而且洗得非常快。  If you’re in this category and have ever wondered how often you actually need to clean your body, the answer is: not as often as most Americans probably think。  如果你是这类人,从没想过到底要洗多少次。是,并不像美国人想的那么频繁。  Two dermatologists tell BuzzFeed Life that most Americans shower way more than is necessary。  两位皮肤病学家告诉BuzzFeed生活栏目,大多数美国人洗澡频率远比所需的次数多。  According to Dr. Joshua Zeichner, assistant professor of dermatology at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City, how frequently we shower and what we perceive as body odor is “really more of a cultural phenomenon。” Boston dermatologist Dr. Ranella Hirsch echoes this sentiment. “We overbathe in this country and that’s really important to realize,” she says. “A lot of the reason we do it is because of societal norms。”  根据纽约西奈山医院皮肤病学助理教授舒亚·蔡克纳士,洗澡的频率和我们认为的体香实际上更是一种文化现象。波士顿皮肤病学家士赫希也有同感。“我们在这个国家,洗澡的频率太多了。我们意识到这一点是很重要的。”她说,“我们对洗澡频率研究的很多原因是因为社会规范。”  And those norms are mainly the result of good advertising。  而这些社会规范主要是广告宣传的好的结果。  After the Civil War, both advertising and “toilet soap” (i.e., soap for the body) became more prevalent in the ed States, says Katherine Ashenburg, author of The Dirt on Clean: An Unsanitized History. “Americans turned out to be much more gullible and susceptible to these things than Europeans,” Ashenburg tells BuzzFeed Life。  《清洁污垢:一个不卫生的历史》的作家卡瑟琳·阿西伯格说,南北战争之后广告和香皂(即为洗身体的肥皂)在美国变得更流行。阿西伯格告诉BuzzFeed生活栏目“结果是,美国人远比欧洲人容易上当,容易受影响。”  “Germ theory didn’t matter half as much as promises of beauty,” Ashenburg says。  阿西伯格说,“对美丽的承诺远比病菌理论重要的多。”  But here’s the thing: Frequent showering may actually be doing more harm than good。  但是事实上:频繁洗澡弊大于利。  Zeichner and Hirsch say that showering too often (particularly in hot water) can dry out and irritate skin, wash away the good bacteria that naturally exists on your skin, and introduce small cracks that put you at a higher risk of infection。  蔡克纳和赫希说,洗澡太频繁(特别是洗热水澡)会导致皮肤干燥和过敏;清洗掉皮肤本身就有的有益细菌;产生表皮裂纹,让你更容易受到感染。  Both doctors say that parents should not bathe babies and toddlers daily. Zeichner says that early exposure to dirt and bacteria may make the skin less sensitive as you age, and prevent allergies and conditions like eczema。  两位士都说,家长[微]不应该每天都给婴幼儿洗澡。蔡克纳说,早期暴露在污垢和细菌的环境中会让皮肤到你年纪的时候更不容易敏感,防止过敏和如湿疹一样的症状。  While your activity level and climate will affect how often you’ll want shower, you can probably skip the daily shower and take one every two to three days。  尽管你的活动量和气候会影响你想洗澡的频率,你可能不需要每天都洗,每两天或每三天一次就好。  If you’re so inclined, you can clean the grossest parts of your body with a soapy washcloth or cleansing towelette to remove odor-causing bacteria on non-shower days. (Grossest parts of your body “face, underarms, under the breasts, genitals, and rear end,” according to Zeichner。)如果你很想洗的话,在不洗澡的日子里,你可以用有肥皂的毛巾或者是湿餐巾清洗身体最脏的部分,从而去除产生异味的细菌。(据蔡克纳所说,身体最脏的部分有:脸部,腋下,乳房下,生殖器和臀部。)  You should also put on clean undergarments each day; one study showed that we shed far more dirt and oil in our clothes than we do in the shower。  你也应该每天换内衣。一项研究表明我们穿衣时要比我们在洗澡中去除的污垢和油脂要多得多。  SO. You no longer have to stand in the stupid shower every morning getting your head wet for 10 minutes while you try to get up the courage to step out into the freezing bathroom!  所以,你不用每天早晨站在淋浴里花十分钟把头弄湿,并且鼓足勇气走到冰冷的浴室里。  How often do you shower?  你洗澡的频率是多少呢? /201503/362383

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