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楼主:飞度爱问 时间:2020年02月24日 05:59:38 点击:0 回复:0
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There is turmoil in the strange world of citizenship tests. The UK is planning to revise its test for would-be Britons, adding questions on crucial issues such as the life of the poet Robert Browning. In France#39;s test, introduced this month, applicants must obviously know about Brigitte Bardot. Meanwhile a recent survey by Xavier University found that more than one-third of Americans would fail their own country#39;s naturalisation test. Only 8 per cent could name even one author of the Federalist Papers. And Denmark is quietly scrapping its test. No wonder that no country seems quite happy with its citizenship test. Being a citizen has little to do with what#39;s in your head. 千奇百怪的公民入籍考试领域目前出现了动荡。英国正计划修订针对入籍申请者的考试,增加一些关键的问题,如诗人罗伯特#8226;勃朗宁(Robert Browning)的生平。在本月推出的法国公民入籍考试中,申请者显然必须了解碧姬·巴铎(Brigitte Bardot)。与此同时,泽维尔大学(Xavier University)最近的一项调查显示,超过三分之一的美国人可能通不过本国的入籍考试。只有8%的人能够说出《联邦党人文集》(Federalist Papers)的任何一名作者。同时丹麦正在悄悄放弃该国的入籍考试。难怪没有哪个国家似乎对其公民入籍考试非常满意。成为一个国家的公民与头脑里装了什么没有太大关系。 Tests for wannabe immigrants or citizens came into vogue in the era after September 11 2001. Most seemed designed to weed out Muslim fundamentalists. The Netherlands made this most explicit: along with its test, it released an integratiefilm featuring a gay wedding and topless Dutchwomen. These images were presumably meant to shock Muslims out of coming to the Netherlands, just as they would have shocked most Dutch people of a generation ago. The idea was so brilliant that the anti-immigrant Danish People#39;s Party proposed sticking breasts into Denmark#39;s film. However, the Dutch soon had to offer a breast-free version of their film, after discovering that diligent, aspirant Dutchmen caught with the hardcore version in, say, Afghanistan, might get into difficulty. 针对移民或公民申请者的考试,是在2011年9月11日之后流行起来的。多数此类考试似乎意在淘汰穆斯林原教旨主义者。荷兰的态度最为明确:除了实行考试制度外,还发行一部带有同性恋婚礼和无上装妇女镜头的荷兰生活宣传片。这些画面想必是为了吓走穆斯林,使他们不敢来荷兰(一代人以前,这些画面也会吓着大部分荷兰人)。这个创意如此;高超;,以至于反对移民的丹麦人民党(Danish People#39;s Party)也提议在该国电影中加入乳房画面。然而,荷兰很快发现,有志成为荷兰人的勤奋的、有上进心的外国人如果在阿富汗这样的地方被发现带着这种片子,可能会遇到麻烦。于是,荷兰不得不删除宣传片中的乳房镜头。 The Iraqi refugee Rodaan al Galidi, who wrote a prizewinning novel in Dutch, failed the Netherlands#39; integration test. He explained afterwards: ;I don#39;t know when a woman gets her period after a miscarriage, because I have never been pregnant. I can prove that.; 曾经用荷兰语写了一部获奖作品的伊拉克难民卢达恩#8729;阿尔#8729;加里迪(Rodaan al Galidi)没能通过入籍考试。后来他解释说:;我不知道女士在流产之后什么时候会再来例假,因为我从未怀过。我可以明。; Other countries took the high road. The UK felt that prospective Britons should have some familiarity with the Magna Carta. At a debate on the matter in London, someone asked who in the room had actually the Magna Carta. Of the several hundred overeducated Londoners present, only two or three raised their hands. 其他国家选择比较阳春白雪的内容。英国认为准英国人应该熟悉《大宪章》(Magna Carta)。在伦敦关于这个话题的一场辩论中,有人问在场的人中谁真正读过《大宪章》,在场的几百位受过高等教育的伦敦人中只有两三个人举手。 Every country has made much the same discovery: few natives can answer basic constitutional questions. The German Green politician Volker Beck said Germany#39;s citizenship test ;expects knowledge that Germans only have after they#39;ve studied law for a semester;. 每个国家都得出了同样的结论:土生土长的人中很少有人能够回答基本的宪法问题。德国绿党政界人士富克尔#8226;贝克(Volker Beck)表示,德国的公民入籍考试;要求掌握德国人需要学过一学期的法律才能具备的知识。; Immigrants memorise the answers, and generally pass, though it#39;s doubtful how much knowledge sticks. A Filipina I know recently attended her day-long ;citizenship course; in Paris. That evening I asked her what she#39;d learnt. There was this European organisation, she said, which excluded Turkey. Or maybe, she added, it included Turkey. What had most impressed her that day were the constant meal breaks, which may indeed be the best introduction to Frenchness. 移民们通过死记硬背,一般能够通过考试,尽管他们真正消化吸收了多少知识令人怀疑。我认识的一个菲律宾女士最近参加了巴黎一个全天的;公民课程;。当天晚上我问她都学到了什么。她说,有一个什么欧洲的组织,不包括土耳其,后来她又补充说,可能也包括土耳其在内。那天给她印象最深刻的是接二连三的进餐休息时间,这或许的确是引导她熟悉法国生活方式的最好方式。 The most famous story about citizenship tests points up their essential wrongness. In 1947, the great Austrian logician Kurt Gouml;del went to a hearing in Trenton, New Jersey, to acquire American citizenship. His friends Albert Einstein and the economist Oskar Morgenstern came along. The story has long been shrouded in myth, but ;the lost Morgenstern document;, containing Morgenstern#39;s 1971 memories of the affair, surfaced some years ago. We now know what happened. 有个关于公民资格考试的最著名故事,让我们看出此类考试的根本缺陷。1947年,伟大的奥地利逻辑学家库尔特#8226;哥德尔(Kurt Gouml;del)前往美国新泽西州特伦顿(Trenton)参加听会,以获得美国国籍。他的朋友阿尔伯特#8226;爱因斯坦(Albert Einstein)和经济学家奥斯卡#8226;根斯坦(Oskar Morgenstern)也陪他前往。这个故事长期被披上传奇外衣,但丢失的;根斯坦文档;(记载着根斯坦1971年对那次考试的回忆)前些年又找到了。现在我们知道当时发生了什么。 Gouml;del had taken the hearing seriously. ;Since he is a very thorough man,; recorded Morgenstern, ;he started informing himself about the history of the settlement of North America by human beings. That led gradually to the study of the History of American Indians, their various tribes, etc.; 哥德尔很重视那次听会。;由于他是个特别较真的人,;根斯坦回忆道,;他开始研究人类在北美定居的历史。这慢慢地又让他考察上了美洲印第安人的历史、他们的不同部落等问题。; Eventually Gouml;del got to the American constitution, and made a terrifying discovery: a malevolent president could exploit a loophole and set up as a fascist dictator! Ah, said Einstein and Morgenstern, best not to raise this at the hearing. 最后,哥德尔查阅了美国《宪法》,并得出了一个令人恐怖的发现:一个心存邪念的总统可能利用其中的一个漏洞,让自己成为法西斯主义独裁者!算了吧,爱因斯坦和根斯坦都说,你在听会上最好别提这一点。 Morgenstern drove them all to Trenton. In the car, Einstein teased: ;Now, Gouml;del, are you really well prepared for this examination?; As Einstein had intended, the remark made Gouml;del even more anxious. 根斯坦开车载着大家来到了特伦顿。在车里,爱因斯坦拿哥德尔取乐:;哥德尔,现在你当真对这次考试准备充分了吗?;正如爱因斯坦所料,这话让哥德尔愈发焦虑了。 In Trenton, the judge asked Gouml;del where he came from. ;Where I come from? Austria,; replied Gouml;del in heavy Teutonic tones. The judge asked him about Austria#39;s form of government. Gouml;del explained: ;It was a republic, but the constitution was such that it finally was changed into a dictatorship.; 到了特伦顿,法官问哥德尔从哪里来。哥德尔用浓重的日耳曼口音回答:;我从哪里来?从奥地利来。;法官又问他奥地利是什么政体。哥德尔解释道:;奥地利是共和政体,但宪法是如此的无力,结果变成了一个独裁国家。; ;Oh! This is very bad,; said the judge, and added consolingly: ;This could not happen in this country.; ;Oh yes it can!; shouted Gouml;del, ;I can prove it.; Whereupon Einstein, Morgenstern and the judge hastily shut him up, and the hearing concluded. That#39;s because these tests require only memorised factual answers. Any deeper knowledge creates trouble. 法官表示,;哦,这可太不幸了。;然后如释重负地表示:;这种情况不可能会发生在美国。;;不对,美国有可能发生,;哥德尔喊了出来,;我可以明这一点!;法官、爱因斯坦所和根斯坦都赶紧让他闭嘴,听会就此结束。这是因为,应对这类考试只需要背诵事实型。更深入的知识会招来麻烦。 And even a modest factual test is probably pointless. It would be nice to live in a polis where all citizens have some familiarity with the Magna Carta, but we never will. To be a citizen, it doesn#39;t matter what you know, or what crazy stuff you have in your head. If you believe homosexuals are infidels, that#39;s fine. In a democracy you can believe what you like. You just can#39;t act on certain beliefs. 即便是考察对事实了解程度的难度不大的考试,也很可能毫无意义。要是能生活在每名公民都对《大宪章》有所了解的城邦里,将是一件很理想的事,但我们永远也办不到。要成为一名公民,无论你了解多少知识,或者你心里装了哪些疯狂的想法,这都不要紧。如果你认为同性恋者是异教徒,那也没关系。在民主国家里,你有信仰的自由。你只是不可以依照某些信仰去行事。 Penniless governments could save themselves some cash by ceasing to examine people#39;s minds. 一文不名的政府也可能省下一点钱,别再审查人们心里在想些什么了。 /201207/192263Put your puppy triviato the test and discover these interesting facts about man#39;s best friend.用你小的日常表现来测验一下吧,你会发现关于人类最好的朋友的有趣事实。1. Nosy Dogs大鼻子A dog#39;s nose print is as unique as a human#39;s finger print and can be used to accurately identify them.的鼻纹同人类的指纹一样,是独一无二的,可以被用来准确地识别它们。 /201202/172666

THE newly released calendar for public holidays in 2013 has upset a number of people who had planned to take a break at the beginning of the year.新发布的2013年公众假期日历让许多曾计划在年初休息一下的人烦恼。But it also offers the prospect of a six-day break if employers can be persuaded to give employees an extra day off.但它也提供了一个为期六天休假的前景,如果雇主能被说给员工额外一天假。People will have 29 days off in seven public holidays, according to the calendar released by the central government yesterday.在七个公众假日里人们将会有29天休息,根据中央政府昨天发布的日历。But the actual holiday days add up to 11 when weekend days are subtracted and extra working days factored in.但实际的假日累计有11天当周末被缩减同时额外的工作日被包括进来。The New Year#39;s Day holiday will run from January 1 to 3, but people need to work on the weekend of January 5 and 6.元旦将从1月1日到3号,但人们需要在1月5日和6日的那个周末工作。The dates have upset a number of people who complained online that they had assumed the holiday would run from Sunday, December 30 to January 1, as was widely believed based on common arrangements for holidays in previous years, and they would have to abruptly change their travel plans.这一日期令许多人沮丧,他们在网上抱怨说他们曾认为假期将从周日开始,12月30日至1月1日,正如普遍相信的基于前几年假日常规安排,他们将不得不突然改变他们的旅行计划。 Kong Shuo, a Shanghai resident, said yesterday that she#39;ll have to sell tickets she bought for three concerts in Beijing and return her air tickets as well. ;I can#39;t go, feeling bad,; she said in an online post.孔硕,一个上海居民,昨日表示她将不得不卖出她买的在北京的三场演唱会门票并返还她的机票。“我不能去,感觉不爽,”她在网上的一个帖子里说。Another netizen said she had booked tourism packages between December 30 and January 1 on the assumption that the holiday would run from December 30. ;The announcement comes too late,; she complained.另一个网民说原以为假日将从12月30日开始她已经预定了12月30日到1月1日的旅游一揽子务。“这项宣布来得太迟了,”她抱怨道。Airline companies also seemed to have assumed the wrong start to the holiday.航空公司好像也错误假定了假期的开始日期。Air tickets on December 30 had been priced much higher than those for January 1.12月30日的机票价格远远高于1月1日的票价。A ticket from Shanghai to Sanya in Hainan Province, for example, costs 1,890 yuan (US4) for December 30, compared to the 1,320 yuan asked for January 1, according to China Eastern Airlines#39; website.从上海到海南省三亚的机票,例如,在12月30日花费1890元(304美元),相比1月1日要价的1320元,根据中国东方航空公司的网站。The southeastern city of Xiamen is hosting a marathon race on January 5, a Saturday but now a working day. However, organizers say there are no plans to change the date.东南部城市厦门举办一场马拉松比赛在1月5日星期六,但现在是工作日。然而,组织者说现在还没有计划更改日期。But not everyone is unhappy. Some are planning to ask for a leave on December 31 so they can enjoy a six-day break, and Shanghai travel agencies are working out new plans to accommodate this group of people.但并非所有人都不高兴。一些人打算12月31日请假,这样他们就可以享受为期六天的休假,上海旅行社正在为这群人的食宿制定新计划。The Shanghai Spring International Travel Service (Group) Co Ltd is replanning and promoting tour packages to Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand and Malaysia.上海春秋旅行社(集团)有限公司正重新规划和促进到东南亚国家如泰国和马来西亚的旅游包。Domestic tours are usually promoted during the New Year#39;s Day holiday break as it is short, but the schedule makes it possible for some travelers to go farther, said Qin Weihao, manager of Shanghai Spring#39;s outbound tour division.国内旅游通常在元旦假期被促进,因为它是短暂的,但这一日程安排可以让一些旅客走的更远,上海春秋旅行社的境外旅游部门经理秦威豪说。2013 holiday schedule2013年假日安排New Year#39;s Day: January 1-3 with January 5 and 6 working days.元旦:1月1日到3日,1月5日和6日为工作日。Spring Festival: February 9-15, with February 16 and 17 working days.春节:2月9日至15日,2月16日和17日为工作日。Qingming Festival: April 4-6 with April 7 working day.清明节:4月4日 到6日和4月7为工作日。Labor Day: April 29 to May 1 with April 27 and 28 working days.劳动节:4月29日至5月1日,4月27日和28日为工作日。Dragon Boat Festival: June 10-12, with June 8 and 9 working days.端午节:6月10日- 12日,6月8日和9日为工作日。Mid-Autumn Festival: September 19-21, with September 22 working day.中秋节:9月19日 - 21日,9月22日为工作日。National Day: October 1-7, with September 29 and October 12 working days.国庆节:10月1 – 7,9月29日和10月12日为工作日。 /201212/213307

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