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I have to think I have to be aware of what I#39;m doing.我必须思考 必须明白我在做什么I can never paradoxically不能自相矛盾I can never relax with alcohol.永远不能依靠酒精来放松I#39;ve got to be on guard. What an odd thing to think.必须时刻警惕 想想真是件奇怪的事I wish I#39;d never started drinking.我希望我从来没有开始饮酒I like it. I like drink.我喜欢酒 我喜欢喝I#39;m drinking because it becomes a way of escape.我喝酒因为它是一种逃避方式So I#39;m asking myself ;Where are we going from here?;所以我在问我自己 今后我们该怎么办As a psychologist it seems to me that as a society作为一名心理学家 在我看来整个社会were not even contemplating change.甚至并不准备做出任何改变We seem comfortable with continuing to drink大家对继续喝下去 也并不觉得不妥and the signs are drinking more and more and more.同时事实也明 饮酒现象越来越多In the end there#39;s one question for each and everyone of us.在本片结尾 我们每个人都来想想这个问题;Is it really worth it?;酒真的值得喝吗重点解释:1.aware of 知道的, 察觉到的, 意识到的例句:I was aware of a certain constraint on their part when they were in my presence.我觉察到我在时他们有些拘束。2.on guard 值班; 警戒例句:There are soldiers on guard at the gate.大门口有士兵在守卫。3.comfortable with 对 ... 感到舒例句:Do your feel comfortable with the plan?你对这个计划满意吗? Article/201509/394946

This is an example of a standardized growth chart.这是一个标准化成长图表This is an example of a standard, normal distribution这则是一副标准的正常分布图graph. If a child were malnourished the child’s weight如果一个孩子营养不良would fall 2 standard deviations below the mean,他的体重会低于平均水平两个标准差where the circle is drawn on this graph.就是图表中画圈的部分All children are at a time of rapid growth and所有的孩子在某个时刻development and because of this it is important that快速增长发展 这是因为they receive enough calories and nutrients.他们吸收了足够多的卡路里和营养物质For normal children not battling illness or disease,身体健康的正常孩子4 to 8 year olds need approximately 1600 calories,在4到8岁之间需要大约1600卡路里15 grams of protein which is equal to about 2 eggs,15克蛋白质 大约是两个鸡蛋的量and 8mg of calcium which is equivalent to 318毫克钙 大约是31杯份低脂牛奶cup servings of low fat milk. As children age随着孩子长大their calorie, protein and calcium needs increase他们的卡路里蛋白质以及该需求量都会增加until they reach adulthood.知道他们变成成年人Children undergoing treatment for cancer are also接受癌症治疗的孩子experiencing rapid growth and development but也会经历快速增长阶段they have an even higher need for nutrients但是他们对于营养物质的需求量更高because of an increased metabolic rate from fighting因为他们为了战胜疾病需要提高代谢速率the disease. Both protein and energy needs为了阻止肌肉的消耗和流失are increased even more to prevent wasting or更需要提高白质和能量需求量the loss of muscle. Protein needs actually increase建议蛋白质的需求量增加得最大the most with recommendations that children receive每天孩子每千克体重up to 2 grams per kilogram of body weight each day.应该吸收2克蛋白质Increased calcium and vitamin D needs are also critical增加钙和维生素D的需求也很重要due to bone growth during childhood. Children should因为孩子的骨骼正在增长consume more than 1000mgs of calcium which is equal to孩子每天应该吸收超过1000毫克钙about 4 1 cup servings of low fat milk and more than大约相当于41杯份的低脂牛奶10mgs of vitamin D which is equal to about 10 to 15超过10毫克的钙 大约相当于10到15分钟的日照minutes of sunlight each day; this will ensure their这将会保bones will continue to grow during disease treatment.他们的骨骼在疾病治疗期间继续增长Calcium is needed to help the bones grow and remain钙可以帮助骨骼增长保持强壮strong and vitamin D is required to ensure that calcium维生素D可以保钙的吸收is absorbed.So what causes malnutrition during cancer?那么在癌症治疗期间什么引起营养不良呢Malnutrition arises in children for one overall总的来说,引起孩子营养不良的一个最常见common reason, an inability to consume or digest food的原因是没有能力消化吸收食物和营养and nutrients. This inability to consume or digest这种没有消化吸收的能力有许多foods has many underlying causes but we will discuss潜在的原因 但是我们今天将会讨论2 of the main ones today; the side effects of2个最主要的原因;化学疗法的副作用chemotherapy and other aggressive treatments as well as和其他积极的疗法the increased metabolic demands from the cancer itself.以及对于癌症本身新陈代谢需求的增加 Article/201412/351108

栏目简介:《英国节日简介》是英语视频听力下面的子栏目,栏目通过英式英语视频讲解的形式来介绍英国的节日,能够帮助英语学习爱好者更好地了解英国的节日文化传统,从而加深对英语中一些习惯用语的理解,是提高英语文化素养的好材料。 Article/201509/400256

It#39;s a question that has perplexed humanity from as early as the anceint greeks,All the way to the twenty first century and we#39;re still dying to know,Which came first? The chicken or the egg?The question would be simple if we took it literally,Egg laying animals existed far before chickens came about,So technically the egg came before the chicken.这个问题困扰人类的时间之久,可以一直追溯到古希腊时代,时至今日我们依然迫切的想知道真相,到底哪一个先出现?鸡还是蛋?如果我们只看字面意思问题就变得很简单了,卵生动物在鸡类之前很早就出现了,所以技术上讲是蛋先于鸡。But this question better worded as the chicken or the chicken egg? Focuses more on the cyclical cause and consequence,That is if a chicken is born from an egg.Where did the egg come from?Another chicken presumably which too must have come from an egg.so which came first? On the one side we have team chicken,Research suggests that the protein essential for the formation of chicken eggs.Called OV-17 is only found in chicken ovaries,Without it the chicken eggshell could not be formed.但这个问题其实应该这么问,先有鸡还是先有鸡蛋?这更侧重于周期性的原因和后果,这就是说如果一只鸡是从蛋里出来的,那蛋又是哪里来的?如果有另一只鸡,那它应该也是从蛋里出来的,那到底是谁先出现?故事的一边是我们的超载鸡阵营,研究者认为形成鸡蛋的核心蛋白质 OV-17 只在鸡类的卵巢中被发现过,没有它的话鸡蛋壳就无法形成。So without a chicken you technically cannot get a chicken egg.But this all depends on the nature and definition of a chicken egg in the first place.After all is a chicken egg an egg laid by a chicken? Or one that simply contains a chicken? Obviously the OV-17 bearing chicken had to come from somewhere.But if an elephant laid an egg from which a lion hatched,Would it be an elephant egg or a lion egg?所以如果没有鸡,技术上就无法得到一个鸡蛋,但这还得取决对“鸡蛋”的自然初始定义,毕竟,是鸡下的蛋称作鸡蛋呢?还是能孵出鸡的蛋称为鸡蛋?显然带有OV-17的鸡必须得是来自某处,但如果一只大象下了一个蛋,然后孵出一只狮子,那这是叫做“大象蛋”还是“狮子蛋”?This leads to the other side of the story:Team Egg.During reproduction Two organisms pass along their genetic information in the from of DNA,But the replication of this DNA is never one hundred percent accurate.And often produces minor changes for the new organism.These small mutations in DNA over thousands of generations create new species.But these genetic mutations must occur in the zygote or initial cell.这样就出现了故事的另一个阵营:煎蛋队,在生产过程中,两个生物体通过DNA传递他们的基因信息,但有时候对这个DNA的复制并不是百分百准确,这就经常会造成新的生物体出现微小的改变,这种微小的DNA变异在经历数千代之后就会产生新物种,但这种基因突变一定得发生在受精卵或初期细胞中。So a creature very similar to a chicken (which we could call a proto-chicken),Would have mated with another proto-chicken,And because of a small genetic mutation created the first chicken which grew in an egg.So the egg came first?Well team chicken might argue that this was simply a chicken growing inside of a proto-chicken egg.所以一个类似鸡的物种(我们就先称之为原型鸡)会同另一只原型鸡交欢,由于微小的基因突变,于是就产生了第一只鸡,从蛋里蹦出来的鸡,所以是先有蛋咯?呵呵,超载鸡方队要抗辩了,这明明是一只从原型鸡的蛋里蹦出来的鸡。However no-one mutation can ever really constitute a new species.Even though we humans like classify all creatures into different groups and names.This is based on how things currently are.And not how they were millions of years ago,The process of evolution is so gradual that no one proto-chick to chicken birth could really be considered a new species at the time.然而实际上是没有哪一次特定变异是能导致新物种产生的,即使是我们人类喜欢把所有物种分门别类,我们分类的基础取决于物种当前的样子,而不是它们千万年前的样子,整个进化的过程非常缓慢以至于没法确定哪一次,原型鸡生鸡的特定生产是新物种的产生标志。Much like how dogs have come from wolves,As humans began to interact with and domesticate wolves,There was no one single point where a wolf gave birth to a dog,But rather as particular traits came about from selective pressures.Such as choosing wolves who were not afraid of humans.Or ones that were less aggressive,Over many generations we conceived big genetic and behavioral trait differences.这就好比狼演化成的过程,当人们开始与狼相处并驯养它们的时候,是没有那个特定时刻是狼生出了一条的,但出于选择性压力出现了一些指定的特征,比如选择那些不怕人类的狼,或那些性情相对温和的,通过数代演变我们就得到了基因和行为特征不同的物种。So where does this leave us? We are left with two scenarios,SOme ealy egg laying species gradually lead to the creation of the proto-chicken,which laid proto-chicken eggs.In one of these eggs there was a mutation causing a slight change,And selective advantage and this was ultimately the first chicken,Which then went on to lay chicken eggs.但这告诉了我们什么?现在我们有两种情形,一些早期的卵生动物逐步地导致了原型鸡的产生,它们产了一些原型鸡蛋,这其中有一只蛋里发生了基因突变,导致一些微小的选择性优势终就成就了世界上第一只鸡之后它又下了一些鸡蛋。In this case the chicken technically came first,Or we have a proto-chicken which gave birth to a chicken inside of what we would classify as a chicken egg and as such the egg came first.Which brings us back to the nomenclature and question of what is a chicken egg?Which is a fairly meaningless question,But at the end of the day what we can all agree on is that Regardless of whether it was a chicken egg or a proto-chicken egg,The first true chicken came from an egg,The egg came first!这种情况下就是先有的鸡,或者那只原型鸡下了一只我们将其归为鸡蛋的蛋,然后从中孵出了小鸡,这样算就是先有的蛋,那我们就又回到了关于命名问题和什么是鸡蛋的问题,可这问题真是稍显无趣啊!但在最后,我们都能同意的一个说法就是,无论它是叫做鸡蛋还是原型鸡蛋,世界第一只真的猛鸡来自于一个蛋。所以先有蛋! Article/201504/365637

Well, the landscape is very special, as you can see,好的,你可以看到这里地形非常的特别and on top of it, it never gets dark.看去它的上空永远明亮Yeah, the Sun, it#39;s fantastic.是啊,阳光太奇妙了I#39;ve joined up with Konnie Steffen.我和科尼斯蒂芬结伴而行We#39;re on a part of the ice sheet that#39;s connected to theJakobshavn Glacier.我们正走在与雅各布冰河相连接的冰层上Konnie#39;s trying to understand what#39;s causing the ice科尼正试着研究是什么导致冰层to speed up and break off into the sea,加速坍塌,掉入海洋and whether it#39;s related to climate change.这是否与气候变化有关The ice moved fast, at first by 10%, then by 2002, 30-40%冰层移动得很快,先是快了百分之十到2002年已经快了百分之三十到四十and it produced more water, Like this river.这样产生很多冰水,就像河流般And this water is probably the explanation这些冰水或许可以解释why the ice here starts to move faster.为什么冰层从这里开始加速Each summer, as a result of rising temperatures,每个夏天,温度上升more and more melt water is forming lakes and rivers越来越多融化的冰水形成河流和湖泊on the surface of the ice.在冰层表面And this is where all the water flows,这里就是所有水流into deep shafts called moulins.流入的深井,它被称为冰川锅穴No one knows for sure where the water ends up没人知道水会流到何处when it disappears into the moulins,当水流入冰川锅穴后but Konnie believes it flows straight to the base of the glacier.但科尼相信水流流入了底部的冰川If he#39;s right, this could explain why the glacier is moving so fast.如果他十对的,这便能解释为什么冰河流速加快 Article/201510/406052


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