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来源:安资讯    发布时间:2019年09月21日 07:21:56    编辑:admin         

Microsoft and the PC industry微软和个人电脑业Defenestrated被抛弃Steve Ballmer is a casualty of the personal computer’s rapid decline史蒂夫鲍尔默是个人电脑迅速衰败的罪魁祸首Aug 31st 2013 |From the print editionUNTIL August 23rd few people would have described Steve Ballmer as “retiring”. Microsoft’s chief executive has played both tiger and Tigger: snarling (toothlessly, as it turned out) at Apple’s gadgets; and bouncing, with a whoop, onto conference stages to extol his company’s wares. But retiring he is, within a year.在8月23日之前很少人会想到史蒂夫鲍尔默会退休。微软的首席执行官即使老虎也是跳跳虎,与苹果的产品叫板,但是结果却没什么威胁,在发布会上吹嘘其产品。但是他将会在一年之内退休。Mr Ballmer’s departure is a surprise. He had announced a reorganisation of the company only in July and had hoped to oversee much of the change. Some celebrated his going: Microsoft’s share price went up by 7.3% on the day the news broke. Mr Ballmer has plenty of critics, although Microsoft’s revenues have trebled on his 13-year watch, to .8 billion in the year to June, and profits have grown similarly, to .9 billion. The critics point at the rise of Apple and Google, and say Microsoft should have done better—or handed some of its billion of cash to shareholders. In an interview with the Seattle Times, Mr Ballmer denied that pressure from ValueAct, a fund with a small stake in the firm, helped push him out.鲍尔默的离职是一个意外。就在七月他还宣布了公司的重组,希望能看到改变。一些人为他的离开叫好,微软的股价在鲍尔默退休消息传出的一天内上涨了7.3%。尽管微软的营收在鲍尔默的13年掌舵期间翻了三倍,达到了219亿美元,但是他还是饱受批评。批评者瞄向苹果和谷歌的崛起,表示微软应该比现在做的更好,或者将其770亿现金部分返给股东。在一次来自西雅图时报的采访中,鲍尔默否认了其迫于拥有微软小部分股份的基金ValueAct而离开的说法。Microsoft sits atop a pyramid of companies that prospered from the long boom in personal computers (PCs). The vast majority of PCs run on Microsoft’s Windows operating system and are powered by Intel’s processors. They bear the brands of Dell, Hewlett-Packard (HP), Lenovo and others, and nowadays are mostly made by Taiwanese contractors. The trouble is that people increasingly prefer to buy mobile devices, made by Apple or running Google’s Android operating system. Sales of PCs have been falling at double-digit rates. From the pyramid’s apex to its base, companies are desperate both to refresh the PC and reduce their reliance on it. Few are having much success.微软坐在受益于个人电脑长期繁荣的公司金字塔顶端。大部分的个人电脑跑的是微软的视窗操作系统,用的是英特尔的处理器。它们撑着戴尔,惠普,联想和其他品牌,大部分是有台湾代工厂完成的。现在的麻烦是人们越来越多的倾向于苹果生产或者运行谷歌安卓操作系统的移动设备。个人电脑销量以两位数的速率在下降。金字塔上的公司个个都昂着更新个人电脑,减少它们对个人电脑业务的依赖。几乎没有一家取得成功。Frank Gillett of Forrester, a research firm, reckons that Windows’ share of the market for personal devices, once 95% or more, has dropped to around 30%. Microsoft responded belatedly with Windows 8, a new edition intended for touchscreen PCs and tablets launched last October, with variations for cheaper tablets and phones. Applications lie behind oblong tiles designed for fingertips rather than icons for mouse-clicks. Microsoft’s successful Xbox entertainment system was given the same look. The idea was that this uniform style would help to transfer Microsoft’s dominance of the desktop to mobile devices, and refresh the PC too.调查公司Forrester的Frank Gillett认为微软一度站个人设备市场95%以上的视窗系统现在所占份额跌到了大概30%。微软随后的回应是适用于触屏个人电脑和平板电脑的视窗8系统,发布于去年十月,同时拥有廉价平板和电话的版本。应用以矩形磁贴展示在桌面,为了使用手指触控而不是鼠标点击。微软成功的Xbox系统也使用同样的外观。微软的想法是这种风格上的统一会帮助微软从桌面霸主转变成移动设备霸主,同时也更新个人电脑。It has not happened yet. Few businesses were likely to hurry to buy Windows 8 anyway; some have yet to switch to its predecessor, Windows 7. Consumers have not taken to tiles on PC screens: a new version, Windows 8.1, due in October, will make it easier for them to stick with the old look. Only now is a wide choice of touch PCs and tablet-PC hybrids appearing.然而这个愿景还没有实现。很少的企业急着想购买视窗8系统,有些甚至都没有使用前代的视窗7系统。消费者也没有习惯笔记本屏幕上的磁贴,将于10月发布的最新版本的视窗8.1会让消费者更简单的回到传统桌面。现在有很多混合型平板电脑机型出现在市面上。Microsoft’s own tablet, the Surface, has been a flop, forcing it to make a 0m write-off in its latest results. Windows phones, mostly made by Nokia of Finland, are far behind iPhones and Android devices, with just 3.3% of the world market according to Gartner, another research firm. They have ousted BlackBerry from third place, but that is not saying much.微软自家的平板Surface是一款失败的产品,到现在只销售了9亿美元。另一家调查公司Gartner表示,使用微软操作系统的手机,主要由芬兰的诺基亚生产,销量远远落后于iPhone和安卓设备,只占到手机世界市场的3.3%。它们已经取代了黑莓第三的位置,但是也说明不了什么。Next to Microsoft at the apex, Intel has also done poorly in smartphones and tablets, though it is striving to catch up and in June unveiled a new chip that it hopes will bring new zip to PCs. Among the PC-makers, HP pondered quitting altogether in 2011, then sacked the chief executive who suggested it. Meg Whitman, his successor, chose to stay in, as well as pushing into services and software and shedding 27,000 jobs. She has plenty still to do: HP’s latest results, on August 21st, sent a share-price rally into reverse. At Dell, which is scrapping for much the same ground, Michael Dell, the founder and chief executive, still hopes to win a battle to take the company private. Of the leading PC-makers, Lenovo has coped best. Its home market, China, is slowing but growing, and it is selling plenty of smartphones.跟微软地位相同的英特尔在智能手机和平板市场表现也不佳,尽管其在努力追赶,并于6月发布了一款新的处理器,希望给个人电脑注入新的力量。在所有的个人电脑生产商中,惠普在2011年曾考虑退出,然后解雇了提出这个想法的首席执行官。继任者Meg Whitman选择继续留在个人电脑市场,进军务和软件行业,并减少了27000个职位。她仍然有很多事要做:惠普8月21日最新的财报显示股价重新下跌。戴尔的境遇也非常相似,创始人兼首席执行官迈克尔戴尔仍然希望让公司私营化。在所有的个人电脑制造巨头中,联想的表现是最好的。在本土市场中国,联想在缓慢增长,同时也销售相当部分的智能手机。Despite its slow start in mobile, Microsoft remains hugely profitable. “It’s easy to get focused only on Windows,” says David Cearley of Gartner. The firm was quicker than its rivals to provide cloud services to big companies. Although Google’s free word-processor and spsheet threaten its Office software, Microsoft still has most of its customers, to whom it can sell improved services online. The direction Mr Ballmer has set “makes a lot of sense”, Mr Cearley says. Had he set out sooner, he might have seen the journey through.尽管在移动市场开始较慢,但是微软仍然有很大利润。Gartner的David Cearley表示,专注于视窗操作系统很容易。微软在给大公司提供云端务上比其他对手快了不少。尽管谷歌免费的文本处理软件和表格处理软件对微软的Office构成了威胁,但是微软仍然拥有大部分顾客,微软向其销售改进的在线务。Cearley说鲍尔默规划的方向起了很大的作用。尽管他就要离开,但是他可能看透了前景。 /201309/255929。

Cuba and the outside world古巴及世界Rekindling old friendships旧友重拾Cuba is once again resorting to geopolitics to support a failing economy古巴再次诉诸地缘政治,以撑其低迷经济CARLITO, a wiry man with greying hair, sits under a palm tree in Mariel, a town on a bay 40km west of Havana, sipping rum and watching a container ship edge out towards the Caribean. He recalls seeing a flotilla of smaller boats leaving from this same spot in 1980, carrying thousands of opponents of the Castro regime to Florida in the “Mariel boatlift”.Carito满脸疲倦,头发花白,静坐在马里埃尔镇的一棵棕榈树下,这一海湾小镇距离哈瓦那40千米,他抿一口朗姆酒,目送着一只载着集装箱的货船起锚驶向加勒比海,1980年的回忆袭上心头,当时一组略小的船只同样从这里起航,满载着成百上千的卡斯特罗政权的反对者,偷偷从马里埃尔驶向弗罗里达,Those were politically charged times. Government trucks would come to his school to deliver eggs for him and his friends to throw at the people fleeing. About a decade and a half later, after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989 plunged Cubas economy into crisis, sources of protein were so scarce that Carlito recalled those wasted eggs with bitter regret. Some “Marielitos”, as those who fled are known, returned recently and Carlito was stunned at how prosperous they had become. “We used to call them traidores (traitors),” he chuckles. “Now we call them traedolares (bring dollars).”当时政治斗争风生水起,政府的卡车会装载着鸡蛋来到他的学校,供他和他的朋友扔向那些逃亡的人群,但15年后,苏联解体,将古巴的经济一举推向危机的深渊,连蛋白质也成了珍稀产品,一想到当年浪费的那些鸡蛋,Carlito无不扼腕叹息。近来,一些当年逃走的所谓Marielitos的人重回古巴,他们的富有让Carlito大跌眼镜,他打趣儿的说,当年我们损他们为卖国贼,现在则称他们是生财佬。Across the bay from where Carlito sits is a 900m container port, which was built with Brazilian money and inaugurated in January. There are plans to develop a special economic zone alongside it, modelled on the thriving export hubs, such as Shenzhen, that China developed from 1980 onwards. The port is part of a vision for Cuba that relies less on Cuban-American gusanos (worms) sending remittances to prop up the local economy, and more on an inflow of foreign investors.穿过Carlito静坐的海湾,一个造价9亿美元的集装箱港跃入眼帘,该港口以巴西货币为经费,1月投入使用,计划是在其周边建设特别经济区,以一些蒸蒸日上的出口中心如深圳——1980年后中国腾飞的城市为模板,这一港口是古巴减轻对古巴裔美国人依赖计划的一部分,不完全指望他们为当地经济发展投入经费着力引进更多的外来投资。But Carlito is keeping his excitement in check. Construction workers building the container terminal were paid a mere 250 pesos a month, he says, so the ramshackle town has yet to benefit from the development. None of the 23 firms who have sought licences to operate in the special economic zone has yet been granted one. Even Joaquín Infante, the 88-year-old vice-president of the slow-moving National Association of Cuban Economists and Accountants, urges speedier authorisation of investment. “We need to be more flexible and take more risks,” he says.但Carlito并未喜出望外而是坐而观望,他说,建造集装箱港口的工人的月薪仅为250比索,这相对于扶持起一个摇摇欲坠的城镇来说无异于杯水车薪,尽管已经有23所公司申请了特别经济区的经营执照,但无一成功。即使是在步履蹒跚的古巴经济学家和会计师协会,88岁的副会长也要求对投资尽快审批,他说“我们应更加灵活机动,不畏风险。”Despite reforms that have brought some big changes to Cuba in the form of private restaurants, bed-and-breakfasts and new co-operatives, the economy has virtually ground to a halt. In the first half of the year GDP grew by just 0.6%, leading the government to reduce its estimate for full-year growth to 1.4%. That is lower than the 2.7% annual average figure since Raúl Castro (pictured on the right, with Vladimir Putin) became president in 2008.虽然改革带来了很大的机遇,古巴迎来了一些私人餐馆,住宿早餐包揽的旅馆和新的企业,但其经济发展停滞不前,今年上半年古巴的GDP增长仅为0.6%,这促使政府将全年增长预期调低至1.4%,这比卡斯特罗自2008年上任以来的年均数据2.7%还要低。Investment is the root of the problem. In a report in July, two Cuban economists, Omar Everleny and Ricardo Torres, estimated that the growth in Cubas capital stock, such as machinery and buildings, fell to 7.8% of GDP last year, close to its level of 5.4% in 1993 when the economy was in serious trouble. From the 20th floor of the Habana Libre, a run-down hotel, not one crane can be seen on the skyline. “The economy is screwed,” says a Havana-based diplomat.问题的根源在于投资,在7月的一则报告中,两名古巴经济学家奥马尔和里卡多预测诸如在机械和建筑领域的股本下跌至占GDP的7.8%,与1993年该国经济正处泥潭中的水平基本持平,从哈瓦那棚户区的一家旅馆的20层楼上观望,目光所及的天际之下,无一架起重机,哈瓦那的一名外交人员说,放眼国家经济,只让人眉头紧锁Supporters of the regime argue that the reforms simply need more time. A profit-oriented reorganisation of state-owned behemoths, such as the sugar monopoly, could be promising; it is just that the bureaucrats who run them are slow to change. Critics, however, see a fundamental flaw in the reform model. Although it has sought to give some people more freedom in what they make and sell, the state keeps a stranglehold on the inputs they need for those businesses, such as seeds for growing crops, or sauces and spices for restaurants, or spare parts for taxis. It has cracked down on “mules” bringing in such goods on passenger planes from abroad.政权的持者说,改革不过是需要更多的时间,以盈利为导向重组例如制糖垄断的国企大亨前景甚好,只是运营的官僚机构老牛破车,然而,批评人士认为,改革方略中存在根本性漏洞,虽说国家给予了人们制作和销售的更多的自由,但却严格限制做生意所需原料的进口,如粮食种子,餐馆的调味汁和香料或出租车的备件,他也严厉打击用客机从国外偷运这些商品的人。Diplomats say such counter-measures will make it harder for Cuba to attract the 2.5 billion in annual foreign investment that the regime aims for. Some also reckon the financial squeeze on the island has tightened this year in the wake of the case against BNP Paribas, a French bank, for evading American sanctions on doing business with Cuba, among other places.外交人员称在这些打击措施下,古巴更难实现年外资吸收达25亿美元的目标,一些人估计,对抗法国BNP Paribas事件使得今年的财政困难雪上加霜,该事件是为了躲避美国对其他地区实施的与古巴通商的制裁。That is why Cuba-watchers have paid close attention to the visits of Russias president, Vladimir Putin, and Chinas leader, Xi Jinping, in recent weeks. Though both men offered few concrete investments in Cuba, they provide an opportunity for the Castro regime to start reducing its dependence on its closest ally, Venezuela, whose pro-Cuba government has been rocked by instability this year. Says Mr Infante: “We have to diversify and not depend on just one partner.” He hopes that means more Chinese and Russian investment in Mariel.因此,持观望态度的投资者对近几周俄罗斯总统普京和中国国家主席习近平的来访甚为关注,虽说两人提供的实际投资不过寥寥,但这至少给卡斯特罗政权提供机会,减少对他亲密战友委内瑞拉的依赖程度,但该国持古巴的政权今年也在动荡中下台,infante说,我们应建立多元伙伴关系而不是依靠单独一个,他希望马里埃尔港能迎来更多来自中国和俄罗斯的投资。One envoy says the regime also prefers such investments to Western capital because it sees neither China nor Russia as a “Trojan horse” working towards regime change. A Cuban economist sees uncanny parallels with the special terms offered to the Soviet Union in the cold war. “The mentality of the decision-makers is to talk to Russia, talk to China, and make them offers based on politics,” he says. “But this is the same mentality we had in the past…and it didnt do much for productivity.”一位使者称该政权也希望能给西部首都带来同样的投资,因为他认为俄罗斯和中国的投资都不是“特洛伊木马”,企图推动政权更替,一位古巴的经济学家称在冷战期间针对苏联的措辞与此如出一辙,不可思议,他说;“决策者希望与俄罗斯和中国实现交流,使他们基于政治因素作出投资,但这不过是老调重弹,鲜有成效。”Cubas courtship of Russia is particularly striking: a day after Malaysian Airlines flight MH17 was shot down, Fidel Castro publicly blamed Ukraines government. Such an overtly pro-Russian stance on Ukraine may hinder political negotiations that started this year between Cuba and the EU, diplomats say. It also makes it harder for Barack Obama to improve Americas relations with Cuba, let alone consider an end to the counter-productive 54-year-old embargo. Back in Mariel, Carlito wants good relations with everyone, especially America. “Luckily we Cubans have a lot of patience and patience is good,” he says. “Without it theres just frustration.”古巴对俄罗斯的巴结尤其让人嗔目结舌,马航飞机MH17击落一天后,卡斯特罗便公开谴责乌克兰政府,外交人员说,它在乌克兰问题上公开持俄罗斯的立场可能会影响今年他与欧盟的政治对话,此外,奥巴马会更不情愿改善两国关系,更别提结束长达54年的禁运,虽说其效果是适得其反。卡斯特罗希望马里埃尔能与所有国家建立友好关系,尤其是美国,他说,幸运的是我们古巴人民锲而不舍,否则便只有槁木死灰。 /201408/320721。

Apple苹果Frictionless fruit一体化产品Convenience is the technology giants latest weapon便捷性成了这位科技巨头的最新武器Cooking up a better Apple ecosystem库克让苹果的生态系统提升了一个层次AN APPLE launch that has an audience of thousands clapping and whooping? Must be a new iPhone, surely, or the long-awaited iWatch? The truth may sound dull, but it matters as much as any fancy new gadget. What Apples boss, Tim Cook, presented on June 2nd, at the companys annual conference for software developers in San Francisco, were upgraded operating systems, one for its Mac desktops and laptops and another for its mobile devices, plus a new programming language. These, combined with other moves to nurture the Apple “ecosystem”, should make its offerings even more attractive to both developers and consumers—and even more formidable to its rivals.这次苹果发布的产品引起了观众的欢呼雀跃吗?这次发布的肯定是一款新的iPhone,或是那期盼已久的iWatch吧?虽然发布会真正的内容或许听来无趣,但它在苹果发展战略中的地位不亚于一款华丽的新产品。本月2号,每年一度在三藩市举行的苹果软件开发者发布会上,苹果的老总蒂姆·库克向世界展示了最新升级的操作系统,其中包括一套台式和笔记本电脑的新系统,还有另外一套移动设备所使用的新系统,同时还推介了一套全新的编程语言。与其他共同构成苹果生态系统内容的结合之下,无论是站在开发者还是消费者的角度来看,新一代的操作系统都将会令公司的产品变得更有吸引力,甚至还能在同行业的竞争里进一步拉开差距。Apples pitch is greater convenience, in at least three ways. First, the operating systems, OS X Yosemite for Macs and iOS 8 for mobiles, will do more than improve on the current versions when they are released in the autumn.They will allow devices to work together seamlessly. An e-mail started on an iPhone or iPad can be finished on the desktop. If your iPhone rings, you will be able to take the call on your Mac—in effect, using it as a speakerphone.至少从三个方面我们可以看出,本次苹果的战略中心在于提供更好的产品便捷性。首先是新的两大操作系统,当中包括电脑使用的OS X Yosemite以及移动设备所使用的iOS 8。而今年秋季这两大新系统正式发布时,人们将会看到这次的升级不仅仅是新系统在现有系统的基础上进行提升。新系统能够让所有的苹果产品进行无缝对接。例如,一封邮件的编辑可以从iPhone或者iPad上开始,并且能够转移到台式电脑里完成。如果你的iPhone响起了电话铃声,那你能够在自己的电脑里接听这通电话—实际上就相当于把电脑作为扬声电话来使用。Apple is not the first to make such a promise. When Microsoft launched its Windows 8 system in the autumn of 2012, its big idea was to provide the same experience on all types of device, from desktop to mobile. Yet few have bothered to buy Windows smartphones or tablets, or personal computers with Windows 8. “Microsoft have all the pieces,” says Carolina Milanesi of Kantar WorldPanel, a research firm, “but they havent pulled it all together.”苹果并不是首家做出这种承诺的公司。例如,微软在2012年秋季Windows 8操作系统发布会举行之时,就已经将这样的一个设想呈现了出来:一个能够连接从电脑到移动设备所有类型产品,提供一体化体验的操作系统。然而,只有很少一部分人不厌其烦地购买了配有Windows系统的智能手机或平板电脑,或是配备Windows 8系统的个人电脑。来自调查公司Kantar WorldPanel的Carolina Milanesi表示,“微软已经拥有全部所需的设备,但他们并没有将其整合到一块。”Not only does Apple promise friction-free computing; it has customers who are likely to use it. They upgrade eagerly, either by buying new gear or by installing new software on old stuff. Mr Cook boasted at the conference that 89% of Apples mobile devices were on iOS 7 and 51% of Macs on OS X Mavericks, the current incarnations. In comparison, he gloated, only 14% of Windows personal computers were on Windows 8. And a mere 9% of mobile devices with Googles Android operating system had the latest variant.苹果不仅对外承诺了一体化操作的更新,而且该品牌的顾客们也愿意去使用新系统。无论是购买新设备,还是在原有设备上更新软件,这些“果粉”永远渴望着更新换代。发布会当中,库克先生夸口称在目前使用的最新一代系统普及率方面,移动设备的iOS 7版本达到了89%,而电脑设备的OS X Mavericks则达到了51%。随后他得意地表示,相比之下,微软最新的系统Win 8在个人电脑市场普及率仅为14%,然而谷歌公司的安卓系统在移动设备市场的更新普及率也仅有9%。Apples second move towards greater convenience is to loosen some of its tight restrictions on developers. They will be allowed to bundle apps for sale at a discount in Apples store, to show previews and to invite users to test beta versions. Apple will also allow third-party apps—for example, ones that apply fancy effects to photos—to be embedded in its own apps.苹果第二项优化便捷性的措施,在于放宽以前对开发者的部分严格限制。开发者们即将能够将不同的应用在苹果商店中进行捆绑折扣销售,能够给用户们播放前瞻视频,以及能够邀请用户下载测试版本的应用。苹果还会允许第三方应用(例如,一款能将特殊效果加到照片上的软件)嵌入苹果自己的应用当中。The new programming language, Swift, will make it easier to write apps. Thanks to all this, programmers should be even keener to write them for iOS 8 first, before they turn to Androids many versions or to Windows. A fuller app store is in turn a bigger draw for consumers.全新的编程语言Swift能够使开发者更容易创造新的软件应用。多亏了这一点,编程人员应该会更愿意先为iOS 8系统开发软件应用,而不是转向安卓系统里为数众多的不同版本,或者是投向Windows系统。一个货架上商品琳琅满目苹果商店,相应地会对消费者们产生更大的吸引。The third convenience-boosting move is to simplify the growing mishmash of applications in two fields: health and the home. Apple plans to bring a lot of third-party health apps under a common platform, HealthKit, so that a blood-pressure ing from one app, say, might trigger an alert from another that prompts a call from the doctor. Likewise, HomeKit will bring together diverse apps for stuff around the house: at bedtime, a verbal instruction to an iPhone may lock the doors and dim the lights.第三项优化是关于简化日益杂乱的健康管理和家庭管理应用。苹果计划将大量的第三方健康管理应用都收拢到一个通用的平台下,名为HealthKit。比方说,由于该平台的整合作用,其中某个应用测量出的血压读数,或许能够在另一个应用引起健康警报,进而通知医生打电话过来了解情况。同样地,应用平台HomeKit能够将繁杂的同类家庭管理应用整合起来:在睡觉时间,通过iPhone发出语音指令或许能够直接锁门以及调暗灯光。Apple hopes that the sheer ease of having several interconnected apps in one place will bind people to its ecosystem of devices and software. People will still be able to switch to other devices, and take their data with them, but the fiddliness of changing over may keep them loyal. What may be more likely to put them off is who might get to see all their assiduously compiled data, especially about their health, a concern Apple sought to allay this week.苹果希望通过整合相互联系的应用而达到极端便利体验,能够整合人们的生活,令他们与苹果的软件硬件生态系统紧密相连。人们依旧可以选择别家的设备,并且能够带走他们留在旧设备当中的数据,但或许正是因为这样便捷的转变方式,苹果能够一直保持客户们的忠诚。另外一个更有可能阻碍人们使用这样的应用平台的因素,是信息安全问题。人们担心自己的每天辛苦记录的资料可能会被其他人获取,尤其是用户的健康信息。而这正是一个在本周苹果极力想要向用户们缓解的一个担忧。Although Microsofts new boss, Satya Nadella, is bursting with bright ideas about a “mobile first, cloud first” world, the firm has a lot of catching up to do. As for makers of Android devices, they lack Apples control over the operating system and the app store. The biggest of them, Samsung, plans to sell a smartphone based on its own operating system, Tizen—probably as a hedge against reliance on Google. “This is something only Apple can do,” purred Mr Cook this week. For now, he is right.虽然微软的新老总Satya Nadella正想极力推动一堆充斥着脑海的好点子,有关创建“移动和云优先”世界的好点子,但公司还有许多方面需要努力迎头赶上。至于安卓设备的制造商们,他们所欠缺的是苹果公司的控制力——对操作系统以及应用商店的控制力。安卓阵营里规模最大的三星,正准备发售搭载了自家操作系统Tizen的智能手机——或许以此摆脱对谷歌安卓系统的依赖。本周,库克先生兴奋地说道:“这是只有苹果才能完成的事业。”而暂时来说,他说得很对。 /201406/308592。

Dear A Moment of Science,亲爱的的《科学一刻》栏目组,I hate going to the dentist. In fact, I openly fear it.我很讨厌看牙医。真的,我对此感到很恐惧。Yet Ive never actually had a really bad orpainful experience with a dentist.可是我实际上并没有看牙医的糟糕经历。So why do I fear it so much?那我为什么会对此感到如此恐惧呢?Youre certainly not alone.有此感受的不仅仅是你一个人。Quaking in your boots at the mere thought of a dental check up-letalone having a cavity taken care of-is a time honored tradition.一想到要检查牙齿,腿脚就哆嗦,更别说补牙洞了。这种感受由来已久。And it doesnt necessarily derive from a bad dental experience.对牙医的害怕不一定来自您糟糕的看病经历。New research shows that fear ofthe dentist is often passed down from parents to their children.如今有研究表明,对牙医的恐惧感常常可以通过父母传递给子女。Fathers are especially involved.父亲们的因素很关键。Previous studies found a link between parentsattitudes toward thedentist and kids fear.过去的研究表明,父母对牙医的态度和子女对看牙医的恐惧感有关联。But the new study reveals that kids pay even closer attention to how theirfathers react when the dentist is involved.不过现在有研究发现子女们会密切关注父亲看牙医的反应。Apparently, when fathers display fear and anxiety, kidsare most likely to pick up those cues and see dental visits as something to fear.明显的例子是,当父亲表现出恐惧和焦虑的时候,子女很可能受到这些心理暗示,把看牙医当作恐怖的事情对待。Why fathers carry so much weight in influencing how their kids think about the dentist is not clear.父亲们为何会如此大程度地影响子女对牙医的看法,原因尚不可知。At least the study doesnt really offer an explanation.至少这项研究没有给出合理解释。But it does suggest that fathers can play animportant role in what psychologists called positive emotional contagion.不过研究指出,父亲在被心理学家称为积极情绪传导的过程中举足轻重。If fathers fear of the dentist can contaminate their kids, the opposite might also be true.如果父亲们对牙医的恐惧会传染给他们的子女,那么反之亦然。In otherwords, dads behaving positively and not displaying fear could orient their kids towards not fearingthe dentist.换句话说,父亲们正面的言行,不带恐惧的表现可以引导他们的子女不再害怕牙医。So the researchers call for parents, and fathers in particular, to beinvolved in dentist fearprevention campaigns.因此研究人员呼吁父母们,尤其是父亲们,行动起来,帮助子女防治牙医恐惧症。 201402/276300。

On the arch, dedicated to Vespasians son and co-general, Titus.在拱门处,维斯帕先的儿子和将军提图斯浴血奋战。You can see the triumphant Romans making off with the loot from the temple, including the giant Menorah.你可以看到胜利的罗马人从神庙中搬走战利品,包括巨大的烛台在内。And among the loot, was Josephus himself, carried to Rome and installed in the Flavian family compound.而在战利品中,约瑟夫将自己带到罗马,并且受命于弗拉家族。But no one in Rome thanked him for doing the right thing.但是罗马没有人因为他所做的事情而感谢他。The kind of people youd expected him to hang out with, historians, philosophers, playwrights and politicians, all despised the Jews.你会希望同历史学家,哲学家,剧作家和政治家一起出去,而单单唯独犹太人例外。And they didnt mind saying so.他们不介意这样的说法。At some point, Josephus had had enough of all this ignorance and gloating.在某些时候,约瑟夫已经受够了这一切的无知和幸灾乐祸。About 20 years after he wrote the Jewish Wars, he took up his pen again, this time to explain with patient dignity and a note of firm defiance and over considerable length just what Judaism was and what it did.大约20年之后他写了关于犹太人的这场战争,再次拿起笔的他这次以耐心和坚定的无视以及相当大的篇幅来解释犹太教是什么,它做了什么。201404/288212。

All over the country, beach managers have tried to make beaches safer by discouraging the use ofglass bottles on the sand.在全国范围内,为了安全起见,主管沙滩的经理们都不鼓励把玻璃洒用于沙滩。Florida, however, has actually begun using glass as sand at the beach as a way to keep its shoresfriendly to both tourists and wildlife.然而佛罗里达州,开始用玻璃来代替沙撒在海滩上,以此来保护游客和野生动植物。A stable beach is important for human use and for many wildlife populations.一个稳定的沙滩对于人们的使用和许多野生动物种群来说是非常重要的。Each year, the oceansurf causes substantial erosion of these beaches as it carries tons of sand with it back into theocean.每年,海洋冲浪都会引起海滩的严重侵蚀,因为它会带着好几吨的沙重回大海。The most common way to restore the sand lost to erosion is to pipe it from the oceanfloor back up to the beach.储存沙最常见的方法就是用管子把它从海底重新运回海岸。This method, though, is expensive and does damage to the fragileecosystems on the ocean floor.这种方法不仅花费昂贵,而且也容易破坏海底脆弱的生态系统。In the search for an alternative to this costly and destructive piping method, scientists turned to crushed glass.在寻找可以代替这种昂贵的和破坏性的管道方法的过程中,科学家们转向了粗碎玻璃。The glass was made into pieces roughly two-hundredth-of-an-inch in size thatwere similar in shape and texture to ordinary sand.这种玻璃被做成0.0127厘米大小的类似于普通沙子的质地和形状的样子。The glass sand was then tested to make surethat it would not only look like sand, but would also behave like sand in the natural environment.他们对玻璃沙子进行测试,确保它不仅看起来像沙子,而且在自然环境中也能像自然沙子那样发挥作用。Researchers found that the glass sand was very similar to ordinary sand in terms of heat, moistureand oxygen levels.研究人员发现,玻璃沙子在热量,湿度和含氧量方面都非常类似于普通的沙子。They also determined that the glass sand was suitable for those who inhabit thebeach, from microorganisms to crabs and turtles.他们还发现玻璃沙子对于在海边居住的生物也同样适合,从微生物到螃蟹,再到海龟。Thanks to these scientists, today you can visitone of these lovely, sparkling beaches and even build a glass castle in the sand.多亏了这些科学家,今天你可以参观到这些可爱的,闪闪发亮的海滩,甚至于矗立于海滩中一座玻璃城堡。 201409/326390。

The Lycaenids are a group of butterflies known commonly as blues, coppers and hairstreaks. Most species of Lycaenid butterflies have evolved close, mutually- beneficialrelationships with different species of ants.灰蝴蝶是一群被认为有着蓝色,紫铜色,并且翅膀上有细纹的蝴蝶,其大部分品种的进化与许多蚂蚁有着亲密无间并且互惠互利的关系。A Special Relationship特殊关系The caterpillars of these butterflies develop special glands that secrete a nectar-like substance to attract ants. The ants swarm all over the caterpillars, drinking thesecretion. The ants “milk” secretions from the caterpillars by tickling special glands on the caterpillars with their antennas.蝴蝶幼虫拥有一种特殊的腺体,它能够分泌如花蜜的甘甜物质来吸引蚂蚁。蚂蚁将幼虫包围,吮吸这甜美的“蜜”,同时也用自己的触须挠蝴蝶幼虫的腺体。In some Australian species, the attending ants even build thatched or earthen corrals to contain the caterpillars. By day the caterpillars are protected from predators by thecorral and the ants. At night the ants herd the caterpillars up a nearby tree to feed on leaves.澳大利亚有些种类的蚂蚁甚至修建起“茅草屋”或者是“土畜栏”将幼虫圈起来。白天的时候,蚂蚁和畜栏保护幼虫不受食肉动物的侵犯,夜晚时,蚂蚁将幼虫搬离到离树近的地方,幼虫便能用树叶充饥。The ants are like a private army of bodyguards. Colonies of ants are quite fierce — swarming, biting or even consuming potentialpredators.蚂蚁就像是私人贴身保镖,并且是十分凶猛的保镖,他们成群结队撕咬甚至是消灭掉潜在的捕食者。In fact, the caterpillars’ sweet secretions are not only nutritious, but also contain chemicals that subdue the ants. Otherwise the ants might kill the caterpillars themselves!Some caterpillars also make drumming sounds to keep their attendant ants alert.事实上,幼虫的分泌物不仅仅是营养丰富,同时也含有一种能够制蚂蚁的化学物质,不然的话,蚂蚁也会让幼虫致命。有些幼虫甚至发出鼓声用以警示蚂蚁。Unprotected caterpillars would make a tasty treat for insect-eaters like birds, frogs or larger insects. But ants taste bitter or even toxic when eaten. To most predators, acaterpillar covered in ants is about as appetizing as a candy bar covered in thumbtacks.未受保护的蝴蝶幼虫对于如鸟类,蛙或者是大一点的昆虫这些食用昆虫的物种来说是一顿美餐。但如果是吃蚂蚁的话,不仅味道苦涩,甚至还是有毒的。在食肉动物看来,被蚂蚁包裹着的蝴蝶幼虫就像是包满图钉的糖果。So, the ants benefit from the energy-rich secretions produced by the caterpillars, and the caterpillars benefit from the ants’ protection.就这样,蚂蚁从幼虫的分泌物中摄取营养,而幼虫也正是有了蚂蚁的保护而健康成长。 /201304/235014。

Retail零售业Hard knocks沉重打击Department stores have been losing customers to other retailers for decades. But some are thriving几十年来,百货公司的消费者一直在转向其他零售商,但是一些百货公司正在复兴。Aug 17th 2013 | NEW YORK |From the print editionIN THE shopping calendar, the back-to-school period ranks behind only Christmas in importance to American retailers. It is a time for outfitting tots with superhero rucksacks and fashion-conscious teens with “metallic” oxford shoes. But events off the sales floor have distracted merchants from the tinkling of tills. In July Hudson’s Bay, a Canadian department-store chain, said it would buy Saks, an upmarket American one, for .4 billion. Then on August 13th Bill Ackman, an activist investor, quit the board of J.C. Penney, a less luxurious retailer, after a failed attempt to hasten the departure of its interim boss, Mike Ullman (see article).在购物时间表上,返校季对美国零售商来说是仅次于圣诞节的重要时期。这时候运动装搭配印有超级英雄图案的背包以及时尚的青少年所爱的金属色牛津鞋都将大卖。但是卖场之外的一些事件让商人们分心。7月,一家加拿大零售连锁店哈德逊湾表示将会收购以24亿美元的价格收购美国高档百货公司萨克斯百货。接着8月13日,激进投资者比尔·阿克曼退出了彭尼的董事会。彭尼是一家相对低端的零售公司,阿克曼在该公司催促其临时老板Mike Ullman退出未果后离开。Both events are symptoms of the weakness of department stores. J.C. Penney has not recovered from the short but disruptive reign of Ron Johnson, who tried to break shoppers’ addiction to price promotions but drove them away instead. He left in April. Saks is not a basket case (partly because its customers are richer). Richard Baker, the American property tycoon who controls Hudson’s Bay, has ambitious plans. But none involves new, full-sized stores in America. Instead, there will be savings of C0m (m) a year, a push into Canada and more discount outlets.上述两个事件是百货公司疲软的征兆。彭尼还没从罗恩·约翰逊短暂却充满破坏性的任职期恢复过来。当时罗恩试图停止价格促销,结果赶跑了消费者。他在四月离职。萨克斯百货也不是毫无是处(部分原因是其大部分消费者相对较富)。美国房地产大亨理查德·贝克控制着哈德逊湾百货公司,他有雄伟的计划。但是计划中不包括在美国开设新的大型商店。取而代之的是,每年节省出1亿加元(9700万美元)开发加拿大市场,提供更多折扣直销。The humbling of department stores began in the 1960s. First specialised retailers, their shopping-mall neighbours, stole sales, as did discounters. Then came “category killers”, which laid claim to electronics and toys, for example, followed by online-only retailers, the current menace. America’s biggest department-store group, Sears Holdings, is one of its sickest. J.C. Penney’s customers defected not to rival stores but to discounters like T.J. Maxx.百货公司的衰退始于60年代。首先是紧邻百货公司的专营商和折扣商店抢了百货公司的生意。然后是品类杀手,比如只经营电子产品和玩具的专卖店,接着是线上零售商,正是当前的威胁。美国最大的百货商店集团希尔斯控股集团是最惨的。彭尼的的消费者大都转战折扣店T.J. Maxx去了。It would be tempting to write off department stores altogether if some were not doing surprisingly well. Same-store sales at Nordstrom, a Seattle-based luxury retailer, have risen by 7.5% on average over the past three years. Those of Macy’s, which operates mainly in the tougher middle market, rose by 4.5% (but its second-quarter results, released on August 14th, were disappointing). Department stores started collecting data about their customers through loyalty-card schemes long before their rivals, says Mortimer Singer of Marvin Traub Associates, a consultancy. When these relationships shift to tablets and smartphones and are linked to modern logistics and inventory management, department stores have a fighting chance.但是还是有些百货商店做的不错。立足于西雅图的奢侈品零售商诺德斯特姆公司的同店销售额过去三年平均增长率为7.5%。梅西百货立足于竞争激烈的中端市场,销售额提高了4.5%(但是8月14日发布的二季度表现令人失望)。Marvin Traub Associates咨询公司的Mortimer Singer表示,百货商店通过忠诚卡计划开始收集消费者信息远远早于其竞争对手。当这些关系转移到平板电脑和智能手机上的时候,加上现代物流体系和库存管理,百货公司还有翻身的机会。Nordstrom’s newest stores have more mobile devices for accepting payment than fixed ones. With them, salespeople can tell, for example, if a customer is close to an upgrade, which would entitle her to such goodies as free alterations to clothing. She can then be encouraged to claim the benefit by buying a little more. Nordstrom’s grasp of inventory is good enough that shoppers can check online whether an item is available at a specific store.诺德斯特姆最新的商店比起老店有更多的移动设备付方式。依靠这些移动设备,店员可以判断很多东西,比如消费者近期是否需要更新自己的装备,这样她就会享有免费更换装的优惠。然后如果消费者多买点东西就会享有这个特权了。诺德斯特姆的库存控制能让顾客在线上看到某种商品在某个店是否有货。One of Macy’s tricks is to use its shops as distribution centres. This expands choice online and prevents stock going unsold. An unwanted coat in Boston can be shipped to a shivering shopper in Boise. That sounds expensive but “if you can prevent a markdown, that covers a lot of shipping costs and satisfies the customer,” says Karen Hoguet, Macy’s finance chief.梅西百货的一个小招数是将其商店用作配送中心。这样就增加了线上选择,同时也防止了库存积压。波士顿卖不出去的一件大衣可以运到尔西卖出去。梅西百货的财务主管卡伦·霍格特说,这样看起来很昂贵,但是如果你不降价的话,就能填补配送费用并且满足消费者。Mr Singer thinks that such wizardry makes “the next ten years incredibly promising” for some department stores. Perhaps not for J.C. Penney and Saks. Penney has burned through cash at an alarming rate this year; confidence among lenders and suppliers has been further shaken by boardroom infighting, says Liz Dunn, an analyst at Macquarie Securities. Saks would be lucky to thrive in the hands of a property mogul and may be bested in Canada by Nordstrom, which is also marching north, believes Robin Lewis, a retail pundit. Department stores have some hard schooling ahead of them.Singer先生认为这些计策使得很多百货商店未来十年看起来非常有希望。或许跟彭尼百货公司和萨克斯百货没什么关系。彭尼今年亏损严重,麦格理券分析师利兹·杜恩表示董事会的内战进一步减弱了借贷者和供应商的信心。萨克斯百货在房地产大亨的掌控下会比较幸运。零售界权威人士罗宾·路易斯相信,萨克斯公司会被同样向北部加拿大进军的诺德斯特姆击败。百货公司前面一片荆棘。 /201308/253516。